• Title, Summary, Keyword: platinum chemotherapy

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Nomograms Predicting Platinum Sensitivity, Progression-Free Survival, and Overall Survival Using Pretreatment Complete Blood Cell Counts in Epithelial Ovarian Cancer

  • Paik, E Sun;Sohn, Insuk;Baek, Sun-Young;Shim, Minhee;Choi, Hyun Jin;Kim, Tae-Joong;Choi, Chel Hun;Lee, Jeong-Won;Kim, Byoung-Gie;Lee, Yoo-Young;Bae, Duk-Soo
    • Cancer Research and Treatment
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    • v.49 no.3
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    • pp.635-642
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    • 2017
  • Purpose This study was conducted to evaluate the prognostic significance of pre-treatment complete blood cell count (CBC), including white blood cell (WBC) differential, in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) patients with primary debulking surgery (PDS) and to develop nomograms for platinum sensitivity, progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival (OS). Materials and Methods We retrospectively reviewed the records of 757 patients with EOC whose primary treatment consisted of surgical debulking and chemotherapy at Samsung Medical Center from 2002 to 2012. We subsequently created nomograms for platinum sensitivity, 3-year PFS, and 5-year OS as prediction models for prognostic variables including age, stage, grade, cancer antigen 125 level, residual disease after PDS, and pre-treatment WBC differential counts. The models were then validated by 10-fold cross-validation (CV). Results In addition to stage and residual disease after PDS, which are known predictors, lymphocyte and monocyte count were found to be significant prognostic factors for platinum-sensitivity, platelet count for PFS, and neutrophil count for OS on multivariate analysis. The area under the curves of platinum sensitivity, 3-year PFS, and 5-year OS calculated by the 10-fold CV procedure were 0.7405, 0.8159, and 0.815, respectively. Conclusion Prognostic factors including pre-treatment CBC were used to develop nomograms for platinum sensitivity, 3-year PFS, and 5-year OS of patients with EOC. These nomograms can be used to better estimate individual outcomes.

Neuropeptide Y protects kidney against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity by regulating p53-dependent apoptosis pathway

  • Kim, Namoh;Min, Woo-Kie;Park, Min Hee;Lee, Jong Kil;Jin, Hee Kyung;Bae, Jae-sung
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.49 no.5
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    • pp.288-292
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    • 2016
  • Cisplatin is a platinum-based chemotherapeutic drug for treating various types of cancers. However, the use of cisplatin is limited by its negative effect on normal tissues, particularly nephrotoxicity. Various mechanisms such as DNA adduct formation, mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress, and apoptosis are involved in the adverse effect induced by cisplatin treatment. Several studies have suggested that neuropeptide Y (NPY) is involved in neuroprotection as well as restoration of bone marrow dysfunction from chemotherapy induced nerve injury. However, the role of NPY in chemotherapy-induced nephrotoxicity has not been studied. Here, we show that NPY rescues renal dysfunction by reducing the expression of pro-apoptotic proteins in cisplatin induced nephrotoxicity through Y1 receptor, suggesting that NPY can protect kidney against cisplatin nephrotoxicity as a possible useful agent to prevent and treat cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity.

Phase II Study on Pemetrexed-based Chemotherapy in Treating Patients with Metastatic Gastric Cancer not Responding to Prior Palliative Chemotherapy

  • Wei, Guo-Li;Huang, Xin-En;Huo, Jie-Ge;Wang, Xiao-Ning;Tang, Jin-Hai
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.14 no.5
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    • pp.2703-2706
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    • 2013
  • Purpose: This study was to determine the efficacy and safety of pemetrexed based chemotherapy in treating patients with metastatic gastric cancer who failed to respond to first and (or) second line chemotherapy. Patients and Methods: Metastatic gastric cancer patients who failed first and (or) second line chemotherapy, were enrolled. All patients were recruited from Jiangsu Cancer Hospital & Research Institute, and were treated with pemetrexed $500mg/m2$ (intravenous; on day 1), and a platinum (or irinotecan) every 3 weeks until disease progression, or intolerable toxicity. Evaluation on efficacy was conducted after two cycles of chemotherapy using the Response Evaluation Criteria for Solid Tumors. Toxicity was recorded according to National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 3.0. Results: From Jun 2011 to May 2013, 23 patients were enrolled. All eligible 23 patients completed at least 2 cycles of chemotherapy with pemetrexed based chemotherapy, and were evaluable. Their median age was 55 years (range 40 to 78 years). Seventeen patients were male and 6 female. Three patients (13%) achieved partial response, five patients (22%) stable, 15 patients (65%) with disease progression, and none with complete response. Grade 2 neutrophil suppression occurred in 4.3%, grade 3 in 13% of patients, and no grade 4 was reported. Thrombocytopenia was encountered as follows: 4.3% grade 2, 4.3% grade 3 and 4.3% grade 4. Incidence of anemia was 34.8% in grade 2, 8.7% grade 3 and 0% grade 4. Only 4.3% of patients required packed red blood cell infusion. Elevated transaminase were 4.3% in grade 2 and 0% in grade 3 or 4. Other toxicity included oral mucositis. Conclusions: Pemetrexed based chemotherapy is mildly effective in treating patients with metastatic gastric cancer with tolerable toxicity.

