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The Antioxidant Activities of Acetone Extracts of Chestnut Inner Shell, Pine Needle and Hop (율피, 솔잎, 호프의 아세톤 추출물의 항산화작용)

  • Oh, Seung-Hee;Kim, Yong-Wook;Kim, Myoung-Ae
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Culture
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    • v.19 no.4
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    • pp.399-406
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    • 2004
  • The extracts 70% acetone from chestnut inner shell, pine needle and hop flower were added to soybean oil, lard, soybean oil-water emulsion and lard-water emulsion in order to test the antioxidant activity compared with ${\alpha}-tocopherol$, respectively. Induction period was determined by Rancimat and the antioxidant activities were recorded in the order of pine needle>chestnut inner shell>hop>tocopherol in the soybean oil, and in the order of tocopherol>chestnut inner shell>pine needle>hop in the lard treatment. These three extracts showed similar high antioxidant activity by peroxide value test in soybean oil, soybean oil-water emulsion, lard and lard water emulsion, respectively. The chestnut inner shell extract would be the highest antioxidant agent among the extracts tested in this study. Ellagic acid of chestnut inner shell and flavanol of pine needle would increase the antioxidant activity according to analysis result of polyphenol compound, respectively.

Effect of Pine Needle(Pinus densiflora Seib. et Zucc) Sap on Kimchi Fermentation (솔잎즙의 첨가가 김치의 발효숙성에 미치는 영향)

  • Choi, Moo-Young;Choi, Eun-Jung;Lee, Eun;Cha, Bae-Cheon;Park, Hee-Juhn;Rhim, Tae-jin
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.25 no.6
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    • pp.899-906
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    • 1996
  • The physicochemical and microbiological studies were conducted to examine the effect of pineneedle(Pinu densinora Seib. et Zucc) sap on the Kimchi fermentation. Kimchi with the addition of various levels(0, 0.5, 1.0, or 1.5%) of pine needle sap was fermented either at $4^{\circ}C$ for 15 days after placing at room temperature for 24 hours(Group A) or at $15^{\circ}C$ for 15 days(Group B). pH reached the optimal value of Kimchi fermentation(pH 4.2) on day 3 and day 4~7 in 0% treatment and pine needle sap treatments, respectively, which indicated that shelf-life of Kimchi was extended by 1~4 days by the addition of pine needle sap. Total acidity was decreased by the addition of pine needle sap. More rapid decrease in pH and increase in total acidity were observed in Group B than in Group A. Reducing sugar content was reduced to approximately 80% by day 4~5 in all treatments. Total vitamin C content was reached peak on day 1 of fermentation and then decreased in all treatments. Reducing sugar and total vitamin C contents were slightly increased by the addition of pine needle sap due to the components present in pine needle sap. Total viable cell number rapidly increased to reach Peak on day 3 and then slowly decreased during the fermentation. However, total viable cell number as well as reducing sugar and total vitamin C contents did not differ between Group A and Group B. In Group A, Lactobacillus cell number in 0% treatment continued to increase to reach peak on day 9, while the numbers in pine needle sap treatments reached Peak on day 5~9 and then gradually decreased throughout the fermentation. Unlike in Group A, Lactobaillus cell numbers in pine needle sap treatments in Group B continued to increase to reach Peak on day 7. As pine needle sap levels increased, total viable cell number and Lactobacillus cell number decreased regardless of fermentation temperatures. The results of this study indicate that pine needle sap causes to delay the Kimchi fermentation by slowing down pH drop and inhibiting the Lactobacillus cell growth.

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Effects of Dietary Supplementation of Yacon(Polymnia sonchifolia) By-products and Pine Needle Powder on Growth Performance and Meat Quality of Chicken Thigh Meat (야콘 부산물과 솔잎 분말을 사료에 첨가 급여한 육계의 생산성 및 닭 다리육의 품질에 미치는 영향)

  • Park, Chang-Ill;Kim, Young-Jik
    • Korean Journal of Poultry Science
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    • v.40 no.3
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    • pp.187-195
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    • 2013
  • This study was investigated the effects of dietary supplementation of Yacon by-products and pine needle powder on growth performance, carcass characteristics, pH, TBARS (thiobarbituric acid reactive substance), WHC (water holding capacity), shear force, and meat color of chicken thigh meat. Broiler chicks were fed diets for five weeks containing 0% Yacon by-products and pine needle powder (Control), 0.5% Yacon by-products powder (T1), 1.0% Yacon by-products powder (T2), 0.5% pine needle powder (T3), and 1.0% pine needle powder (T4). There was no significant difference in growth performance among treatments, but mortality was decreased in diets by the supplementation of Yacon by-products and pine needle powder than that of control. The chicken fed control diet had higher cholesterol. LDL-cholesterol. triglyceride compared to those chicken fed Yacon by-products and pine needle powder regardless of concentrations, and HDL-cholesterol of control was lower than treatment. The pH and TBARS were significantly decreased by the supplementation of Yacon by-products and pine needle powder compared to the control (P<0.05), especially, pine needle powder group was significantly more effective in improving freshness compared to other test groups (P<0.05). The WHC and shear force were not significantly different. CIE $L^*$ and $a^*$ value of test groups showed significantly higher value compare to the control, however, no difference in the CIE $b^*$ values was observed among test groups. In conclusion, a supplementation of Yacon by-products and pine needle powder were effective in decreasing pH, TBARS, total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol and increasing HDL-cholesterol concentration. Pine needle powder supplementation was most effective (T3 and T4).

