• Title, Summary, Keyword: pine needle

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Individual Differences of Ozone Resistance for Seed Germination and Seedling Development of Pinus thunbergii (해송의 종자 발아 및 유묘 생장에 대한 오존저항성의 개체간 차이)

  • Kim, Du-Hyun;Han, Sim-Hee
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural and Forest Meteorology
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    • v.12 no.3
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    • pp.207-216
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    • 2010
  • Individual differences of ozone ($O_3$) resistance for seed production, seed germination and seedling development were examined in this study. Five in each healthy and damaged trees of Pinus thunbergii growing in air polluted area for 12 years were chosen based on visible foliar injury and growth. The cones of P. thunbergii, which were collected from healthy and damaged trees, were analyzed for physical characteristics and seeds from the cones were used to test germination percentage under $O_3$ treatment. The germinated seeds were continuously exposed to $O_3$ treatment and the lipid peroxidation and activities of antioxidative enzymes were determined for both seeds and seedlings. The $O_3$ treatment for seed germination and seedling development were conducted at three conditions: control, 150 ppb and 300 ppb of $O_3$. The non-treated seeds from the damaged trees showed 21.6% lower germination than those from the healthy ones. On the $O_3$ treatment of 300 ppb, seed germination decreased approximately 10% for the healthy trees and 19% for the damaged trees compared to that on the control. The seeds from the healthy trees showed significantly higher activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione reductase (GR), and catalase (CAT) than those from the damaged trees. The activities of GR, ascorbate peroxidase (APX), and CAT decreased along with the increasing $O_3$ concentration in two tree grades. Malondialdehyde (MDA) content of seeds was not influenced by $O_3$ treatment for two tree grades. In seedling development, there were no significant differences for length and biomass of needle and root of two tree grades at both the control and 150 ppb of $O_3$. At 300 ppb of $O_3$ treatment, however, the length and biomass of needle and stem decreased for two tree grades but no significant differences was detected in root. The seedlings from the damaged trees were more sensitive to the $O_3$ treatment, showing higher activities of SOD, APX, and CAT and content of MDA compared to those from the healthy tree seedlings. Our results indicate that seed germination and seedling development are vulnerable to increasing $O_3$ concentrations and that attention must be paid to the individual selection of tree species for reforestation.

The Beneficial Effects of Extract of Pinus densiflora Needles on Skin Health (솔잎추출물의 피부건강 개선효과)

  • Choi, Jieun;Kim, Woong;Park, Jaeyoung;Cheong, Hyeonsook
    • Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters
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    • v.44 no.2
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    • pp.208-217
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    • 2016
  • Pinus densiflora Sieb. et Zucc. (P. densiflora) contains several phenolic compounds that exhibit biological activities, such as antimicrobial, antioxidant, and antihypertensive effects. However, the anti-inflammatory effect of P. densiflora on skin has rarely been reported. Malassezia furfur (M. furfur) is a commensal microbe that induces skin inflammation and is associated with several chronic disorders, such as dandruff, seborrheic dermatitis, papillomatosis, and sepsis. The aim of our study was to identify the anti-inflammatory effects of P. densiflora needle extracts on skin health subjected to M. furfur-induced inflammation. The methanolic extract of the pine needles was partitioned into n-hexane, EtOAc, n-BuOH, and water layers. We measured the anti-inflammatory effects (in macrophages) as well as the antioxidant, antifungal, and tyrosinase inhibitory activity of each of these layers. The antioxidant activity of the individual layers was in the order EtOAc layer > n-BuOH layer > water layer. Only the n-BuOH, EtOAc, and n-hexane layers showed antifungal activity. Additionally, all the layers possessed tyrosinase inhibition activity similar to that of ascorbic acid, which is used as a commercial control. The EtOAc layer was not cytotoxic toward the RAW 264.7 cell line. Interleukin 1 beta and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α expression levels in M. furfur-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells treated with the EtOAc layer were decreased markedly compared to those in cells treated with the other layers. Taken together, we believe that the needle extracts of P. densiflora have potential application as alternative anti-inflammatory agents or cosmetic material for skin health improvement.

