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Carboplatin and Doxorubicin in Treatment of Pediatric Osteosarcoma: A 9-year Single Institute Experience in the Northern Region of Thailand

  • Choeyprasert, Worawut;Natesirinilkul, Rungrote;Charoenkwan, Pimlak;Sittipreechacharn, Somjai
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.14 no.2
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    • pp.1101-1106
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    • 2013
  • Background: Osteosarcoma is the most common primary bone tumor in childhood and adolescence. Carboplatin, a platinum-derived agent, is used as neoadjuvant chemotherapy for pediatric osteosarcoma because of its anti-tumor activity and had low toxicity as compared to cisplatin. Objective: To determine demographic data, prognostic factors and outcome of childhood osteosarcoma treated with a carboplatin-based chemotherapeutic protocol at Chiang Mai University. Method: A retrospective analysis was conducted on 34 osteosarcoma patients aged less than 18 years and treated between 2003 and 2011. Results: Overall limb-salvage and amputation rates were 23.5% and 70.6%, respectively. With the mean follow-up time of 29.5 months (1.5-108.9), the Kaplan-Meier analysis for 3-year disease-free survival (DFS) and 3-year overall survival (OS) were $20.2{\pm}7.7%$ and $47.1{\pm}9.5%$ respectively. Patients who had initial pulmonary metastasis were at significantly greater risk for developing recurrence (p=0.02, OR=7; 1.2-40.1) and had a tendency to have lower 3-year OS compared to those without initial pulmonary metastasis ($28.1{\pm}13%$, $63.1{\pm}12.3%$, respectively, p=0.202). On univariate analysis, age at diagnosis >14 years and patients who were declined surgery were significantly associated with lower 3-year OS (p=0.008 and <0.05, respectively). However, age at diagnosis, sex, tumor size and histological subtypes were not found to significantly affect recurrence or survival. Conclusions: In our study, the survival rate was far lower than those reported from developed countries. These might indicate the ineffectiveness of carboplatin in combination with doxorubicin as frontline treatment of pediatric osteosarcoma, especially in those with initial pulmonary metastasis. Refinement in risk and treatment stratification and dose intensification for pediatric osteosarcoma constitutes a future challenge to improve outcomes, especially in metastatic patients who may need a more intensive regimen.

Clinical Efficacy of Belotecan (CKD-602), Newly Developed Camptothecin Analog, in the 2nd Line Treatment of Relapsed Small Cell Lung Cancer (재발된 소세포폐암환자에서 이차 약제로 사용되는 Belotecan (CKD-602)의 임상적 효용성)

  • Ban, Hee-Jung;Oh, In-Jae;Kim, Kyu-Sik;Ju, Jin-Yung;Kwon, Yong-Soo;Kim, Yu-Il;Lim, Sung-Chul;Kim, Young-Chul
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.66 no.2
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    • pp.93-97
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    • 2009
  • Background: Belotecan (Camtobell, CKD-602, Chongkundang Pharm., Korea), a camptothecin derivative, has anticancer effects by inhibiting topoisomerase I such as topotecan. This study observed the response, survival and toxicity of belotecan monotherapy after the failure of etoposide and platinum (EP). Methods: Forty nine small cell lung cancer (SCLC) patients (M/F=41/8; age, 64.5${\pm}$7.6 (mean${\pm}$SD) years), who failed in their first line chemotherapy were enrolled in this study. Twenty one SCLC patients showed relapsed lung cancer more than 90 days after their priorEP chemotherapy (sensitive relapse group, SR) and 28 patients relapsed within 90 days (refractory relapse group, RR). Results: The response rate was 25%. Eleven patients showed partial responses and 5 patients could not be checked. The response rate of the SR and RR patients was similar. The relative dose intensity was lower in the responders (78${\pm}$15%) than non-responders (83${\pm}$13%, p=0.03). The median survival time (MST) was 10.3 months (290 days). The MST of the non-responders and responders was 186 days (95% CI; 67-305) and 401 days (95% CI; 234-568, p=0.07), respectively. The median progression free survival (MPFS) was similar in the SR (79 days) and RR (67 days) patients. Grade 3-4 neutropenia, anemia, and thrombocytopenia were observed in 59.6%, 12.8% and 23.4% of patients, respectively. Conclusion: The efficacy and survival were demonstrated in the second-line setting. However, a randomized comparative trial with topotecan will be needed.

