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Quality Characteristics of Seasoned Sauce and Seasoned Pork Rib with added Pine Needle Powder during Storage (솔잎분말 첨가 양념 및 양념 돼지갈비의 저장중 품질특성 변화)

  • Lee, Ji-Eun;Oh, Myung-Suk
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Culture
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    • v.23 no.5
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    • pp.629-638
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    • 2008
  • The principal objective of this study was to determine the quality characteristics of seasoned sauce and seasoned pork rib to which pine needle powder was added during storage. The pH value, color value, active bacterial cell count, lipid oxidation, shear force, and sensory evaluation of seasoned sauce and seasoned pork rib to which 0, 1, 2, 3 and 4% pine needle powder was added were measured during storage at $5^{\circ}C$. The storage periods for the seasoned sauce were 0, 1, 3, 5, 7, 14, 21 and 30 days, and the storage periods for the seasoned pork ribs were 0, 1, 3, 5, 7 days. We determined that the pH values of both seasoned sauce and seasoned pork rib decreased with increasing quantities of pine needle powder and longer storage periods. The lightness (L) and yellowness (b) of the seasoned sauce were increased and the redness (a) of that decreased with increasing pine needle powder contents and longer storage periods. The L, a, and b values of the seasoned pork rib decreased with increasing pine needle powder contents, whereas the L and b values of that were decreased and the a value increased with longer storage periods. The active bacterial cell count of the seasoned sauce was detected at between $10^2$ to $10^4$ CFU/mL over a storage period of 30 days, regardless of the addition of pine needle powder; additionally, the addition of 4% pine needle powder resulted in the lowest active bacterial cell count among the samples. The active bacterial cell count in the seasoned pork rib decreased with increasing additions of pine needle powder, and was increased during storage. The influence of pine needle powder contents on the active bacterial cell count of seasoned pork rib were minimal, and the active bacterial cell count of that was suppressed by the addition of only 1% pine needle powder. Lipid oxidation in the seasoned pork rib was suppressed by the addition of more than 2% pine needle powder. We noted no difference in the shear force of the seasoned pork rib to which pine needle powder was added. In our sensory evaluation, the intensity of color (greenish brown), flavor (herbal flavor) and taste (bitter & herbal taste) of the seasoned pork rib increased with increasing pine needle powder contents, whereas the texture of the seasoned pork rib evidenced no differences. The overall acceptability of the seasoned pork rib with 0, 1 and 2% added pine needle powder was higher than that of the seasoned pork rib with 3 and 4% added pine needle powder. Thus, the addition of 2% pine needle powder to seasoned pork rib sauce yielded appropriate results with regard to antibacterial, antioxidative, and sensory properties.

Effects of the pine needle sap administration on serum lipid composition and liver antioxidant defense system in rats fed high fat diet (솔잎즙의 투여가 고지방식이를 급여한 흰쥐의 혈청 지질성분과 간의 항산화계에 미치는 영향)

