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Optimization of Mixing Ratio to Improve Antioxidant Activity of Aged Garlic with Pine Needle Using Response Surface Methodology

  • Park, Jae-Hee;Shin, Eunji;Park, Eunju
    • Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
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    • v.22 no.3
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    • pp.241-245
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    • 2017
  • Aged garlic has been reported to possess beneficial pharmacological activities, including anti-stress and anti-fatigue properties, and to exert protective effects on the cardiovascular system and liver. Pine needles are widely used in folk medicine and as food additives owing to their pharmacological properties such as anti-aging and anti-inflammatory effects. It has long been known that combining certain phytochemicals with other phenols or organic acids can produce synergistic effects. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to develop an optimal formula of aged garlic with added pine needle powder for improved antioxidant activity using the statistical technique of response surface methodology. The antioxidant activities of aged garlic mixed with pine needle powder were confirmed by measuring oxygen radical absorbance capacity and total polyphenol content. An optimized antioxidant formula was identified that contained 5.08 g aged garlic and 1.97 g pine needle powder. The antioxidant activities of the mixture prepared using this optimal formula were significantly higher than the predicted values according to an additive model. Hence, this study confirms that the addition of pine needle powder to aged garlic can improve its antioxidant activity. This study demonstrated an optimal mixing ratio to produce an aged garlic product with improved functionality through the addition of pine needle powder that could be successfully employed by the food industry to prepare functional foods.

Litterfall and Nutrient Dynamics in Pine (Pinus rigida) and Larch (Larix leptolepis) Plantations

  • Kim, Choonsig;Koo, Kyo-Sang;Byun, Jae-Kyung
    • Journal of Korean Society of Forest Science
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    • v.94 no.5
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    • pp.302-306
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    • 2005
  • Litterfall and nutrient inputs were measured in even-aged coniferous plantations (a 31-year-old Pinus rigida and a 31-year-old Larix leptolepis) on a similar site condition in the Forest Practice Research Center, Gyeonggi Province. Litterfall was collected monthly from circular littertraps (collecting area: $0.50m^2$) for three years between April 1997 and February 2000. Average total annual litterfall was significantly higher for pine (5,802 kg/ha/yr) than for larch (4,562 kg/ha/yr) plantations. Needle litter in both plantations accounted for about 63% of total litterfall. Litterfall in the larch was distributed as follows: needle > other leaf > branch > miscellaneous > bark, while it was needle > miscellaneous > other leaf > branch > bark in the pine plantation. There was no temporal variation in needle litter, other leaf and bark during the 3 year study period. The concentrations of all nutrients (N, P, K, Ca, Mg) in needle litter were significantly higher in the larch than in the pine plantations. The annual nutrient concentration of needle litter in the larch varied among the years, whereas no year variation of needle litter was in the pine except for phosphorus (P). Nitrogen (N) and P inputs by needle litter were significantly higher for larch than for pine plantations established on a similar soil. The differences in N and P inputs were attributed to lower nutrient concentration in pine needle litter compared with larch needle litter, not to total needle litter mass. Annual inputs of nutrient in both plantations were not significantly different among years except for K of the larch although there was yearly different in needlefall mass and nutrient concentration during the 3-year observed period. The results indicate that the mechanisms of litterfall and nutrient inputs vary considerably between pine and larch plantations established on a similar site condition.

The Effect of Pine Needle Powder on AOM-induced Colon Aberrant Crypt Formation and Antioxidant System in Fisher 344 Male Rats

  • Park, Eunju;Bae, Young-Min;Lee, Kyung-Hea
    • Nutritional Sciences
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    • v.7 no.2
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    • pp.76-82
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    • 2004
  • Pine needles are known as a traditional medicine and their ingestion has been shown to be beneficial to human beings. Following induction of the neoplastic process in rats by azoxymethane (AOM), we determined the effects of pine needle supplementation on colon carcinogenesis and on antioxidant systems in the blood and liver. Five week old male Fisher 344 rats were injected with AOM (15 mg/kg) once a week for two weeks. After the second injection, 18 rats were randomly assigned into two groups and were fed a casein-based high-fat diet (120 g fat and 1 g cholesterol/kg diet) with or without pine needle powder (10%w/w). After 6 weeks, rats receiving pine needle powder showed a 40% lower incidence of the number of colonic preneoplastic lesions (aberrant crypts) and a 52% lower incidence of aberrant crypt foci (p<0.01). A significantly elevated level of erythrocyte catalase activity was observed in the pine needle supplemented group (17.4$\pm$1.1 vs. 24.5$\pm$1.5, p<0.01). Pine needle supplementation also increased liver glutathione peroxidase activity (7.5$\pm$0.6 vs. 14.6$\pm$0.6, p<0.01). Other antioxidant parameters such as erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase, liver catalase activity, and plasma total antioxidant potential (TRAP), showed no statistical differences between the two groups. Our data demonstrate that pine needle supplementation improves the antioxidant system and suppresses the formation of colonic preneoplastic lesions in AOM-treated rats. This result provides additional insights into the chemo-preventative properties of pine needles.