Prognostic Factors for Second-line Treatment of Advanced Non-small-cell Lung Cancer: Retrospective Analysis at a Single Institution

  • Inal, Ali;Kaplan, M. Ali;Kucukoner, Mehmet;Urakci, Zuhat;Karakus, Abdullah;Isikdogan, Abdurrahman
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.13 no.4
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    • pp.1281-1284
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    • 2012
  • Background: Platinum-hased chemotherapy for advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is still considered the first choice, presenting a modest survival advantage. However, the patients eventually experience disease progression and require second-line therapy. While there are reliable predictors to identify patients receiving first-line chemotherapy, very little knowledge is available about the prognostic factors in patients who receive second-line treatments. The present study was therefore performed. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed 107 patients receiving second-line treatments from August 2002 to March 2012 in the Dicle University, School of Medicine, Department of Medical Oncology. Fourteen potential prognostic variables were chosen for analysis in this study. Univariate and multivariate analyses were conducted to identify prognostic factors associated with survival. Result: The results of univariate analysis for overall survival (OS) were identified to have prognostic significance: performance status (PS), stage, response to first-line chemotherapy response to second-line chemotherapy and number of metastasis. PS, diabetes mellitus (DM), response to first-line chemotherapy and response to second-line chemotherapy were identified to have prognostic significance for progression-free survival (PFS). Multivariate analysis showed that PS, response to first-line chemotherapy and response to second-line chemotherapy were considered independent prognostic factors for OS. Furthermore, PS and response to second-line chemotherapy were considered independent prognostic factors for PFS. Conclusion: In conclusion, PS, response to first and second-line chemotherapy were identified as important prognostic factors for OS in advanced NSCLC patients who were undergoing second-line palliative treatment. Furthermore, PS and response to second-line chemotherapy were considered independent prognostic factors for PFS. It may be concluded that these findings may facilitate pretreatment prediction of survival and can be used for selecting patients for the correct choice of treatment.

Efficacy and Survival-associated Factors with Gefitinib Combined with Cisplatin and Gemcitabine for Advanced Non-small Cell Lung Cancer

  • Fang, Hong;Lin, Rong-Yan;Sun, Ming-Xia;Wang, Qian;Zhao, Yu-Liang;Yu, Jing-Lin;Tian, Yan;Wang, Xiao-Yun
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.24
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    • pp.10967-10970
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    • 2015
  • Objective: To analyze the efficacy and survival associated factors of gefitinib combined with cisplatin and gemcitabine for advanced non-small cell lung cancer. Materials and Methods: A total of 57 patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), who received platinum-based chemotherapy regimens for more than 1 cycle, were treated with gefitinib combined with cisplatin and gemcitabine until disease progression. Efficacy, survival time and adverse reactions were observed. The Kaplan-Meier method was adopted for analysis of survival and Cox regression for associated influencing factors. Results: The patients were followed up until October 31, 2013, and the median follow-up time was 19 months. Of 57 patients, there were 4 (7.0%) with complete remission (CR), 8 (14.0%) with partial remission, 31 (54.4%) with stable disease, and 14 (24.6%) with disease progression. The remission rate was 21.1% and the disease control rate was 75.4%. The median progression-free survival (PFS) time and the median overall survival time were 10 months and 15.2 months. The one-year, two-year and three-year survival rates were 47.4%, 23.3% and 10.0%. Gender and pathological types were the independent risk factors influencing PFS time (P=0.028, P=0.009). Tumor pathological type and early efficacy were independent factors for the prognosis (P=0.018, P=0.000). Adverse reactions were mostly rashes of I~II degree and diarrhea and slightly increasing level of aminopherase. The skin adverse event incidence of III degree or above was 1.8% (1/57) and brain metastasis was foudn in 31.6% (18/57). Conclusions: Gefitinib combined with cisplatin andgemcitabine, is effective for patients with IIIb~IV NSCLC who received multiple cycles of chemotherapy.

