• Title, Summary, Keyword: poisoning

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Analysis of Characteristics in Children and Adolescents with Poisoning at Emergency Department (응급실로 내원한 소아 청소년 중독 환자의 특성 분석)

  • Kim, Do Young;Kim, Ji Hye;Paik, Jin Hui;Han, Seung Baek;Jung, Hyun Min
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Clinical Toxicology
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    • v.15 no.2
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    • pp.140-147
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    • 2017
  • Purpose: This study was conducted to analyze the features of poisoning in individuals aged 0-18 years to understand the characteristics of potential victims and eventually prevent poisoning. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed poisoned children and adolescents (0-18 years) who visited the emergency department of one tertiary hospital from January 2003 through December 2013. We collected data including their age, sex, reason for poisoning, components and dose of poison, results of treatment, and psychiatric diagnosis. Results: During the study period, there were 436 cases of poisoning (male 47.2% (n=206); female 52.8% (n=230)). Subjects were classified into four groups (0-1 years, 2-5 years, 6-12 years, 13-18 years). The most common cause of poisoning in all age groups was accidental poisoning (72.9%), but intentional poisoning increased as age increased (p<0.001). Moreover, females were more often subject to intentional poisoning than males (p<0.001). The most common poisoning material was drugs (41.7%). Among intentional poisoning patients, 62.7% patients had consulted a psychiatrist, and their most common diagnosis was adjustment disorder (44.6%). Conclusion: The most common cause of poisoning in individuals aged 0-18 years was accidental poisoning, while intentional poisoning was most common among adolescents. Guardians should take care to prevent accidental poisoning, while psychiatric consultation and national moderation will be needed to prevent intentional poisoning.

Arsenic Poisoning (비소 중독)

  • Kim Yang Ho;Lee Ji Ho;Sim Chang Sun;Jeong Kyoung Sook
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Clinical Toxicology
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    • v.2 no.2
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    • pp.67-71
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    • 2004
  • Arsenic poisoning has three types of poisoning. First, acute arsenic poisoning is usually caused by oral intake of large amount of arsenic compound with purpose of homicide or suicide. Second, chronic arsenic poisoning is caused by inhalation of arsenic in the occupational setting or by long-term oral intake of arsenic-contaminated well water. Third, arsine poisoning occurs acutely when impurities of arsenic in non-ferrous metal react with acid. Clinical manifestation of acute arsenic poisoning is mainly gastrointestinal symptoms and cardiovascular collapse. Those of chronic poisoning are skin disorder and cancer. Arsine poisoning shows massive intravascular hemolysis and hemoglobinuria with acute renal failure. Exposure evaluation is done by analysis of arsenic in urine, blood, hair and nail. Species analysis of arsenic is very important to evaluate inorganic arsenic acid and mono methyl arsenic acid (MMA) separated from dimethyl arsenic acid (DMA) and trimethyl arsenic acid (TMA) which originate from sea weed and sea food. Treatment with dimercaprol (BAL) is effective in acute arsenic poisoning only.

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The Differences of Clinical Aspects in Children and Adolescents Poisoning (소아 및 청소년 중독 환자에서 중독 양상의 차이)

  • Suh Joo-Hyun;Eo Eun-Kyung
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Clinical Toxicology
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    • v.4 no.1
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    • pp.17-24
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    • 2006
  • Objectives: To analyze the general characteristics and clinical differences of poisoning in children and adolescents and to take precautions of occasions. Methods: We retrospectively evaluated poisoning children and adolescents (less than 19 years) visiting to the emergency medical center of tertiary hospital in urban area. We collected demographic data, substance exposure data (materials, causes of poisoning and amount), and clinical outcome of poisoning for the past 2 years and 9 months. Results: 189 cases were reported of concerning poisoning in children and adolescents. The age groups were divided into four categories. (1) Infants group:<2 year, (2) Preschool age group: $2{\sim}5year$, (3) Children group: $6{\sim}12year$ and (4) Adolescents group: $13{\sim}18year$. The most vulnerable age group was the infants group. There were two-peaks of age distribution in poisoned patients on the whole. Various types of materials belonged to classes of druqs (56.6%). household products (34.4%) and industrial solvents (9.0%). On adolescents group, the frequency of drug poisoning was significantly high, in comparison with infants, preschool age, and children group (p=0.001). Most of the patient groups had been poisoned accidentally(73.5%), while most cases of adolescents poisoning had been intentional. 63% of the adolescents group had a suicidal purpose. Conclusion: The incidence of poisoning was most highly due to drugs. The cause of poisoning is most commonly accidental. while in adolescent group, intentional poisoning is mostly common. Special cares, like keeping children away from drugs, will be needed to prevent children poisoning, and psychiatric consultation and supportive cares can reduce the adolescents poisoning cases.