Antioxidant activity and analysis of proantbocyanidins from pine (Pinus densiflora)needles

  • Park, Yong-Soo;Jeon, Min-Hee;Hwang, Hyun-Jung;Park, Mi-Ra;Lee, Sang-Hyeon;Kim, Sung-Gu;Kim, Mi-Hyang
    • Nutrition Research and Practice
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    • v.5 no.4
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    • pp.281-287
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    • 2011
  • In this study, we evaluated the antioxidant activity of pine needle extracts prepared with hot water, ethanol, hexane, hot water-hexane (HWH), and hot water-ethanol (HWE), using the DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) radical method. The hot water extract possessed superior antioxidant activity than the other extracts. We also compared the antioxidant activity of pine needle extracts through ROS inhibition activity in a cellular system using MC3T3 E-1 cells. The hot water extract exhibited the lowest ROS production. The pattern of HPLC analysis of each extract indicated that the hot water extract contained the highest proanthocyanidin level. The pine needle hot-water extract was then isolated and fractionated with Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography to determine the major contributor to its antioxidant activity. The No.7 and 12 fractions had high antioxidant activities, that is, the highest contents of proanthocyanidins and catechins, respectively. These results indicate that the antioxidant activity of procyanidins from the hot water extract of pine needles is positively related to not only polymeric proanthocyanidins but also to monomeric catechins. Moreover, the antioxidant activity of the pine needle hot water extract was similar to well-known antioxidants, such as vitamin C. This suggests that pine needle proanthocyanidins and catechins might be of interest for use as alternative antioxidants.

Levels of Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-dioxins and Dibenzofurans in Soil and Pine needle near Industry Complex in Changwon City

  • Kim Sang-Jo;Kim Sung-Yong;Ok Gon
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.14 no.7
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    • pp.629-637
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    • 2005
  • Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) were investigated in soil and pine needle samples taken from 16 sites of industrial and residential areas in Changwon, Korea to assess their distribution levels and to suggest the influence of industrial activities, PCDDs/DFs levels in the soil samples ranged from 0.57 to 20.79 pg I-TEQ/g dry weight with a mean value of 4.20 pg I-TEQ/g dry weight. PCDDs/DFs levels in the pine needle samples ranged from 0.39 to 8.75 pg I-TEQ/g dry weight with a mean value of 4.09 pg I-TEQ/g dry weight. In both soil and pine needle samples, the PCDDs/DFs concentrations in the industrial area sites were higher than those in the residential area sites. Homologue profiles in pine needle samples showed different patterns compared with soil samples. Based on the results of principal component analysis (PCA), it was confirmed that pine needles reflected a direct influence from local potential sources of PCDDs/DFs, showing a much higher degree of reflection than in soils. Pine needles are very useful as an indicator for monitoring or estimating the contamination of PCDDs/DFs in other areas which have been impacted by point pollution sources.

Effect of Dried Leaf Powders and Ethanol Extracts of Persimmon, Green Tea and Pine Needle on Lipid Metabolism and Antioxidative Capacity in Rats (감잎, 녹차, 솔잎의 건분 및 에탄올추출물이 흰쥐의 지방대사와 항산화능에 미치는 영향)

  • 김은성
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.32 no.4
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    • pp.337-352
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    • 1999
  • The effects of dried leaf powders and ethanol extract of persimmon, green tea and pine needle on lipid metabolism, lipid peroxidation and antioxidative activity were investigated in rats. Forty-nine male Spargue-Dawley rats weighing 107.8$\pm$1.8g were blocked into seven groups according to body weight. Rats were raised for four weeks with diets containing either 5%(w/w) dried leaf powders of one of three different Korea traditional teas, persimmon(Diospyros kaki Thunb), green tea(Camellia Sinensis O.Ktzc)or pine needle(pinus Koreansis Sieb. Et Zucc), or ethanol from equal amounts of each dried tea powder. Food intake, weight gain, food efficiency ratio, and weights of liver, kidney and epididymal fat were significantly higher in the green-tea-powder group, and significantly lower in the pine-needle-powder and pine-needle-extract groups. Persimmon-leaf powder was found to decrease plasma total lipid, triglyceride and cholesterol concentration by increasing fecal total lipid triglyceride and cholesterol excretions. Liver cholesterol concentration was significantly lower in the green-tea and pine-needle-extract groups. Red-blood-cell superoxide dismutase(SOD) and glutathione peroxidase(GSH-px) activities were significantly increased in rats fed green-tea extract. Liver SOD activity was increased in rats fed pine-needle powder or extract, and liver GSH-px activity was increased in rats fed greentea powder. Plasma and liver thiobarbituric acid reactive substance(TBARS) concentration were both decreased in rats fed dried leaf posers or extracts of persimmon or green tea. It is believed that high vitamin E levels in persimmon leaf, and high flavonoid, beta-carotene and vitamin C levels in green tea effectively inhibited lipid peroxidation. In conclusion, persimmon and green tea leaves were effective in lowering lipid levels and inhibiting lipid peroxidation in animal tissue, while pine needles were effective and lowering body weight gain. From these results, persimmon and green tea leaves can be recommended in the treatment and prevention of chronic discorders such as cardiovascular disease, cancer and aging. As ethanol extracts from these teas were also effecitive in lowering tissue lipid levels and inhibiting lipid peroxidation, we recommend the use of discarded tea grounds for this.