Adjuvant external beam radiation and brachytherapy for vaginal resection margin positive cervical cancer

  • Kim, Donghyun;Ki, Yongkan;Kim, Wontaek;Park, Dahl;Lee, Joohye;Lee, Jayoung;Jeon, Hosang;Nam, Jiho
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
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    • v.36 no.2
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    • pp.147-152
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    • 2018
  • Purpose: To evaluate the treatment outcomes of adjuvant external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) and vaginal brachytherapy (VB) following radical hysterectomy in cervical cancer patients with involved vaginal resection margin (VRM). Materials and Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 21 patients treated with postoperative EBRT and VB for positive VRM FIGO stage IB-IIA cervical cancer between 2003 and 2015. Concurrent platinum-based chemotherapy was administered to all patients. Results: The median whole pelvis EBRT dose was 50.4 Gy (range, 45 to 50.4 Gy). In the VB, the median dose per fraction, number of fractions, and total dose delivered were: 4 Gy (range, 3.0 to 4.0 Gy), 4 fractions (range, 3 to 5 fractions), and 16 Gy (range, 12 to 20 Gy), respectively. At a median follow-up of 46 months (range, 9 to 122 months), local recurrence was observed in 2 patients, and distant metastasis was present in 7 patients. All patients with local recurrence subsequently developed distant metastases. The 5-year local control, disease-free survival, and overall survival rates were 89.1%, 65.9%, and 62.9%, respectively. Of the 21 patients, 7 patients (33.3%) reported grade 2 acute toxicity; however, there were no grade 3 or higher acute adverse events. Grade 1-2 late toxicities were observed in 8 patients. Late grade 3 urinary toxicity was reported in 1 patient. Conclusions: Adjuvant EBRT and VB showed excellent local control and low toxicity in cervical cancer patients with positive VRM. Although limited by its retrospective nature, the findings from our study provide evidence supporting the use of additional VB in pathologically involved VRM.

Prognostic Factor Analysis of Overall Survival in Gastric Cancer from Two Phase III Studies of Second-line Ramucirumab (REGARD and RAINBOW) Using Pooled Patient Data

  • Fuchs, Charles S.;Muro, Kei;Tomasek, Jiri;Van Cutsem, Eric;Cho, Jae Yong;Oh, Sang-Cheul;Safran, Howard;Bodoky, Gyorgy;Chau, Ian;Shimada, Yasuhiro;Al-Batran, Salah-Eddin;Passalacqua, Rodolfo;Ohtsu, Atsushi;Emig, Michael;Ferry, David;Chandrawansa, Kumari;Hsu, Yanzhi;Sashegyi, Andreas;Liepa, Astra M.;Wilke, Hansjochen
    • Journal of Gastric Cancer
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    • v.17 no.2
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    • pp.132-144
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    • 2017
  • Purpose: To identify baseline prognostic factors for survival in patients with disease progression, during or after chemotherapy for the treatment of advanced gastric or gastroesophageal junction (GEJ) cancer. Materials and Methods: We pooled data from patients randomized between 2009 and 2012 in 2 phase III, global double-blind studies of ramucirumab for the treatment of advanced gastric or GEJ adenocarcinoma following disease progression on first-line platinum- and/or fluoropyrimidine-containing therapy (REGARD and RAINBOW). Forty-one key baseline clinical and laboratory factors common in both studies were examined. Model building started with covariate screening using univariate Cox models (significance level=0.05). A stepwise multivariable Cox model identified the final prognostic factors (entry+exit significance level=0.01). Cox models were stratified by treatment and geographic region. The process was repeated to identify baseline prognostic quality of life (QoL) parameters. Results: Of 1,020 randomized patients, 953 (93%) patients without any missing covariates were included in the analysis. We identified 12 independent prognostic factors of poor survival: 1) peritoneal metastases; 2) Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance score 1; 3) the presence of a primary tumor; 4) time to progression since prior therapy <6 months; 5) poor/unknown tumor differentiation; abnormally low blood levels of 6) albumin, 7) sodium, and/or 8) lymphocytes; and abnormally high blood levels of 9) neutrophils, 10) aspartate aminotransferase (AST), 11) alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and/or 12) lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). Factors were used to devise a 4-tier prognostic index (median overall survival [OS] by risk [months]: high=3.4, moderate=6.4, medium=9.9, and low=14.5; Harrell's C-index=0.66; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.64-0.68). Addition of QoL to the model identified patient-reported appetite loss as an independent prognostic factor. Conclusions: The identified prognostic factors and the reported prognostic index may help clinical decision-making, patient stratification, and planning of future clinical studies.