Antibacterial Activities of Cordyceps spp., Mugwort and Pine Needle Extracts (동충하초, 쑥 및 솔잎 추출물의 항균작용)

  • 박찬성;권충정;최미애;박금순;최경호
    • Korean Journal of Food Preservation
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    • v.9 no.1
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    • pp.102-108
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    • 2002
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate antibacterial activity of extracts of Cordyceps spp.(Paecilomyces japonica and Cordyceps militaris), mugwort and pine needle. Fruiting body and mycelium of Cordyceps spp., mugwort and pine needle were extracted with water and 70% ethanol. Antibacterial activities of each extracts against 3 kinds of Gram positive (Bacillus subtilis, Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus) and 3 kinds of Gram negative pathogenic bacteria(Escherichia coli O157 : H7, Shigella sonnei and Salmonella typhimurium) were tested. The yields of water and ethanol extracts of fruiting body (39∼58%) were 2.4 ∼4.4 times higher than mycellium(9∼24%) in Cordyceps sup., while those of mugwort and pine needle were less than 9%. Ethanol extract of P. japonica mycelium(JFE) had antibacterial to S. monocytogenes at 1% level and ethanol extract of C. militaris fruiting body (MFE) had antibacterial to S. aureus at 3% level. Ethanol extract of mugwort was antibacterial against L monocytogenes and S. aureus at 1% level. Water extracts of Cordyceps spp.(P. japonica and C. militaris) and mugwort had no antibacterial activity against tested bacterial strains. Water extract of pine needle had antibacterial activity against all bacterial strains except E. coli and ethanol extract had antibacterial activity against all tested bacterial strains at 1% level. Pine needle extracts had the most wide antibacterial spectrum against bacterial strains used for this experiment. Growth inhibiting activities of pine needle extracts were higher in ethanol extract than water extract for most of tested bacteria in tryptic soy broth.

Antioxidative and Nitrite Scavenging Activities of Mugwort and Pine Needle Extracts (쑥과 솔잎의 항산화작용 및 아질산염 소거작용)

  • 박찬성;권충정;최미애;박금순;최경호
    • Korean Journal of Food Preservation
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    • v.9 no.2
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    • pp.248-252
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    • 2002
  • Mugwort and pine needle were extracted with water and 70% ethanol. Electron donating ability(EDA) of extracts were ranged from 50% to 57% in mugwort water extract(MGW) and ranged from 51% to 64% in mugwort ethanol extract(MGE) at 300-1,000ppm. EDA of extracts were ranged from 52% to 60% in pine needle water extract(PNW) and ranged from 68% 71% in pine needle ethanol extract(PNE) at 100-500ppm. EDA of PNW was 70% and that of PNE was 77% at 1,00(ppm. Nitrite scavenging ability(NSA) of extracts measured at various pH(1.2, 3.0, 4.2, 6.0) was the highest in all extracts at pH 1.2 and decreased with increasing pH, suggesting it is pH dependent. NSA of mugwort extracts at 1,000ppm, water extract was 37% and ethanol extract was 27% at pH 1.2. NSA of pine needle extracts at 1,000ppm, water extract was 65%and ethanol extract was 53% at pH 1.2. EDA and NSA of pine needle extracts were higher than mugwort in both of water and ethanol extract. EDA of ethanol extracts were higher than water extracts while NSA of water extracts were higher than ethanol extracts in both of mugwort and pine needle.

Antioxidative Activity of Pine (Pinus densiflora) Needle Extracts in Rats Fed High-Cholesterol Diet (고콜레스테롤 식이 섭취 흰쥐에 대한 적송잎 추출물의 항산화 효과)

  • Kang, Sung-Rim;Shin, Mee-Ok;Kim, Sung-Gu;Lee, Sang-Hyeon;Kim, Mi-Hyang
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.38 no.4
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    • pp.423-429
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    • 2009
  • This study was conducted to investigate the effects of pine (Pinus densiflora) needle extracts on hepatic antioxidative system in rats fed high-cholesterol diet. Eight-week old Sprague Dawley rats were divided into four groups; normal diet group (CON), 0.5% cholesterol diet group (0.5% CHOL), 0.5% cholesterol diet and pine needle extracts prepared by using hot water group (HOT water), and 0.5% cholesterol diet and pine needle extracts prepared by using sub-supercritical $CO_2$ group (Sub-supercritical). The serum ALP, AST, and ALT activities were increased by 0.5% cholesterol diet supplementation, but treatment with pine needle extracts showed decrease compared with 0.5% CHOL group. The SOD activity in liver at 0.5% cholesterol diet group was more decreased than control group while Sub-supercritical group had significantly higher SOD activity than 0.5% CHOL group. Moreover, groups with pine needle extracts supplementation had higher level of GPx in liver than 0.5% cholesterol diet group. These results suggest that pine needle extracts increased antioxidative activities.