  • 원향례
    • Korean Journal of Rural Living Science
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    • v.10 no.2
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    • pp.71-77
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    • 1999
  • This study examined the effect of the pine needle sap administration on serum lipid composition and liver antioxidant defense system in rats fed with high fat diet. Forty eight male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into six groups. three control groups were fed with 5% lipid diet and three high fat groups were fed with 30% lipid diet. Each group was administered with the following pine needle sap respectively : C-0.0, 1.ml water, C-0.5, 0.ml pine needle sap and 0.ml water C-1.0, 1.ml pine needle sap : H-0.0, 1.ml water, H-0.5, 0.ml pine needle sap and 0.ml water H-1.0, 1.0ml pinus needle sap. After 4 weeks of experimental periods the level of serum obtained and serum lipid was measured respectively. The results were as follows 1. Significant low level was observed for food intake, weight gain, FER in the experimental group administered with the pine needle sap. 2. No difference of the concentration of serum triglyceride was observed out the experimental group with 5% fat diet, however out of the experimental group with 30% fat diet it was low in (H-1.0) group where 1.0ml of the pine needle sap was administrated. 3. In the experimental group with 5% fat diet the concentration of serum total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol was low, especially the hypocholesteromic effect in serum administered by the pine needle sap was significantly high in group C-1.0 where 1.0ml of pine needle sap was administered. In the high fat group provided with 30% fat when the pine needle sap was administered there was a tendency that concentration of total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol decreased however there was no difference significantly. 4. Serum GOT activity was relatively high in high fat diet group. However, when 1$m\ell$ of pine needle sap was administered the activity was lower than that of the control group in H-1.0 group and the activity level was similar with that of the high fat diet group in c-1.0 group. There was no difference of serum GPT activitives followed by the administered of pine needle sap among the experimental group. 5. Liver TBARS levels were high in general in high fat diet group, however it showed no difference when the pine needle sap with different concentration level was administered. The results of this study indicate that the pine needle sap administration was effective in decreasing the food intake and weight gain of the experimental animals in the high fat diet and also effective in decreasing the levels of serum triglyceride, total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol and GOT activities. However it was not effective to change the level of TBARS and GSH -Px activities of liver. Thus, it was found that the pine needle sap administration was effective for the improvement of serum lipid composition condition of the experimental animals in the high fat diet group but it was not effective in the antioxidant defense system of liver.

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Concentration Characteristics of PCBs in Pine Needle and Soil at Rural Area (교외지역에서 소나무 잎과 토양 중 PCBs의 농도 특성)

  • Shin Eun-Sang;Yeo Hyun-Gu
    • Journal of environmental and Sanitary engineering
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    • v.21 no.1
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    • pp.1-11
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    • 2006
  • This study was to investigate concentration characteristics of atmospheric PCBs in soil sample and pine needle at rural area. Profiles of PCB congener detected in pine needle and soil sample have a difference that low molecular PCBs mainly existed in pine needle, whereas high molecular PCBs were mainly existed in soil sample because of their different vapor pressure and octanol-air partitioning coefficient($K_{OA}$) of each congeners. Correlation coefficients(r) of PCB congeners simultaneously detected in soil and pine needle were significant (r>0.71, p<0.01), which showed that PCB congeners patterns of atmosphere could be estimated in using pine needle and soil sample indirectly. The contributions(%) of higher molecular PCBs(>penta-CB) to total PCBs in soil sample were higher than those of pine needle and the contribution of lower molecular PCBs(

Quality Characteristics of Sausage with Added Pine Needle Powder (솔잎분말을 첨가한 소시지의 품질특성)

  • Kwon, Soon-Yong;Shin, Myung-Eun;Lee, Kyung-Hee
    • Journal of the East Asian Society of Dietary Life
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    • v.22 no.3
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    • pp.357-364
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    • 2012
  • Quality characteristics of sausage with added pine needle powder (0%, 0.5%, 1.0%, 1.5%, 2.0%, and 2.5%) as an ingredient. The basic ingredients of sausage consisted of pork meat 60%, olive oil 20%, and ice water 20%. Sensory properties of sausage were analyzed by a sensory test, and the texture and color characteristics were measured using a texturometer and color meter, respectively. In the results of the sensory test, taste, texture, and overall preference were highest in the sample with added 1.5% pine needle powder. The sausage with added 1.5% pine needle powder was moderate in color intensity, pine needle flavor, and astringent taste. Hardness and gumminess of sausage were higher in 1.0% and 1.5% pine needle powder. However, springness and chewiness of sausage showed no significant differences. In terms of color intensity of sausage, L-value and a-value were lower and b-value was higher, depending on the pine needle powder amount. Development of off-flavor of sausage during storage was greater in 0% and 1.5% added sausages than in 2.0% sausage with increasing storage time. As a conclusion, sausages with added 1.5% and 2.0% pine needle powder were the most suitable for making functional sausage with added pine needle powder.

