• Title, Summary, Keyword: plant immunity

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Characteristics of 14-3-3 Proteins and Their Role in Plant Immunity

  • Oh, Chang-Sik
    • The Plant Pathology Journal
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    • v.26 no.1
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    • pp.1-7
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    • 2010
  • Phosphorylation is a major post-translational modification of proteins that regulate diverse signal transduction pathways in eukaryotic cells. 14-3-3 proteins are regulatory proteins that bind to target proteins in a phosphorylation-dependent manner and have been shown to play an important role in plant growth and development, primary metabolism, and signal transduction. Because phosphorylation plays a critical role in signal transduction pathways to trigger plant immunity, involvement of 14-3-3 proteins in plant immunity has been suggested for a long time. Recent studies have provided new evidence to support a role for 14-3-3 proteins in plant immunity. This review will briefly discuss general characteristics of 14-3-3 proteins and their involvement in plant immunity.

Role of RIN4 in Regulating PAMP-Triggered Immunity and Effector-Triggered Immunity: Current Status and Future Perspectives

  • Ray, Sujit Kumar;Macoy, Donah Mary;Kim, Woe-Yeon;Lee, Sang Yeol;Kim, Min Gab
    • Molecules and Cells
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    • v.42 no.7
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    • pp.503-511
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    • 2019
  • As sessile organisms, plants have developed sophisticated system to defend themselves against microbial attack. Since plants do not have specialized immune cells, all plant cells appear to have the innate ability to recognize pathogens and turn on an appropriate defense response. The plant innate immune system has two major branches: PAMPs (pathogen associated molecular patterns)-triggered immunity (PTI) and effector-triggered immunity (ETI). The ability to discriminate between self and non-self is a fundamental feature of living organisms, and it is a prerequisite for the activation of plant defenses specific to microbial infection. Arabidopsis cells express receptors that detect extracellular molecules or structures of the microbes, which are called collectively PAMPs and activate PTI. However, nucleotidebinding site leucine-rich repeats (NB-LRR) proteins mediated ETI is induced by direct or indirect recognition of effector molecules encoded by avr genes. In Arabidopsis, plasmamembrane localized multifunctional protein RIN4 (RPM1-interacting protein 4) plays important role in both PTI and ETI. Previous studies have suggested that RIN4 functions as a negative regulator of PTI. In addition, many different bacterial effector proteins modify RIN4 to destabilize plant immunity and several NB-LRR proteins, including RPM1 (resistance to Pseudomonas syringae pv. maculicola 1), RPS2 (resistance to P. syringae 2) guard RIN4. This review summarizes the current studies that have described signaling mechanism of RIN4 function, modification of RIN4 by bacterial effectors and different interacting partner of RIN4 in defense related pathway. In addition, the emerging role of the RIN4 in plant physiology and intercellular signaling as it presents in exosomes will be discussed.

Dual Effect of the Cubic Ag3PO4 Crystal on Pseudomonas syringae Growth and Plant Immunity

  • Kim, Mi Kyung;Yeo, Byul-Ee;Park, Heonyong;Huh, Young-Duk;Kwon, Chian;Yun, Hye Sup
    • The Plant Pathology Journal
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    • v.32 no.2
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    • pp.168-170
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    • 2016
  • We previously found that the antibacterial activity of silver phosphate crystals on Escherichia coli depends on their structure. We here show that the cubic form of silver phosphate crystal (SPC) can also be applied to inhibit the growth of a plant-pathogenic Pseudomonas syringae bacterium. SPC pretreatment resulted in reduced in planta multiplication of P. syringae. Induced expression of a plant defense marker gene PR1 by SPC alone is suggestive of its additional plant immunity-stimulating activity. Since SPC can simultaneously inhibit P. syringae growth and induce plant defense responses, it might be used as a more effective plant disease-controlling agent.

Heat Shock Proteins: A Review of the Molecular Chaperones for Plant Immunity

  • Park, Chang-Jin;Seo, Young-Su
    • The Plant Pathology Journal
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    • v.31 no.4
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    • pp.323-333
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    • 2015
  • As sessile organisms, plants are exposed to persistently changing stresses and have to be able to interpret and respond to them. The stresses, drought, salinity, chemicals, cold and hot temperatures, and various pathogen attacks have interconnected effects on plants, resulting in the disruption of protein homeostasis. Maintenance of proteins in their functional native conformations and preventing aggregation of non-native proteins are important for cell survival under stress. Heat shock proteins (HSPs) functioning as molecular chaperones are the key components responsible for protein folding, assembly, translocation, and degradation under stress conditions and in many normal cellular processes. Plants respond to pathogen invasion using two different innate immune responses mediated by pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) or resistance (R) proteins. HSPs play an indispensable role as molecular chaperones in the quality control of plasma membrane-resident PRRs and intracellular R proteins against potential invaders. Here, we specifically discuss the functional involvement of cytosolic and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) HSPs/chaperones in plant immunity to obtain an integrated understanding of the immune responses in plant cells.