Study on Antioxidant Potency of Green Tea by DPPH Method (DPPH 방법을 통한 녹차의 항산화 활성에 대한 연구)

  • 오중학;김은희;김정례;문영인;강영희;강정숙
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.33 no.7
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    • pp.1079-1084
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    • 2004
  • The present study was conducted to compare antioxidant activity of green teas, fermented teas and other related common teas by examining radical scavenging activity using DPPH (2,2 diphenyl l-picryl hydrazyl). Scavenging activity ($SC_{50}$/) of epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) for 0.1 mM DPPH radical was 5.5 $\mu$M or 4.2 mg/L by weight, then catechin, 14 $\mu$M or 2.5 mg/L and vitamin C, 22 $\mu$M or 3.9 mg/L, respectively. Kyokuro tea (okro) powder of 24.2 mg/L or green tea powder of 25.2 mg/L was used to reach $SC_{50}$/ for 0.1 mM DPPH. One serving of 2 g green tea provides antioxidant activity equivalent to 109∼147 mg EGCG, 145∼185 mg catechin or 131∼168 mg vitamin C. Teas from the first harvest had the highest radical scavenging activity when compared with later harvest green teas grown in the same region, but there is virtually no difference by the harvest time. A Chinese green tea, Dragon well had the highest antioxidant activity among other green teas tested providing antioxidant capacity equivalent to 168 mg EGCG or 188 mg vitamin C per 2 g serving, but partially fermented Chinese teas had much lower antioxidant activity than any green tea tested. Black tea which is fully fermented showed as strong antioxidant activity as green teas (76.3 mg vs 86.7∼67.6 mg per tea bag). One tea bag of green teas from market provided antioxidant capacity equivalent to 52∼86 mg EGCG, 70∼105 mg catechin or 63-96 mg vitamin C. Teas made of persimmon leaf, pine needle, mulberry leaf had comparatively low anti-oxidant activity equivalent to 2.5∼4.8 mg EGCG or 15∼21 mg vitamin C per teabag. The third brewed green tea still had enough antioxidant activity, while tea from tea bag brewed for 3 min or 5 min did not have any difference in their antioxidant activity. More systemic studies are needed to clarify the relationship between tea catechins and antioxidant capacity focusing on how growing, harvest time, fermentation and other processes can influence on this.

The Variation of Natural Population of Pinus densiflora S. et Z. in Korea (III) -Genetic Variation of the Progeny Originated from Mt. Chu-wang, An-Myon Island and Mt. O-Dae Populations- (소나무 천연집단(天然集團)의 변이(變異)에 관(關)한 연구(硏究)(III) -주왕산(周王山), 안면도(安眠島), 오대산(五臺山) 소나무집단(集團)의 차대(次代)의 유전변이(遺傳變異)-)