Survival Analysis in Advanced Non Small Cell Lung Cancer Treated with Platinum Based Chemotherapy in Combination with Paclitaxel, Gemcitabine and Etoposide

  • Natukula, Kirmani;Jamil, Kaiser;Pingali, Usha Rani;Attili, Venkata Satya Suresh;Madireddy, Umamaheshwar Rao Naidu
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.14 no.8
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    • pp.4661-4666
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    • 2013
  • Background: The wide spectrum of clinical features in advanced stages of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) probably contributes to disparities in outcomes because of different prognostic variables significant for stage IIIB/IV patients. Hence the aim of this study was to check for favorable response of patients to various chemotherapeutic combinations with respect to patient survival in stage IIIB and stage IV NSCLC disease. We selected those patients for our study who were receiving treatment with paclitaxel, gemcitabine or etoposide in combination with platinum based drugs. Materials and Methods: Seventy-two patients who visited the hospital from June 2009 to November 2012 with confirmed diagnosis of lung cancer were included, and data were collected for follow up and classified according to treatment received with respect to patients' regimen and response, and overall survival. This study analyzed tumor variables that were associated with clinical outcome in advanced NSCLC patients who were undergoing first-line chemotherapy for stage IIIB/IV NSCLC. Results: Comparative data on various parameters like age, gender, stage, histology, site of disease, metastatic site and chemo-regimens was analyzed; these parameters predicted variable significant improvement for overall survival ($p{\geq}0.05$). One and two year survival rates were 20.8% and 15.3%. Conclusions: In this study we found slight improvement in survival rates in NSCLC and clinical outcomes with one combination (carboplatin+paclitaxel). Overall there were only marginal differences in survival rates for other chemo-regimens evaluated in this study.

Effects of Analgecine on Oxaliplatin-Induced Neurotoxicity in Patients with Gastrointestinal Cancer

  • Liu, Meng-Yan;Huang, Xin-En
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.10
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    • pp.4465-4468
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    • 2015
  • Background: As the third generation of platinum-based antineoplastic agent aginst gastrointestinal cancer, oxaliplatin is considered to be associated with severe sensory neurotoxicity. Acorrding to previous studies, vitaminE, intravenous Ca/Mg and glutamine may partly reduce the incidence and severity of oxaliplatin-induced neurotoxicity. The aim of this study was to investigate the safety and efficacy of analgecine for preventing oxaliplatin-induced neurotoxicity in the patients with gastrointestinal tumors. Method: In this study, patients undergoing oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy were assigned to analgecine (experimental) group or control group. Analgecine 6ml was administered once a day for seven days from the day of oxaliplatin treatment. The National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (NCI CTCAE; version 3) was used to evaluate oxaliplatin-induced neurotoxicity. The incidence rates and grade of neurotoxicity of patients were assessed before and during (after four and eight cycles) treatment. Results: Totally, 82 patients were enrolled in this study, 42 in experimental group and 40 in control group. The occurrence of each grade neurotoxicity in the experimental group was significantly lower than that in control group. The overall occurrence rate was 31% vs 55% (P=0.043) after 4 cycles and 52% vs 75% (P=0.050) after 8 cycles. Conclusion: Analgecine appears could be effective in reducing oxaliplatin-induced neurotoxicity and be applicated for patients with gastrointestinal tumors who would be treated with oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy.

Clinical Features of Oxaliplatin Induced Hypersensitivity Reactions and Therapeutic Approaches

  • Bano, Nusrat;Najam, Rahila;Qazi, Faaiza;Mateen, Ahmed
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.17 no.4
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    • pp.1637-1641
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    • 2016
  • Oxaliplatin, a third generation novel platinum compound is the most effective first line chemotherapeutic agent for colorectal cancer (CRC) in combination with 5FU and leucovorin. It is indicated for pancreatic, gastric and testicular cancers combined with bevacuzimab, capecitabine, irinotecan and other cytotoxic agents. However, moderate to severe hypersensitivity reactions (HSR) during or after oxaliplatin infusion usually require cessation of chemotherapy or substitution of the key therapeutic drug which largely interferes with improved patient prognosis. This mini- review showcases recent and accepted opinions/approaches in oxaliplatin induced HSR management. Physicians and oncologists have varying attitudes regarding the decision to rechallenge the patient after an HSR experience, efficacy of desensitization protocols, effectiveness and selection of drugs for premedication and possibilities of cross sensitivity to other platinum agents (e.g. carboplatin). A brief insight into underlying molecular mechanisms and clinical manifestations of oxaliplatin induced HSR is offered. We have also discussed the management of oxaliplatin induced HSR and risk stratification for a successful and complete chemotherapeutic plan.