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An Experimental Study on the Strength Characteristics of Pine Needle Ash Concrete (솔잎재 콘크리트의 강도 특성에 관한 실험적 연구)

  • 남기성;성찬용;김경태;김영익;서대석
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Agricultural Engineers Conference
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    • pp.171-175
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    • 1998
  • This study was to estimate the strength of pine needle ash concrete using cement, natural aggregates and pine needle ash(PNA). The highest strength was achieved by 5% pine needle ash filled PNA concrete respectively. It was increased 6% by compressive strength, 15% by tensile strength and 13% by bending strength than that of the normal cement concrete, respectively.

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The Changes of Peroxidase Activity and Isoperoxidase Patterns from Pine Needles under the Salinary Stress (염분스트레스에 의한 소나무잎 Peroxidase의 활성 및 Isozyme Pattern의 변화)

  • 이미영
    • The Korean Journal of Ecology
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    • v.20 no.5
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    • pp.315-321
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    • 1997
  • Peroxidase activities and isozyme patte군 of the pine needles (Pinus densiflora) were examined and compared in the coastal regions of Anmyum-Do(Choongnam, Taean-Gun) and inland regions of Shinchang-Myun(Choongnam, Asan-City). The pine needle peroxidase from Anmyum-Do showed approximately three times higher specfic activity than Shinchang pine needle peroxidase. The pine needle extracts of Anmyun-Do and Shinchang contained three anionic isoperoxidases, named A1, A2 and A3, when subjected to starch gel electrophoresis at pH 7.0. Cjationic isoperoxidases could not be found in both extracts., However, there existed unique isoperoxidase An only from the extracts of Anmyun-Do pine needles under the salinary environment. Moreover, the specific activities of catalase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase from Anmyun-Do, known for the inducible enzymes under the stress condition, were about 1.8 times higher than those of Shinchang pine needles. However, the specific activities of other enzymes did not show great differences between the two regions. Considering the above results of the higher specific activity of peroxidase and the unique expression of isoperoxidase An, pine needle peroxidase might involve in the defence mechanism against the salinary stress of Anmyun-Do.

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Antioxidant Activities of Extracts from Different Parts of the Pine Tree (소나무 부위별 추출물의 항산화 활성)

  • Ryu, Beom-Seok;Choi, Hee-Eun;Choi, Won-Seok;Lee, Nan-Hee;Choi, Ung-Kyu
    • The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition
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    • v.30 no.6
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    • pp.1133-1139
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    • 2017
  • This study was conducted to investigate the antioxidant activities of extracts from various parts of the pine tree, which is known as a good source of functional food material. While ethanol extraction yields of pine bud and cone were higher than water extraction yields of pine bud and cone, water extraction yield of pine needle was higher than ethanol extraction yield of the pine needle. The content of polyphenols in the pine cone ethanol extract was 5 times higher than that in the pine bud and needle. Further, the content of flavonoids in the pine cone ethanol extract was 8 times higher than that in the pine bud and needle. DPPH radical scavenging effect of the pine cone ethanol extract was 3~5 times higher that of the pine bud and needle extract. Regardless of the extraction solvents, trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) of the pine cone were stronger than those of the other parts of the pine tree. Taken together, it can be expected that the pine cone can be practically used as an antioxidant substance in food and beauty industries.

Effect of Dried Powders of Pine Needle, Pine Pollen, Green Tea and Horseradish on Preservation of Kimchi-yangnyum (솔잎, 송화, 녹차 및 고추냉이 분말이 김치양념물 저장성에 미치는 영향)

  • 나영아;박정난
    • Culinary science and hospitality research
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    • v.9 no.4
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    • pp.179-190
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    • 2003
  • This study was performed to investigate the effects of dried powders of pine needle, pine pollen, green tea and horseradish on preservation of Kimchi-yangnyum. The physicochemical and microbial changes of Kimchi-yangnyum were investigated during 30-days preservation. The changes of pH, total acid, and number of total viable cell, lactic acid bacteria, E. coli of the Kimchi-yangnyum were insignificant. And the addition of pine needle powder were more effective to suppress fermentation than that of pine pollen or green tea or horseradish.

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