Prognostic analysis of uterine cervical cancer treated with postoperative radiotherapy: importance of positive or close parametrial resection margin

  • Kim, Yi-Jun;Lee, Kyung-Ja;Park, Kyung Ran;Kim, Jiyoung;Jung, Wonguen;Lee, Rena;Kim, Seung Cheol;Moon, Hye Sung;Ju, Woong;Kim, Yun Hwan;Lee, Jihae
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
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    • v.33 no.2
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    • pp.109-116
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    • 2015
  • Purpose: To analyze prognostic factors for locoregional recurrence (LRR), distant metastasis (DM), and overall survival (OS) in cervical cancer patients who underwent radical hysterectomy followed by postoperative radiotherapy (PORT) in a single institute. Materials and Methods: Clinicopathologic data of 135 patients with clinical stage IA2 to IIA2 cervical cancer treated with PORT from 2001 to 2012 were reviewed, retrospectively. Postoperative parametrial resection margin (PRM) and vaginal resection margin (VRM) were investigated separately. The median treatment dosage of external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) to the whole pelvis was 50.4 Gy in 1.8 Gy/fraction. High-dose-rate vaginal brachytherapy after EBRT was given to patients with positive or close VRMs. Concurrent platinum-based chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) was administered to 73 patients with positive resection margin, lymph node (LN) metastasis, or direct extension of parametrium. Kaplan-Meier method and log-rank test were used for analyzing LRR, DM, and OS; Cox regression was applied to analyze prognostic factors. Results: The 5-year disease-free survival was 79% and 5-year OS was 91%. In univariate analysis, positive or close PRM, LN metastasis, direct extension of parametrium, lymphovascular invasion, histology of adenocarcinoma, and chemotherapy were related with more DM and poor OS. In multivariate analysis, PRM and LN metastasis remained independent prognostic factors for OS. Conclusion: PORT after radical hysterectomy in uterine cervical cancer showed excellent OS in this study. Positive or close PRM after radical hysterectomy in uterine cervical cancer correlates with poor prognosis even with CCRT. Therefore, additional treatments to improve local control such as radiation boosting need to be considered.

Efficacy and Safety of Sorafenib for Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: a Meta-analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