Plant Immunity against Viruses: Moving from the Lab to the Field (식물바이러스 면역반응 최신 연구 동향 및 전망)

  • Kim, Nam-Yeon;Hong, Jin-Sung;Jeong, Rae-Dong
    • Research in Plant Disease
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    • v.24 no.1
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    • pp.9-25
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    • 2018
  • Plant viruses cause significant yield losses and continuously threaten crop production, representing a serious threat to global food security. Studies on plant-virus interactions have contributed to increase our knowledge on plant immunity mechanism, providing new strategies for crop improvement. The prophylactic managements consist mainly following international legislations, eradication of infected plants, and application of pesticide to decrease the population of vectors. Hence, putting together the pieces of knowledge related to molecular plant immunity to viruses is critical for the control of virus disease in fields. Over the last several decades, the outstanding outcomes of extensive research have been achieved on comprehension of plant immunity to viruses. Although most dominant R genes have been used as natural resistance genes, recessive resistance genes have been deployed in several crops as another efficient strategy to control viruses. In addition, RNA interference also regulates plant immunity and contribute a very efficient antiviral system at the nucleic acid level. This review aims at describing virus disease on crops and summarizes current resistance mechanisms. Furthermore, we will discuss the current biotechnological approaches to control viral diseases and the future questions that are to be addressed to secure crop production against viruses.

Oomycetes RXLR Effectors Function as Both Activator and Suppressor of Plant Immunity

  • Oh, Sang-Keun;Kamoun, Sophien;Choi, Doil
    • The Plant Pathology Journal
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    • v.26 no.3
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    • pp.209-215
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    • 2010
  • Plant pathogenic oomycetes, such as Phytophthora spp., are the causal agent of the most devastating plant diseases. During infection, these pathogens accomplish parasitic colonization of plants by modulating host defenses through an array of disease effector proteins. These effectors are classified in two classes based on their target sites in the host plant. Apoplastic effectors are secreted into the plant extracellular space, and cytoplasmic effectors are translocated inside the plant cell, through the haustoria that enter inside living host cell. Recent characterization of some oomycete Avr genes showed that they encode effector protein with general modular structure including N-terminal conserved RXLR-DEER motif. More detailed evidences suggest that these AVR effectors are secreted by the pathogenic oomycetes and then translocated into the host plant cell during infection. Recent findings indicated that one of the P. infestans effector, Avrblb2, specifically induces hypersensitive response (HR) in the presence of Solanum bulbocastanum late blight resistance genes Rpi-blb2. On the other hand, another secreted RXLR protein PexRD8 originated from P. infestans suppressed the HCD triggered by the elicitin INF1. In this review, we described recent progress in characterized RXLR effectors in Phytophthora spp. and their dual functions as modulators of host plant immunity.

The Interaction of Human Enteric Pathogens with Plants

  • Lim, Jeong-A;Lee, Dong Hwan;Heu, Sunggi
    • The Plant Pathology Journal
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    • v.30 no.2
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    • pp.109-116
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    • 2014
  • There are an increasing number of outbreaks of human pathogens related to fresh produce. Thus, the growth of human pathogens on plants should be explored. Human pathogens can survive under the harsh environments in plants, and can adhere and actively invade plants. Plant-associated microbiota or insects contribute to the survival and transmission of enteric pathogens in plants. Human enteric pathogens also trigger plant innate immunity, but some pathogens-such as Salmonella-can overcome this defense mechanism.

Evidence for Volatile Memory in Plants: Boosting Defence Priming through the Recurrent Application of Plant Volatiles

  • Song, Geun Cheol;Ryu, Choong-Min
    • Molecules and Cells
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    • v.41 no.8
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    • pp.724-732
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    • 2018
  • Plant defence responses to various biotic stresses via systemic acquired resistance (SAR) are induced by avirulent pathogens and chemical compounds, including certain plant hormones in volatile form, such as methyl salicylate and methyl jasmonate. SAR refers to the observation that, when a local part of a plant is exposed to elicitors, the entire plant exhibits a resistance response. In the natural environment, plants are continuously exposed to avirulent pathogens that induce SAR and volatile emissions affecting neighbouring plants as well as the plant itself. However, the underlying mechanism has not been intensively studied. In this study, we evaluated whether plants "memorise" the previous activation of plant immunity when exposed repeatedly to plant defensive volatiles such as methyl salicylate and methyl jasmonate. We hypothesised that stronger SAR responses would occur in plants treated with repeated applications of the volatile plant defence compound MeSA than in those exposed to a single or no treatment. Nicotiana benthamiana seedlings subjected to repeated applications of MeSA exhibited greater protection against Pseudomonas syringae pv. tabaci and Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum than the control. The increase in SAR capacity in response to repeated MeSA treatment was confirmed by analysing the defence priming of the expression of N. benthamiana Pathogenesis-Related 1a (NbPR1a) and NbPR2 by quantitative reverse-transcription PCR compared with the control. We propose the concept of plant memory of plant defence volatiles and suggest that SAR is strengthened by the repeated perception of volatile compounds in plants.

Plant Exocytic Secretion of Toxic Compounds for Defense

  • Kwon, Chian;Yun, Hye Sup
    • Toxicological Research
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    • v.30 no.2
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    • pp.77-81
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    • 2014
  • In contrast to animals, plants do not have a circulatory system as well as mobile immune cells that allow them to protect themselves against pathogens. Instead, plants exclusively depend on the innate immune system to defend against pathogens. As typically observed in the animal innate immunity, plant immune responses are composed of pathogen detection, defense signaling which includes transcriptional reprogramming, and secretion of antimicrobial compounds. Although knowledge on recognition and subsequent signaling of pathogen-derived molecules called elicitors is now expanding, the mechanisms of how these immune molecules are excreted are yet poorly understood. Therefore, current understandings of how plants secrete defense products especially via exocytosis will be discussed in this review.