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Unintentional Pharmaceutical Poisoning in the Emergency Department (응급실로 내원한 비의도적 의약품 중독)

  • Jo, Hyo Rim;Lee, Choung Ah;Park, Ju Ok;Hwang, Bo Na
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Clinical Toxicology
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    • v.16 no.2
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    • pp.116-123
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    • 2018
  • Purpose: The social environment of easy access to medicines and arbitrary personal decisions leading to overdose aggravate unintentional medicine poisoning. This study aimed to investigate the characteristics of patients who visited emergency departments with unintentional medicine poisoning and reasons for poisoning based on age group. Methods: We retrospectively collected patients who experienced unintentional medicine poisoning based on data from the national injury surveillance system between 2013 and 2016. Subjects were classified into three groups based on age (0-14 years, 15-64 years, and ${\geq}65\;years$). We identified sex, insurance, time of poisoning, place, alcohol co-ingestion, hospitalization, death, and reason for poisoning in each age group. Results: A total of 27,472 patients visited an emergency department with poisoning during the study period; 1,958 patients who experienced unintentional poisoning were enrolled in this study. Respiratory medicine was the most frequent medicine in those younger than 15 years of age, and sedatives and antipsychotic drugs were the most common in patients older than 15 years of age. In total, 35.1% of patients older than 65 years were hospitalized. The most common reasons for poisoning were careless storage of medicine in those younger than 15 years of age and overdose due to arbitrary decisions in those older than 15 years of age. Conclusion: Unintentional medicine poisoning has distinct characteristics based on age group, and strategies to prevent poisoning should be approached differently based on age.

Severity Predictors of Elderly Poisoning Patients Admitted to an Emergency Medical Center (일개 응급의료센터에 내원한 노인 중독 환자의 중증도 예측인자)

  • Park, Chang Yong;Cha, Kyung Man;So, Byung Hak;Jeong, Won Jung
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Clinical Toxicology
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    • v.17 no.2
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    • pp.94-101
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    • 2019
  • Purpose: This study examined the clinical characteristics of severe elderly poisoning patients to determine the factors that can prevent them. Methods: Data were collected from patients over 65 years of age presenting to the emergency center with poisoning from 2013 to 2018. Their medical records were analyzed retrospectively, and patients with a poisoning severity score of three or more were defined as the severe poisoning group. The risk factors were evaluated by univariate and multivariate analysis. Results: This study analyzed 292 patients, of whom 37 (12.7%) belonged to the severe poisoning group. The severe poisoning group showed a significantly higher association with pesticide poisoning and intentional suicide attempts. Loneliness and somatization were the cause of the suicidal ideas. No significant differences in age, sex, drinking, ingestion time, poisonous materials other than pesticides, and neuropsychological consultation were observed between the two groups. Conclusion: The severe elderly poisoning patients were the result of intentional poisoning for suicide. Loneliness and somatization were the most influential causes of suicidal poisoning. Therefore, psychiatric screening and frequent medical treatment for elderly people are required to prevent severe poisoning in elderly patients.