Quality Characteristic and Antioxidant Activities of Majakgwa added Pine Needle Powder (솔잎 분말을 첨가한 매작과의 품질특성 및 항산화 활성)

  • Jin, So-Yeon
    • The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition
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    • v.26 no.4
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    • pp.646-654
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    • 2013
  • This study was conducted to investigate the effect of pine needle powder on antioxidant activity and the quality characteristics of Majakgwa (Korean traditional cookie). Majakgwa was prepared with different amounts of pine needle powder (in ratios of 0, 3, 6, 9 and 12% to the flour quantity). The antioxidant activity was estimated by DPPH free radical scavenging activity and by the total phenol content in pine needle powder and Majakgwa. For analyzing the quality characteristics, bulk density and pH of the dough, moisture content, volume, color, texture profile analysis and sensory evaluations were measured. The bulk density, volume, total phenol contents and DPPH free radical scavenging activity of Majakgwa significantly increased with increasing pine needle powder (p<0.001), whereas the pH of the dough, L values and b values of the Majakgwa significantly decreased with increasing pine needle powder content (p<0.001). The consumer acceptability score for the 6% pine needle Majakgwa ranked significantly higher (p<0.001) than those of the other groups in overall preference, flavor, taste, crispiness and color. Acid value and peroxide value was lower in Majakgwa with pine needle powder than control. From these results;we suggest that pine needle powder is a good ingredient for increasing consumer acceptability and functionality of Majakgwa.

Effect of Pine Needle Extract on Fe ion and Active Oxygen Related Lipid Oxidation in Oil Emulsion (Fe ion과 활성산소 관련 지방산화반응에 미치는 솔잎 추출물의 영향)

  • 김수민;조영석
    • Korean Journal of Food Preservation
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    • v.6 no.1
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    • pp.115-120
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    • 1999
  • This study was carried out to investigate the effect of Pine needle extract on lipid oxidation and free radical reaction in iron sources reacted with active oxygen species. The results were summarized as follow; The pine needle extracts didn`t show a distinct effect on reduction of lipid oxidation if the iron ion didn`t exist in oil emulsion. The pine needle extracts played role as a strong chelating agents to bind iron ion if Ferrous iron(Fe\ulcorner) exist in oil emulsion. Ferric iron(Fe) was lower effect than Ferrous iron(Fe) on free radical reaction in oil emulsion. And also, the Fe\ulcorner reacted with pine needle extract did not show distinct effect on free radical reaction, compared to Fe\ulcorner reacted with pine needle extract. And also, Pine needle extracts reacted with H\ulcornerO\ulcorner were tended to show a low oxygen scavenging ability in case of H\ulcornerO\ulcorner only was existed, compared to those of H\ulcornerO\ulcorner + Fe\ulcorner complex. Pine needle extracts were the most powerful Fe\ulcorner binding agents, compared to other strong synthetic antioxidants such as EDTA and DTPA.

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Pine Needle Oil and Korean Medicinal Herb Complex Protect Hyperlipidemia and Liver Cell Damage Induced by Alcohol

  • Park, Kap-Joo;Kim, Kang-Sung;Ahn, Ki-Heung;Rhee, Joon-Shick
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Biology
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    • v.21 no.4
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    • pp.410-414
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    • 2003
  • The effect of treatment with pine needle oil complex (complex of pine needle oil and Korean medicinal herbs) upon rat hepatocytes exposed to alcohol was investigated. We compared body weight gain and ratios of liver and kidney to body weight and the serum biochemistry of rats administered both alcohol and Pine needle oil complex to control rats treated with alcohol alone. Pine needle oil complex treatment resulted in a significant reduction in the levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and triglycerides (TG) compared to the control rats. These data suggest that Pine needle oil complex represents an excellent candidate for protection of rat hepatocytes from alcohol-mediated damage.

