• Title, Summary, Keyword: platinum chemotherapy

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Genetic Variants in the PI3K/PTEN/AKT/mTOR Pathway Predict Platinum-based Chemotherapy Response of Advanced Non-small Cell Lung Cancers in a Chinese Population

  • Xu, Jia-Li;Wang, Zhen-Wu;Hu, Ling-Min;Yin, Zhi-Qiang;Huang, Ming-De;Hu, Zhi-Bin;Shen, Hong-Bing;Shu, Yong-Qian
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.13 no.5
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    • pp.2157-2162
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    • 2012
  • Objective: The PI3K/PTEN/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway has been implicated in resistance to cisplatin. In the current study, we determined whether common genetic variations in this pathway are associated with platinum-based chemotherapy response and clinical outcome in advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. Methods: Seven common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in core genes of this pathway were genotyped in 199 patients and analyzed for associations with chemotherapy response, progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). Results: Logistic regression analysis revealed an association between AKT1 rs2494752 and response to treatment. Patients carrying heterozygous AG had an increased risk of disease progression after two cycles of platinum-based chemotherapy compared to those with AA genotype (Adjusted odds ratio (OR)=2.18, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.00-4.77, which remained significant in the stratified analyses). However, log-rank test and cox regression detected no association between these polymorphisms in the PI3K pathway genes and survival in advanced NSCLC patients. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that genetic variants in the PI3K/PTEN/AKT/mTOR pathway may predict platinum-based chemotherapy response in advanced NSCLC patients in a Chinese population.

Serum Anti-Gal-3 Autoantibody is a Predictive Marker of the Efficacy of Platinum-Based Chemotherapy against Pulmonary Adenocarcinoma

  • Yanagita, Kengo;Nagashio, Ryo;Ryuge, Shinichiro;Katono, Ken;Jiang, Shi-Xu;Tsuchiya, Benio;Nakashima, Hiroyasu;Fukuda, Eriko;Goshima, Naoki;Saegusa, Makoto;Satoh, Yukitoshi;Masuda, Noriyuki;Sato, Yuichi
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.17
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    • pp.7959-7965
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    • 2015
  • Background: Identification of predictive markers for the efficacy of platinum-based chemotherapy is necessary to improve the quality of the life of cancer patients. Materials and Methods: We detected proteins recognized by autoantibodies in pretreated sera from patients with lung adenocarcinoma (AC) evaluated as showing progressive disease (PD) or a partial response (PR) after cisplatin-based chemotherapy by proteomic analysis. Then, the levels of the candidate autoantibodies in the pretreated serum were validated by dot-blot analysis for 22 AC patients who received platinum-based chemotherapy, and the expression of identified proteins was immunohistochemically analyzed in 40 AC biopsy specimens. Results: An autoantibody against galectin-3 (Gal-3) was detected in pretreated sera from an AC patient with PD. Serum IgG levels of anti-Gal-3 autoantibody were significantly higher in patients evaluated with PD than in those with PR and stable disease (SD) (p = 0.0084). Furthermore, pretreated biopsy specimens taken from patients evaluated as showing PD following platinumbased chemotherapy showed a tendency to have a higher positive rate of Gal-3 than those with PR and SD (p = 0.0601). Conclusions: These results suggest that serum IgG levels of anti-Gal-3 autoantibody may be useful to predict the efficacy of platinum-based chemotherapy for patients with lung AC.

ERCC1 Expression Does Not Predict Survival and Treatment Response in Advanced Stage Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Cases Treated with Platinum Based Chemotherapy

  • Ozdemir, Ozer;Ozdemir, Pelin;Veral, Ali;Uluer, Hatice;Ozhan, Mustafa Hikmet
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.14 no.8
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    • pp.4679-4683
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    • 2013
  • Background: ERCC1 is considered as a promising molecular marker that may predict platinum based chemotherapy response in non small cell lung cancer patients. We therefore investigated whether its expression is indeed associated with clinical outcomes in advanced stage NSCLC patients. Materials and Methods: Pretreatment tumor biopsy samples of 83 stage 3B and 4 non-small cell lung cancer patients treated with platinum based chemotherapy were retrospectively analyzed for immunohistochemical ERCC1 expression. None of the patients received curative surgery or radiotherapy. Results: By calculating H- scores regarding the extent and intensity of immunohistochemical staining of tumor biopsy samples, ERCC1 expression was found to be positive in 50 patients (60.2%). ERCC1 positive and negative groups had no statistically significant differences regarding treatment response, progression free survival and overall survival (respectively p=0.161; p=0.412; p=0.823). Conclusions: In our study we found no association between ERCC1 expression and survival or treatment response. The study has some limitations, such as small sample size and retrospective analysis method. There is need of more knowledge for use of ERCC1 guided chemotherapy regimens in advanced stage NSCLC.