  • Yim, Kyong Bin;Kwon, Ki Won
    • Journal of Korean Society of Forest Science
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    • v.32 no.1
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    • pp.36-63
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    • 1976
  • The purpose of this study is to elucidate the genetic variation of the natural forest of Pinus densiflora. Three natural populations of the species, which are considered to be superior quality phenotypically, were selected. The locations and conditions of the populations are shown in table 1 and 2. The morphological traits of tree and needle and some other characteristics were presented already in our first report of this series in which population and family differences according to observed characteristics were statistically analyzed. Twenty trees were sampled from each populations, i.e., 60 trees in total. During the autumn of 1974, matured cones were collected from each tree and open-pollinated seeds were extracted in laboratory. Immediately after cone collection, in closed condition, the morphological characteristics were measured. Seed and seed-wing dimensions were also studied. In the spring of 1975, the seeds were sown in the experimental tree nursery located in Suweon. And in the April of 1976, the 1-0 seedlings were transplanted according to the predetermined experimental design, randomized block design with three replications. Because of cone setting condition. the number of family from which progenies were raised by populations were not equal. The numbers of family were 20 in population 1. 18 in population 2 and 15 in population 3. Then, each randomized block contained seedlings of 53 families from 3 populations. The present paper is mainly concerned with the variation of some characteristics of cone, seed, needle, growth performance of seedlings, and chlorophyll and monoterpene compositions of needles. The results obtained are summerized as follows. 1. The meteorological data obtained by averaging the records of 30 year period, observed from the nearest station to each location of populations, are shown in Fig. 3, 4, and 5. The distributional pattern of monthly precipitation are quite similar among locations. However, the precipitation density on population 2, Seosan area, during growing season is lower as compared to the other two populations. Population 1. Cheong-song area, and population 3, Pyong-chang area, are located in inland, but population 2 in the western seacoast. The differences on the average monthly air temperatures and the average monthly lowest temperatures among populations can hardly be found. 2. Available information on the each mother trees (families) studied, such as age, stem height, diameter at breast height, clear-bole-length, crown conditions and others are shown in table 6,7, and 8. 3. The measurements of fresh cone weight, length and the widest diameter of cone are given in Tab]e 9. All these traits arc concerned with the highly significant population differences and family differences within population. And the population difference was also found in the cone-index, that is, length-diameter ratio. 4. Seed-wing length and seed-wing width showed the population differences, and the family differences were also found in both characteristics. Not discussed in this paper, however, seed-wing colours and their shapes indicate the specificity which is inherent to individual trees as shown in photo 3 on page 50. The colour and shape are fully the expression of genetic make up of mother tree. The little variations on these traits are resulted from this reason. The significant differences among populations and among families were found in those characteristics, such as 1000-seed weight, seed length, seed width, and seed thickness as shown in table 11. As to all these dimensions, the values arc always larger in population 1 which is younger in age than that of the other two. The population differences evaluated by cone, seed and seed-wing sizes could partly be attributed to the growth vigorousity. 5. The values of correlation between the characteristics of cone and seed are presented in table 12. As shown, the positive correlations between cone diameter and seed-wing width were calculated in all populations studied. The correlation between seed-wing length and seed length was significantly positive in population 1 and 3 but not in population 2, that is, the r-value is so small as 0.002. in the latter. The correlation between cone length and seed-wing length was highly significant in population 1, but not in population 2. 6. Differences among progenies in growth performances, such as 1-0 and 1-1 seedling height and root collar diameter were highly singificant among populations as well as families within population(Table 13.) 7. The heritability values in narrow sense of population characteristics were estimated on the basis of variance components. The values based on seedling height at each age stage of 1-1 and 1-0 ranged from 0.146 to 0.288 and the values of root collar diameter from 0.060 to 0.130. (Table 14). These heritability values varied according to characteristics and seedling ages. Here what must be stated is that, for calculation of heritability values, the variance values of population was divided by the variance value of environment (error) and family and population. The present authors want to add the heritability values based on family level in the coming report. It might be considered that if the tree age is increased in furture, the heritability value is supposed to be altered or lowered. Examining the heritability values studied previously by many authors, in pine group at age of 7 to 15, the values of height growth ranged from 0.2 to 0.4 in general. The values we obtained are further below than these. 8. The correlation between seedling growth and seed characteristics were examined and the values resulted are shown in table 16. Contrary to our hypothetical premise of positive correlation between 1-0 seedling height and seed weight, non-significance on it was found. However, 1-0 seedling height correlated positively with seed length. And significant correlations between 1-0 and 1-1 seedling height are calculated. 9. The numbers of stomata row calculated separately by abaxial and adaxial side showed highly significant differences among populations, but not in serration density. On serration density, the differences among families within population were highly significant. (Table 17) A fact must be noted is that the correlation between stomata row on abaxial side and adaxial side was highly significant in all populations. Non-significances of correlation coefficient between progenies and parents regarding to stomata row on abaxial side were shown in all populations studied.(Table 18). 10. The contents of chhlorophyll b of the needle were a little more than that of chlorophyll a irrespective of the populations examined. The differences of chlorophyll a, b and a plus b contents were highly significant but not among families within populations as shown in table 20. The contents of chlorophyll a and b are presented by individual trees of each populations in table 21. 11. The occurrence of monoterpene components was examined by gas liquid chromatography (Shimazu, GC-1C type) to evaluate the population difference. There are some papers reporting the chemical geography of pines basing upon monoterpene composition. The number of populations studied here is not enough to state this problem. The kinds of monoterpene observed in needle were ${\alpha}$-pinene, camphene, ${\beta}$-pinene, myrcene, limonene, ${\beta}$-phellandrene and terpinolene plus two unknowns. In analysis of monoterpene composition, the number of sample trees varied with population, I.e., 18 families for population 1, 15 for population 2 and 11 for population3. (Table 22, 23 and 24). The histograms(Fig. 6) of 7 components of monoterpene by population show noticeably higher percentages of ${\alpha}$-pinene irrespective of population and ${\beta}$-phellandrene in the next order. The minor Pinus densiflora monoterpene composition of camphene, myrcene, limonene and terpinolene made up less than 10 percent of the portion in general. The average coefficients of variation of ${\alpha}$-pinene and ${\beta}$-phellandrene were 11 percent. On the contrary to this, the average coefficients of variation of camphene, limonene and terpinolene varied from 20 to 30 percent. And the significant differences between populaiton were observed only in myrcene and ${\beta}$-phellandrene. (Table 25).