Study on the Subacute Toxicity of Complex of Pine Needle Oil and Korean Medicinal Herbs against Rats

  • Park, Kap Joo;Ahn, Ki Heung;Lee, Hyung Hoan
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Biology
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    • v.22 no.4
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    • pp.513-518
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    • 2004
  • Pine needle oil and Korean medicinal herbs (KMH) are known as effective therapeutic agents on various blood vessel disease. We have already reported the ameliorative effect of complex of pine needle oil and Korean medicinal herbs against hyperlipidemia. But safety and non - toxicity of pine needle oil and Korean medicinal herbs to normal animal cells have not been studied clearly. In this study, we investigated whether pine needle oil and Korean medicinal herbs show side effects on rat or not. These materials were administered to rats, and subacute toxicity was examined by measuring the hematological values, CBC differentiation, biochemical levels of blood (TP, total protein; albumin; ALP, alkaline phosphotase; AST, aspatate aminotrans- ferase; ALT, alanine aminotransferase; T-Chol., total cholesterol; T-Bil., total bilirubin) and urine analysis, suggesting that the sample have no side effects and cytotoxicity. These results indicate that the complex of pine needle oil and Korean medicinal herbs may effective non- toxic, safety therapeutic agents on hepatocytes and hyperlipidemia.

Immunosuppressive Effect of the Intraperitonially Injected Pine Needle Distillate in Mice

  • Chung, Young-Jin;Bae, Myung-Won;Chung, Kyeong-Soo
    • Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
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    • v.8 no.1
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    • pp.7-12
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    • 2003
  • This study examined the effect of pine needle distillate (Pinus densiflora Sieb. et Zucc) on the immune system and hematological parameters. C57BL/6 male mice weighing 20 ~21 g were divided into 3 groups and intraperitonially injected with either 200 $\mu$L of saline (control), 50% diluted (P50) or 100% pine needle distillate (P100) once a day for 24 days. At the end of the experiment, the mice were anesthetized by ether and peripheral blood was collected from the femoral artery and the spleen was excised. Spleen weight decreased significantly (p<0.001) in the pine needle groups compared to the control group. The blood was used for a complete blood count and flow cytometrical analysis after immunofluorescence staining. The pine needle distillate dose-dependently decreased the CD4$^{+}$/CD8 sup +/ ratio (p <0.05), and showed a tendency to increase the mean FSC (forward scatter) values of the CD8$^{+}$T cells, while decrease the values of the CD4$^{+}$T cells. There were no significant differences in WBC, RBC and platelet counts among the three groups, but hemoglobin and hemoglobin-related parameters and platelet volume increased and red blood cell volumes decreased with the administration of the pine needle distillate. These results suggest that the pine needle distillate may have immunosuppressive effects.

Antioixdative Activity and Quality Characteristics of Rice Cupcakes Prepared with Pine Needle Powder and Extract (솔잎분말과 추출물을 첨가한 쌀 컵케이크의 항산화성과 품질 특성)

  • Kim, Won-Ji;Kim, Ji-Myoung;Huh, Young Ran;Shin, Malshick
    • Korean journal of food and cookery science
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    • v.28 no.5
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    • pp.613-622
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    • 2012
  • To develop the tailor made rice flour products for consumers with increasing functionality of pine needles, rice cupcakes were prepared with adding different contents of pine needle powder (PP) and extract (PE, by pressing pine needle). The physicochemical, textural, sensory properties, and antioxidative activities of rice cupcakes were investigated. The antioxidative activities of rice cupcakes with PP and PE were higher than those of the control and were significantly different with adding pine needle type (PP or PE). The specific volume of rice cupcakes increased with adding PP and PE, except for 10 g PP added cupcake. Textural properties were also significantly different with pine needle types and contents. On the sensory preference test data, the scores of the teens, the twenties, and the thirties were higher in PP added rice cupcakes (3 and 5 g added), but those in the forties, the fifties, and above the sixties were higher in PE added rice cupcakes (3 g added). From these above results, the PP addition improved the processing quality of rice cupcakes (under 10 g added), but reduced unique flavor of pine needle. It was suggested that rice products added with pine needle would be developed to consider consumer's age, type of pine needle and its content.