Treatment Outcomes of Gemcitabine in Refractory or Recurrent Epithelial Ovarian Cancer Patients

  • Chanpanitkitchot, Saranya;Tangjitgamol, Siriwan;Khunnarong, Jakkapan;Thavaramara, Thaowalai;Pataradool, Kamol;Srijaipracharoen, Sunamchok
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.13
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    • pp.5215-5221
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    • 2014
  • Background: To study the response rate (RR), progression-free survival (PFS) and toxicity profiles of recurrent epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) patients treated with gemcitabine. Materials and Methods: Recurrent EOC patients who were treated with gemcitabine between January 2000 and December 2013 at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine Vajira Hospital were identified and medical records were reviewed. Clinico-pathological features including data of gemcitabine treatment, response and toxicity were collected. Results: We identified 43 EOC patients who had gemcitabine treatment. All except one patient who did not receive any adjuvant treatment, had received platinum-based chemotherapy. Among these 42 patients, 31.0% had refractory cancer to first-line chemotherapy while 69.0% had recurrence with 48.8% being platinum-sensitive. The total cycles of gemcitabine used were 203 (median 4, range 2-9 cycles). Overall RR was 11.6%: 19% in platinum-sensitive vs 4.5% in platinum-resistant groups (p=0.158) and 42.9% in the patients having gemcitabine together with platinum vs 5.6% using gemcitabine alone (P=0.024). Median PFS was 3.6 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.73-4.49 months): 8.1 months (95% CI, 2.73-4.49 months) in combination regimen vs 3.2 months (95% CI, 2.01-4.42 months) in single regimen (p=0.077) and 8.1 months (95% CI, 4.73-11.48 months) with the gemcitabine combination vs 2.7 months (95% CI, 1.98-3.38 months) by single gemcitabine in platinum sensitive patients (P=0.007). Common toxicities were hematologic which were well tolerated and manageable. Conclusions: Gemcitabine has modest activity in pre-treated EOC. A combination regimen had higher activity than single agent in platinum sensitive patients with a significant improvement in RR and PFS.

DNA Repair Capacity in Peripheral Blood Lymphocytes Predicts Efficacy of Platinum-based Chemotherapy in Patients with Gastric Cancer

  • Zhang, Yi-Yin;Gu, Kang-Sheng
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.14 no.9
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    • pp.5507-5512
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    • 2013
  • Objective: To investigate the correlation between ERCC1 expression levels in tumor tissue and peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) from patients with gastric cancer and assess the relationship between PBL DNA repair rate (DRR) and the efficacy of platinum chemotherapy. Methods: A total of 53 patients with gastric cancer receiving surgery and 20 controls were studied. ERCC1 protein expression in tumour tissue and PBL were determined by immunohistochemical staining. The PBL DRRs of 47 advanced patients and 20 controls were estimated by comet assay. Results: The positive expression rates of ERCC1 were 67. 9%, 56. 6% and 10.0% in tumour tissues, PBLs of gastric cancer patients, and PBLs of the control group. PBL ERCC1 expression correlated with that in tissue (${\chi}^2$=15. 463, p=0.000). Pearson contingency coefficient=0.475). DRRs of cancer patients by tail length (TL) (Z=4. 662, p=0.000) and tail moment (TM) (Z=3. 827, p=0.000) were significantly lower than that of control group. When TL was applied as an indicator, the correlation between DRR and chemotherapy efficacy was significant (Spearman rank correlation r=0.327, p=0.032). Patients with low levels of DRR in PBL presented better short-term efficacy of chemotherapy than those with high levels of DRR. Conclusions: The ERCC1 expression in PBLs may indirectly reflect ERCC1 expression in gastric cancer tissues. Compared with non-cancer populations, patients with gastric cancer may have lower DNA repair capacity. DRR in PBL may predict the short-term efficacy of platinum-based chemotherapy for patients with advanced gastric cancer.

Efficacy of Permanent Iodine-125 Seed Implants and Gemcitabine Chemotherapy in Patients with Platinum-Resistant Recurrent Ovarian Carcinoma