A Philological Study on Poisoning of Mind-tranquilizing Herbal Medicines(安神藥) (안신약(安神藥)의 독성(毒性)에 관한 문헌적 고찰)

  • Park, Ji-Ha;Lee, Sang-Nam;Roh, Seong-Soo;Kim, Yong-Hyun;Seo, Bu-Il
    • Korean Journal of Oriental Medicine
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    • v.16 no.1
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    • pp.19-27
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    • 2010
  • Objectives & Method : We investigated toxicity, poisoning symptoms, poisoning treatment and prevention against poisoning of mind-tranquilizing herbal medicines(安神藥) in order to use herbal medicines accurately. Result : Cinnabaris(朱砂), Zizyphi Spinosae Semen(酸棗仁), Polygalae Radix(遠志), Ganoderma(靈芝) and Polygoni Multiflori Ramulus(夜交藤) may give rise to some side effects or toxic symptoms in mind-tranquilizing herbal medicines(安神藥). The representative methods of poisoning treatment in western medicines are washing out the stomach, promotion of vomiting, causing diarrhea, supplies of grape sugar and symptomatic treatment, etc. The representative methods of poisoning treatment in oriental medicine take advantage of herbs. And Oriental medical doctor should meet symptoms as patients call for attention. In order to prevent against poisoning of mind-tranquilizing herbal medicines(安神藥), the patients should keep usage, dosage and notes and oriental medical doctors should do processing drugs. Conclusion : We should pay attention to clinical using of Cinnabaris(朱砂), Zizyphi Spinosae Semen(酸棗仁), Polygalae Radix(遠志), Ganoderma(靈芝) and Polygoni Multiflori Ramulus(夜交藤) in mind-tranquilizing herbal medicines(安神藥).

Animal poisoning in Korea in 1974-June 2013 (한국 동물의 중독성 질병 발생상황 (1974년~2013년 6월))

  • Lee, Hyunkyoung;Bae, You-Chan;Lee, Boram;Lee, Kyunghyun;Baek, Kanghyun;Lee, Myoung-Heon
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.53 no.3
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    • pp.149-153
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    • 2013
  • Animal poisoning has been occurred in Korea. However, the lack of the data about animal poisoning in Korea makes clinicians and diagnostician difficult to obtain information on poisoning cases. In this paper, we tried to gather information about animal poisoning from 1974 to June 2013 in Korea. Animal and Plant Quarantine Agency (QIA) record database were used to examine recent trends in animal poisoning. The analysis showed that the cattle was reported to be the most common species involved in animal poisoning and botulinum toxin constituted the primary group of toxicants. Animal poisoning occurred frequently on January and in Gyenggi-do. Although the data present in this manuscript is a little, it will be helpful to understand the general trend of animal poisoning in Korea.

Epidemiologic Characteristics of Carbon Monoxide Poisoning: Emergency Department Based Injury In-depth Surveillance of Twenty Hospitals (일산화탄소 중독의 역학적 특징: 전국 20개 병원 응급실 손상환자 표본 심층조사)

  • Bae, Sohyun;Lee, Jisook;Kim, Kyunghwan;Park, Junseok;Shin, Dongwun;Kim, Hyunjong;Park, Joonmin;Kim, Hoon;Jeon, Woochan
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Clinical Toxicology
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    • v.14 no.2
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    • pp.122-128
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    • 2016
  • Purpose: This study was conducted to describe the characteristics of patients with carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning. Methods: We retrospectively surveyed data from the Emergency Department based Injury In-depth Surveillance of 20 hospitals (2011-2014). We included patients whose mechanism of injury was acute CO poisoning caused by inhalation of gases from charcoal or briquettes. We surveyed the annual frequency, gender, age, result of emergency treatment, rate of intensive care unit (ICU) admission, result of admission, association with alcohol, and place of accident. We also surveyed the cause and experience of past suicide attempts by intentional poisoning. Results: A total of 3,405 patients were included (2,015 (59.2%) and 1,390 (40.8%) males and females, respectively) with a mean age of $39.83{\pm}18.51$ year old. The results revealed that the annual frequency of CO poisoning had increased and the frequency of unintentional CO poisoning was higher than that of intentional CO poisoning in January, February and December. The mean age of intentional CO poisoning was younger than that of unintentional CO poisoning ($38.41{\pm}13.03$ vs $40.95{\pm}21.83$) (p<0.001). The rates of discharge against medical advice (DAMA), ICU care and alcohol association for intentional CO poisoning were higher than for unintentional CO poisoning (36.4% vs 14.0%, 17.8% vs 4.7%, 45.2% vs 5.6%) (p<0.001). The most common place of CO poisoning was in one's residence. Conclusion: The annual frequency of total CO poisoning has increased, and unintentional CO poisoning showed seasonal variation. DAMA, ICU care, and alcohol association of intentional CO poisoning were higher than those of unintentional CO poisoning.