  • Wang, Wei-Lan;Tang, Zhi-Hui;Xie, Ting-Ting;Xiao, Bing-Kun;Zhang, Xin-Yu;Guo, Dai-Hong;Wang, Dong-Xiao;Pei, Fei;Si, Hai-Yan;Zhu, Man
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.14
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    • pp.5691-5696
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    • 2014
  • Background: Many clinical trials have been conducted to evaluate sorafenib for the treatment of advanced NSCLC, but the results for efficacy have been inconsistent. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of sorafenib in patients with advanced NSCLC in more detail by meta-analysis. Methods: This meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) was performed after searching PubMed, EMBASE, ASCO Abstracts, ESMO Abstracts, and the proceedings of major conferences for relevant clinical trials. Two reviewers independently assessed the quality of the trials. Outcomes analysis were disease control rate (DCR), progression- free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) and major toxicity. Subgroup analysis was conducted according to sorafenib monotherapy, in combination with chemotherapy or EGFR-TKI to investigate the preferred therapy strategy. Results: Results reported from 6 RCTs involving 2, 748 patients were included in the analysis. Compared to sorafenib-free group, SBT was not associated with higher DCR (RR 1.31 (0.96- 1.79), p=0.09), PFS (HR 0.82 (0.66-1.02), p=0.07) and OS (HR 1.01 (0.92-1.12), p=0.77). In terms of subgroup results, sorafenib monotherapy was associated with significant superior DCR and longer PFS, but failed to show advantage with regard to OS. Grade 3 or greater sorafenib-related adverse events included fatigue, hypertension, diarrhea, oral mucositis, rash and HFSR. Conclusions: SBT was revealed to yield no improvement in DCR, PFS and OS. However, sorafenib as monotherapy showed some activity in NSCLC. Further evaluation may be considered in subsets of patients who may benefit from this treatment. Sorafenib combined inhibition therapy should be limited unless the choice of platinum-doublet regimen, administration sequence or identification of predictive biomarkers are considered to receive better anti-tumor activity and prevention of resistance mechanisms.

Tertiary Cytoreduction for Recurrent Epithelial Ovarian Cancer: a Multicenter Study in Turkey

  • Arvas, Macit;Salihoglu, Yavuz;Sal, Veysel;Gungor, Tayfun;Sozen, Hamdullah;Kahramanoglu, Ilker;Topuz, Samet;Demirkiran, Fuat;Iyibozkurt, Cem;Bese, Tugan;Ozgu, Burcin Salman;Vatansever, Dogan;Tokgozoglu, Nedim;Berkman, Sinan;Turan, Hasan;Bengisu, Ergin;Sofiyeva, Nigar;Demiral, Irem;Meydanli, Mutlu
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.17 no.4
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    • pp.1909-1915
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    • 2016
  • Background: The purpose of this study was to determine the benefit of tertiary cytoreductive surgery (TC) for secondary recurrent epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC), focusing on whether optimal cytoreduction has an impact on disease-free survival, and whether certain patient characteristics could identify ideal candidates for TC. Materials and Methods: Retrospective analysis of secondary recurrent EOC patients undergoing TC at three Turkish tertiary institutions from May 1997 to July 2014 was performed. All patients had previously received primary cytoreduction followed by intravenous platinum-based chemotherapy and secondary cytoreduction for first recurrence. Clinical and pathological data were obtained from the patients' medical records. Survival analysis was caried out using the Kaplan Meier method. Actuarial curves were compared by the two tailed Logrank test with a statistical significance level of 0.05. Results: Median age of the patients was 49.6 years (range, 30-67) and thirty-eight (72%) had stage III-IV disease at initial diagnosis. Twenty six (49%) had optimal and 27 (51%) suboptimal cytoreduction during tertiary debulking surgery. Optimal initial cytoreduction, time to first recurrence, optimal secondary cytoreduction, time interval between secondary cytoreduction and secondary recurrence, size of recurrence, disease status at last follow-up were found to be significant risk factors to predict optimal TC. Optimal cytoreduction in initial and tertiary surgery and serum CA-125 level prior to TC were independent prognostic factors on univariate analysis. Conclusions: Our results and a literature review clearly showed that maximal surgical effort should be made in TC, since patients undergoing optimal TC have a better survival. Thus, patients with secondary recurrent EOC in whom optimal cytoreduction can be achieved should be actively selected.