  • Yang, Hui;Liu, Yu-Hui;Xu, Liang;Liu, Li-Heng
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.20
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    • pp.9009-9013
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    • 2014
  • Background: The aim of this study was to explore the efficacy and adverse reactions of CT-guided radioactive 125I-seed implantation treatment combined with chemotherapy for platinum-resistant recurrent ovarian carcinoma. Materials and Methods: From September 2010 to December 2012, 23 patients with platinum-resistant recurrent ovarian carcinoma were enrolled. All the patients refused, could not bear, or were not suitable for surgery. They all had no more than 3 lesions, which were detected and could also be measured by CT. All were clarified as single-lesion or multiple-lesion groups. A total of 41 lesions underwent implantation of from 8 to 106 125I seeds (median=43). Multi-plane implanting was adopted and 125I-seeds of (0.4-0.7)mCi were placed at intervals of (0.5-1.0) cm. After implantation treatment, all patients underwent 4 cycles of chemotherapy with gemcitabine $800mg/m^2$ (days 1, 8 and 15). Results: The outcome was evaluated with CT 3 weeks and every 3 months after implantation treatment. After 6 months, the volume of 32 out of 41 lesions (78.0%) was reduced at least 30%, within which 9 lesions completely disappeared(22.0%). Complete response was observed in 7 cases (30.4%), with a partial response in 4 cases (17.4%), 4 cases stable(17.4%)and 8 cases showing progression (34.8%). The total clinical remission rate was 47.8% (11/23). The clinical remission rate was 77.8% (7/9) in the single-lesion group and 28.6% (4/14) in the multiple-lesion group with a significant difference between the two(P=0.036). The common side effects observed were mild gastrointestinal reactions. Conclusions: 125I-seed implantation combined with chemotherapy applies an effective way in the treatment of platinum-resistant recurrent ovarian epithelial carcinoma with the advantages of high local control rates, good short-term effects, little trauma and less side effects.

XPG is Predictive Gene of Clinical Outcome in Advanced Non-small-cell Lung Cancer with Platinum Drug Therapy

  • Zhang, Tian;Sun, Jing;Lv, Min;Zhang, Lin;Wang, Xia;Ren, Ji-Chen;Wang, Bin
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.14 no.2
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    • pp.701-705
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    • 2013
  • Polymorphisms in XPG are considered to contribute to the clinical outcome of patients receiving platinum drug chemotherapy. We aimed to investigate the role of five potential SNPs of XPG gene on the response to platinum-based chemotherapy in advanced Chinese NSCLC patients. A total of 451 patients with newly diagnosed and histopathologically confirmed primary NSCLC were consecutively collected. XPG rs2296147, rs4150261, rs17655, rs1047768 and rs2094258 were genotyped by the Taqman real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). In our study, we found patients carrying rs1057768 TT genotype had a significantly lower treatment response when compared with the CC genotype (OR=0.38, 95% CI=0.18-0.78). Patients carrying rs1047768 TT genotype showed a significantly short median PFS (11.2 months) and OS (13.6 months) than CC genotype, and the hazard ratios (HR) for PFS and OS were 2.06 (1.01-4.50) and 2.29 (1.21-2.49), respectively. Moreover, we found a significant decreased risk of death from NSCLC among patients carrying the rs2296147 TT genotype when compared with the CC genotype, the HR (95% CI) for OS being 0.50 (0.27-0.95). In conclusion, our study found that polymorphisms in rs1047768 C/T and rs2296147 C/T are associated with response to platinum-based chemotherapy in advanced NSCLC, and XPG polymorphisms could be predictive of prognosis.

Genetic Variants of NBS1 Predict Clinical Outcome of Platinum-based Chemotherapy in Advanced Non-small Cell Lung Cancer in Chinese

  • Xu, Jia-Li;Hu, Ling-Min;Huang, Ming-De;Zhao, Wan;Yin, Yong-Mei;Hu, Zhi-Bin;Ma, Hong-Xia;Shen, Hong-Bing;Shu, Yong-Qian
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.13 no.3
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    • pp.851-856
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    • 2012
  • Objective: NBS1 plays a key role in the repair of DNA double-strand break (DSB). We conducted this study to investigate the effect of two critical polymorphisms (rs1805794 and rs13312840) in NBS1 on treatment response and prognosis of advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients with platinum-based chemotherapy. Methods: Using TaqMan methods, we genotyped the two polymorphisms in 147 NSCLC patients. Odds ratios (ORs) and their 95% confidential intervals (CIs) were calculated as a measure of difference in the response rate of platinum-based chemotherapy using logistic regression analysis. The Kaplan-Meier and log-rank tests were used to assess the differences in progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). Cox proportional hazards model was applied to assess the hazard ratios (HRs) for PFS and OS. Results: Neither of the two polymorphisms was significantly associated with treatment response of platinum-based chemotherapy. However, patients carrying the rs1805794 CC variant genotype had a significantly improved PFS compared to those with GG genotype (16.0 vs. 8.0 months, P = 0.040). Multivariable cox regression analysis further showed that rs1805974 was a significantly favorable prognostic factor for PFS [CC/CG vs. GG: Adjusted HR = 0.62, 95% CI: 0.39-0.99; CC vs. CG/GG: Adjusted HR = 0.56, 95% CI: 0.32-0.97). Similarly, rs13312840 with a small sample size also showed a significant association with PFS (CC vs. CT/TT: Adjusted HR = 25.62, 95% CI: 1.53-428.39). Conclusions: Our findings suggest that NBS1 polymorphisms may be genetic biomarkers for NSCLC prognosis especially PFS with platinum-based chemotherapy in the Chinese population.