A Study on the Case Analysis and Health Management of Patients with Pesticide Poisoning from Spraying Pesticide in Hospitals in the Chungnam, Korea (충남 일부 지역 병의원의 농약살포 중 중독 사례 분석 및 보건관리방안 연구)

  • Moon, Sun-In;Choi, Jihee;Roh, Sangchul
    • Journal of Korean Society of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
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    • v.29 no.4
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    • pp.541-549
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    • 2019
  • Objectives: This study aims to examine patients who developed acute pesticide poisoning while spraying or using pesticide and presented to the emergency department in hospitals in Chungcheongnam-do Province. Based on the findings, this study will provide implications for safety and health management pertaining to the use of pesticides. Methods: Pesticide poisoning data collected by the Chungnam Center for Farmers' Safety and Health from 2014 to 2018 was cross-sectionally analyzed. A total of 331 patients with pesticide poisoning presented to one of hospitals and four of medical centers in the region(Dankuk University Hospital, Gongju and Hongsung, Cheongyang, Cheonan Medical Center). Seventeen of these patients (15 men and two women) developed poisoning while spraying pesticide. The patients' charts were reviewed to collect data on pesticide poisoning, namely currently working in farming-related occupation, means of transportation to the hospital, place of poisoning, symptoms of acute pesticide poisoning, treatment, pesticide used when poisoning occurred, and classification by technical ingredients. Results: Fifteen out of 17 patients who developed poisoning while spraying pesticide were men. Insecticide was used in 35.3% of the cases, and herbicide was used in 29.4% of the cases, which was different from cases of poisoning from ingestion poisoning. The major symptoms were vomiting (35.3%), nausea (29.4%), dizziness (29.4%), and headache (23.5%). A total 11 ingredients were identified in 12 patients, and the most common ingredient was glyphosate, which is an herbicide. Most patients showed a state of mild toxicity, but two patients showed a state of severe toxicity. These patients respectively used glyphosate and paraquat. Conclusions: Our findings can be useful for suggesting the need for a national healthcare system to manage occupational pesticide poisoning among farmers. Further, these findings can be used to increase the awareness of the risk of acute poisoning during pesticide spraying and suggest the need for a safety health education to increase farmers' awareness of pesticide poisoning.

A case of rape poisoning in a Hanwoo (한우 유채중독 증례)

  • Do, Jae-Cheul;Kim, Eun-Young;Kim, In-Kyoung;Cho, Min-Hee;Kim, Joong-Kew;Park, No-Chan
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Service
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    • v.35 no.1
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    • pp.53-57
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    • 2012
  • This is a case report about rape poisoning in a Hanwoo. Non-protein nitrogen (NPN) compound in rape may cause poisoning in domestic animals. Rape poisoned cattle may show big and rapid breath with opening its mouth, edema and erosion of skin with itching, drooling, dyspnea and indigestion. Besides there can be shown neurological (blindness) and urological (red water) symptoms in some cases. There is no effective therapy for rape poisoning, therefore stopping the rape supplying is basically important. Clinical symptoms and history taking are very important factors in diagnosis of rape poisoning, due to the absence of diagnostic standard of judgment for rape poisoning. A Hanwoo 38 months old cow, in a farm located in Gyeoungbuk province showed typical rape poisoning symptoms such as breath with opening its mouth, drooling, dyspnea and hyperphotosensitivity, and dramatical recovery were occurred after stopping supplying of rape. The cow were diagnosed as the rape poisoning based on observation of clinical symptoms and history taking.