Quality indicators for cervical cancer care in Japan

  • Watanabe, Tomone;Mikami, Mikio;Katabuchi, Hidetaka;Kato, Shingo;Kaneuchi, Masanori;Takahashi, Masahiro;Nakai, Hidekatsu;Nagase, Satoru;Niikura, Hitoshi;Mandai, Masaki;Hirashima, Yasuyuki;Yanai, Hiroyuki;Yamagami, Wataru;Kamitani, Satoru;Higashi, Takahiro
    • Journal of Gynecologic Oncology
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    • v.29 no.6
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    • pp.83.1-83.10
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    • 2018
  • Objective: We aimed to propose a set of quality indicators (QIs) based on the clinical guidelines for cervical cancer treatment published by The Japan Society of Gynecologic Oncology, and to assess adherence to standard-of-care as an index of the quality of care for cervical cancer in Japan. Methods: A panel of clinical experts devised the QIs using a modified Delphi method. Adherence to each QI was evaluated using data from a hospital-based cancer registry of patients diagnosed in 2013, and linked with insurance claims data, between October 1, 2012, and December 31, 2014. All patients who received first-line treatment at the participating facility were included. The QI scores were communicated to participating hospitals, and additional data about the reasons for non-adherence were collected. Results: In total, 297 hospitals participated, and the care provided to 15,163 cervical cancer patients was examined using 10 measurable QIs. The adherence rate ranged from 50.0% for 'cystoscope or proctoscope for stage IVA' to 98.8% for 'chemotherapy using platinum for stage IVB'. Despite the variation in care, hospitals reported clinically valid reasons for more than half of the non-adherent cases. Clinically valid reasons accounted for 75%, 90.9%, 73.4%, 44.5%, and 88.1% of presented non-adherent cases respectively. Conclusion: Our study revealed variations in pattern of care as well as an adherence to standards-of-care across Japan. Further assessment of the causes of variation and non-adherence can help identify areas where improvements are needed in patient care.

The Role of Intraluminal Brachytherapy in Management of Esophageal Cancer (식도암 치료에 있어 관내근접치료의 역할)

  • Lee Chang Geol;Suh Chang Ok;Kim Gwi Eon;Chu Sung Sil;Chung Eun Ji;Kim Woo Cheol
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
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    • v.13 no.4
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    • pp.331-338
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    • 1995
  • Purpose : To evaluate our clinical experience with the combination of teletherapy and intraluminal brachytherapy in patients with unresectable or inoperable esophageal cancers. Materials and Methods : From Nov 1989 to Mar 1993, twenty patients with esophageal cancer were treated with radical radiotherapy and intraluminal brachytherapy at Yonsei Cancer Center. All patients had squamous histolgy and stage distribution was as follows: stage II, 4($20{\%}$)patients; III, 15 ($75{\%}$)patients; IV, 1($5{\%}$)patients. A dose of S-12Gy/1-3weeks with intraluminal brachytherapy (3-5Gy/fraction) to 5mm from the outside of the esophageal tube using high dose rate Iridium-192 remotely afterloading brachytherapy machine was given 2 weeks after a total dose of 59-64Gy with external radiotherapy. Induction chemotherapy using cisplatin and 5-FU was performed in 13 patients with median 3 cycles(1-6 cycles), Response rate, local control rate, survival and complications were analysed retrospectively. Results : Two-year overall survival rate and median survival were $15.8{\%}$ and 13.5 months. Response rates were as follows complete remission(CR) 5($25{\%}$): partial remission a(PRa) 7($35{\%}$): partial remission b(PRb) 7($35{\%}$), no response(NR) 1($5{\%}$). Patterns of failure were as follows; local failure 13($65{\%}$), local and distant failure 3($15{\%}$), distant failure 0($0{\%}$). Ultimate local control rate was $20{\%}$. Treatment related complications included esophageal ulcer in two patients and esophageal stricture in one. Conclusion : Though poor local conrol rate, median survival was improved as compared with previous results of radiation therapy alone(8months) and chemoradiation combined treatment(11 months) in Yonsei Cancer Center High-dose-rate intraluminal brachytherapy following external irradiation is an effective treatment modality with acceptable toxicity in esophageal cancer.

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