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Study on Fabric and Embroidery of Possessed by Dong-A University Museum (동아대학교박물관 소장 <초충도수병>의 직물과 자수 연구)

  • Sim, Yeon-ok
    • MUNHWAJAE Korean Journal of Cultural Heritage Studies
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    • v.46 no.3
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    • pp.230-250
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    • 2013
  • possessed by Dong-A University Museum is designated as Treasure No. 595, and has been known for a more exquisite, delicate and realistic expression and a colorful three-dimensional structure compared to the 'grass and insect painting' work and its value in art history. However, it has not been analyzed and studied in fabric craft despite it being an embroidered work. This study used scientific devices to examine and analyze the Screen's fabric, thread colors, and embroidery techniques to clarify its patterns and fabric craft characteristics for its value in the history of fabric craft. As a result, consists of eight sides and its subject matters and composition are similar to those of the general paintings of grass and insects. The patterns on each side of the 'grass and insect painting' include cucumber, cockscomb, day lily, balsam pear, gillyflower, watermelon, eggplant, and chrysanthemums from the first side. Among these flowers, the balsam pear is a special material not found in the existing paintings of grass and insect. The eighth side only has the chrysanthemums with no insects and reptiles, making it different from the typical forms of the paintings of grass and insect. The fabric of the Screen uses black that is not seen in other decorative embroideries to emphasize and maximize various colors of threads. The fabric used the weave structure of 5-end satin called Gong Dan [non-patterned satin]. The threads used extremely slightly twisted threads that are incidentally twisted. Some threads use one color, while other threads use two or mixed colors in combination for three-dimensional expressions. Because the threads are severely deterioration and faded, it is impossible to know the original colors, but the most frequently used colors are yellow to green and other colors remaining relatively prominently are blue, grown, and violet. The colors of day lily, gillyflower, and strawberries are currently remaining as reddish yellow, but it is anticipated that they were originally orange and red considering the existing paintings of grass and insects. The embroidery technique was mostly surface satin stitch to fill the surfaces. This shows the traditional women's wisdom to reduce the waste of color threads. Satin stitch is a relatively simple embroidery technique for decorating a surface, but it uses various color threads and divides the surfaces for combined vertical, horizontal, and diagonal stitches or for the combination of long and short stitches for various textures and the sense of volume. The bodies of insects use the combination of buttonhole stitch, outline stitch, and satin stitch for three-dimensional expressions, but the use of buttonhole stitch is particularly noticeable. In addition to that, decorative stitches were used to give volume to the leaves and surface pine needle stitches were done on the scouring rush to add more realistic texture. Decorative stitches were added on top of gillyflower, strawberries, and cucumbers for a more delicate touch. is valuable in the history of paintings and art and bears great importance in the history of Korean embroidery as it uses outstanding technique and colors of Korea to express the Shin Sa-im-dang's 'Grass and Insect Painting'.