Preliminary Results of Concurrent Radiation Therapy and Chemotherapy in Locally Advanced Cervical Carcinoma (국소적으로 진행된 자궁 경부암에서 방사선과 항암화학요법 병행치료의 예비적 결과)

  • Yang KM;Ahn SD;Choi EK;Chang HS;Kim YT;Nam JH;Mok JE
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
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    • v.11 no.2
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    • pp.355-361
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    • 1993
  • Since May 1991, authors have conducted a pilot study to determine the feasibility and evaluate the effect of concurrent radiation therapy and chemotherapy with 5-FU and Cis-platinum for locally advanced cervical cancer (stage IIB-IVA). Radiation therapy consisted of external irradiation to whole pelvis (4140 cGy/23 fx) in 4.5 weeks followed by high dose rate intracavitary radiation therapy (HDR ICRT) to deliver a dose of 30 to 35 Gy to A point in 6 to 7 fractions. After the intracavitary radiation therapy, parametrial boost was delivered for B point dose of 60 Gy in Stage IIB and 65 Gy in stage IIIB. 5-FU (1000 $mg/m^2/24hr$ for 96 hour iv infusion) and Cis-platinum (20 $mg/m^2/day$ IV bolus for 3 days) were given during the second week of external RT and the second course chemotherapy administered at the first HDR ICRT with the same method as the first chemotherapy. Sixteen patients (10 stage IIB,4 stage IIIB,2 stage IVA) were registered to this protocol. Among these 16 patients, two refused treatment after 2 fractions of external irradiation, and one could not continue intracavitary irradiation because of treatment related genitourinary toxicity. So 14 patients were evaluated for toxicity and 13 patients were evaluated for response analysis. Five of 14 patients developed grade 3 gastrointestinal toxicity but 4 of them recovered at the completion of treatment. One stage IIIB patient with inguinal lymph node metastasis who received higher dose of radiation in spite of initial poor performance status did not recover from gastrointestinal toxicity at the completion of treatment. And she died of distant metastasis at one month after the completion of treatment. Two of 14 evaluable patients showed weight loss, more than $10\%$ of initial weight. One patient developed grade 3 leukopenia. In this study, the average total treatment period of completely treated patients was 75 days and three of them took more than 80 days (84, 84, 89 days). Toxicities were generally acceptable and there were no treatment related death. At the last follow-up, complete response was achieved in $62\%(8/13)$ and especially of nine patients with stage IIB, eight patients showed complete response. This study suggests that concurrent radiation therapy and chemotherapy (5-FU and Cis-platinum) is tolerable and effective. Further follow-up is needed to determine whether this protocol will have a favorable impact on survival and to evaluate the late effect on normal tissues. In future, prospective randomized trials are needed to compare the standard radiation therapy alone with concurrent chemotherapy and radiation therapy for locally advanced cervical carcinoma.

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Gemcitabine Plus Paclitaxel as Second-line Chemotherapy in Patients with Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

  • Baykara, Meltem;Coskun, Ugur;Berk, Veli;Ozkan, Metin;Kaplan, Muhammet Ali;Benekli, Mustafa;Karaca, Halit;Inanc, Mevlude;Isikdogan, Abdurrahman;Sevinc, Alper;Elkiran, Emin Tamer;Demirci, Umut;Buyukberber, Suleyman
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.13 no.10
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    • pp.5119-5124
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    • 2012
  • Purpose: The aim of this retrospective study was to determine response rates, progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS) and toxicity of gemcitabine and paclitaxel combinations with advanced or metastatic non-small cell lung cancer patients (NSCLC) who have progressive disease after platinum-based first-line chemotherapy. Methods: We retrospectively evaluated the file records of patients treated with gemcitabine plus paclitaxel in advanced or metastatic NSCLC cases in a second-line setting. The chemotherapy schedule was as follows: gemcitabine $1500mg/m^2$ and paclitaxel 150 mg/m2 administered every two weeks. Results: Forty-eight patients (45 male, 3 female) were evaluated; stage IIIB/IV 6/42; PS0, 8.3%, PS1, 72.9%, PS2, 18.8%; median age, 56 years old (range 38-76). Six (12.5%) patients showed a partial response (PR), 13 (27.1%) stable disease (SD), and 27 (56.3%) progressive disease (PD). The median OS was 6.63 months (95% CI 4.0-9.2); the median PFS was 2.7 months (95% CI 1.8-3.6). Grade 3 and 4 hematologic toxicities, including neutropenia (n=4, 8.4%), and anemia (n=3, 6.3%) were encountered, but no grade 3 or 4 thrombocytopenia. One patient developed febrile neutropenia. There were no interruption for reasons of toxicity and no exitus related to therapy. Conclusion: The combination of two-weekly gemcitabine plus paclitaxel was an effective and well-tolerated second-line chemotherapy regimen for advanced or metastatic NSCLC patients previously treated with platinum-containing chemotherapy. Although the most common and dose limiting toxicities were neutropenia and neuropathy, this regimen was tolerated well by the patients.