Cost Effectiveness Analysis of Different Management Strategies between Best Supportive Care and Second-line Chemotherapy for Platinum-resistant or Refractory Ovarian Cancer

  • Luealon, Phanida;Khempech, Nipon;Vasuratna, Apichai;Hanvoravongchai, Piya;Havanond, Piyalamporn
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.17 no.2
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    • pp.799-805
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    • 2016
  • Background: There is no standard treatment for patients with platinum-resistant or refractory epithelial ovarian cancer. Single agent chemotherapies have evidence of more efficacy and less toxicity than combination therapy. Most are very expensive, with appreciable toxicity and minimal survival. Since it is difficult to make comparison between outcomes, economic analysis of single-agent chemotherapy regimens and best supportive care may help to make decisions about an appropriate management for the affected patients. Objective: To evaluate the cost effectiveness of second-line chemotherapy compared with best supportive care for patients with platinum-resistant or refractory epithelial ovarian cancer. Materials and Methods: A Markov model was used to estimate the effectiveness and total costs associated with treatments. The hypothetical patient population comprised women aged 55 with platinum-resistant or refractory epithelial ovarian cancer. Four types of alternative treatment options were evaluated: 1) gemcitabine followed by BSC; 2) pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (PLD) followed by BSC; 3) gemcitabine followed by topotecan; and 4) PLD followed by topotecan. Baseline comparator of alternative treatments was BSC. Time horizon of the analysis was 2 years. Health care provider perspective and 3% discount rate were used to determine the costs of medical treatment in this study. Quality-adjusted life-years (QALY) were used to measure the treatment effectiveness. Treatment effectiveness data were derived from the literature. Costs were calculated from unit cost treatment of epithelial ovarian cancer patients at various stages of disease in King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital (KCMH) in the year 2011. Parameter uncertainty was tested in probabilistic sensitivity analysis by using Monte Carlo simulation. One-way sensitivity analysis was used to explore each variable's impact on the uncertainty of the results. Results: Approximated life expectancy of best supportive care was 0.182 years and its total cost was 26,862 Baht. All four alternative treatments increased life expectancy. Life expectancy of gemcitabine followed by BSC, PLD followed by BSC, gemcitabine followed by topotecan and PLD followed by topotecan was 0.510, 0.513, 0.566, and 0.570 years, respectively. The total cost of gemcitabine followed by BSC, PLD followed by BSC, gemcitabine followed by topotecan and PLD followed by topotecan was 113,000, 124,302, 139,788 and 151,135 Baht, respectively. PLD followed by topotecan had the highest expected quality-adjusted life-years but was the most expensive of all the above strategies. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICER) of gemcitabine followed by BSC, PLD followed by BSC, gemcitabine followed by topotecan and PLD followed by topotecan was 344,643, 385,322, 385,856, and 420,299 Baht, respectively. Conclusions: All of the second-line chemotherapy strategies showed certain benefits due to an increased life-year gained compared with best supportive care. Moreover, gemcitabine as second-line chemotherapy followed by best supportive care in progressive disease case was likely to be more effective strategy with less cost from health care provider perspective. Gemcitabine was the most cost-effective treatment among all four alternative treatments. ICER is only an economic factor. Treatment decisions should be based on the patient benefit.

Platinum nanocomposites and its applications: A review

  • Sharon, Madhuri;Nandgavkar, Isaac;Sharon, Maheshwar
    • Advances in materials Research
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    • v.6 no.2
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    • pp.129-153
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    • 2017
  • Platinum is a transition metal that is very resistant to corrosion. It is used as catalyst for converting methyl alcohol to formaldehyde, as catalytic converter in cars, for hydrocracking of heavy oils, in Fuel Cell devices etc. Moreover, Platinum compounds are important ingredient for cancer chemotherapy drugs. The nano forms of Platinum due to its unique physico-chemical properties that are not found in its bulk counterpart, has been found to be of great importance in electronics, optoelectronics, enzyme immobilization etc. The stability of Platinum nanoparticles has supported its use for the development of efficient and durable proton exchange membrane Fuel Cells. The present review concentrates on the use of Platinum conjugated with various metal or compounds, to fabricate nanocomposites, to enhance the efficiency of Platinum nanoparticles. The recent advances in the synthesis methods of different Platinum-based nanocomposites and their applications in Fuel Cell, sensors, bioimaging, light emitting diode, dye sensitized solar cell, hydrogen generation and in biosystems has also been discussed.