The Effect of Pine (pinus densiflora) Needle Extracts on Blood Flow and Serum Lipid Improvement (적송잎 추출물의 혈행 및 지질개선 효과)

  • Kang, Sung-Rim;Kim, Young-Kyoung;Kim, Sung-Gu;Lee, Sang-Hyeon;Kim, Mi-Hyang
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.19 no.4
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    • pp.508-513
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    • 2009
  • Pine needles have long been used as a traditional health-promoting medicinal food in Korea. To investigate the effects of pine (pinus densiflora) needle extracts on blood flow and serum lipid improvement were assessed in vivo. 8 week-old Sprague Dawley strain rats were divided into four groups of seven rats each; CON, 0.5% CHOL, HOT water and Sub-supercritical group. Serum total cholesterol and triglyceride contents were lower in the CON group than the 0.5% CHOL group. Three weeks of feeding hot water and sub-supercritical extract resulted in a decrease in serum triglyceride and total cholesterol level. The level of HDL-cholesterol in the 0.5% CHOL group was significantly (p<0.05) reduced compared to the CON group, but it had a tendency to increase with pine needle extract supplementation. Blood passage time of the pine needle extracts supplemented group was higher than the 0.5% CHOL group. Microscopic observation showed that whole blood passed smoothly through the micro channels in pine needle extracts supplemented groups. The platelet aggregation ability of the groups treated with pine needle extracts was less than that of the 0.5% CHOL group. All these results suggest that pine needle extracts might improve blood homeostasis mediated via antiplatelet activities.

Antioxidants of Pine Needle Extracts According to Preparation Method (제조방법별 솔잎추출물의 항산화성 검토)

  • Kim, Soo-Min;Kim, Eun-Ju;Cho, Young-Suk;Sung, Sam-Kyung
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.31 no.2
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    • pp.527-534
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    • 1999
  • This study was carried out to investigate the effects of pine needle extracts on lipid oxidation and free radical reaction in iron sources reacted with active oxygen species. The results were summarized as follow; the catalytic effects of active oxygen on lipid oxidation in oil emulsion tended to be showed $OH,\;H_2O_2\;and\;KO_2$ in order. At the same time, pine needle extracts itself were tended to be showed a little catalytic effects. Active oxygen scavenging ability of pine needle extracts didn't show, but pine needle extracts played role as a strong chelating agents to bind iron ion if $Fe^{2+}$ ion exist in oil emulsion. The content of $Fe^{2+}$ ion and total iron in CPNP were higher than those of HPNP and FPN. The content of ascorbic acid of FPN showed the highest (87.77 ppm) among several pine needle extracts. Electron donating ability of HPNP and CPNP were 81% and 78%, respectively, which were showed higher content than those of FPN. The SOD-like activity of HPNP showed 44.30%, compared to other pine needle extracts which means the most strong antioxidant reaction. The nitrite scavenging effects were tended to be different, depending on pH value as pH value was increased. Especially, they didn't show the nitrite scavenging effect in pH6.0.

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Shelf Life Extension of Steamed Bread by the Addition of Fermented Pine Needle Extract Syrup as an Ingredient (솔잎 발효액의 첨가에 의한 찐빵의 저장성 향상)

  • Choi, Dong-Man;Chung, Sun-Kyung;Lee, Dong-Sun
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.36 no.5
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    • pp.616-621
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    • 2007
  • In order to improve the storage stability of steamed bread, fermented pine needle extract syrup potentially with several functional properties was added in manufacturing the products at levels of 8.3, 11 and 18% based on Brix degree of the dough. The manufactured bread was stored at ambient conditions and measured for quality attributes. Dough added with the fermented pine needle extract syrup maintained its pH and water activity at levels of $5.45{\sim}5.90\;and\;0.94{\sim}0.96$, which are normally suitable for yeast fermentation and for appropriate dough hardness. Addition of the extract syrup increased the bread volume by more than 20%. The bread with higher content of the pine needle extract syrup showed slower increase of bread hardness during storage, suggesting retardation of bread retrogradation. The addition of the pine needle extract syrup in bread dough also inhibited growth of the aerobic bacteria and molds on the bread surface (by $0.8{\sim}24$ in log (CFU/g) at 4 day storage). Use of higher than 11% concentration presented initially a strong fine needle flavor to the bread, which disappeared soon after 2 days. Generally addition of the pine needle extract syrup did not give negative effects on the bread quality including sensory quality. Therefore, the addition of the needle extract syrup could contribute to improving the storage stability and extending the shelf life of the bread.

Antioxidative Activity and Quality Characteristics of Rice Madeleine Added with Pine Needle Powder and Extract (솔잎분말과 생즙을 첨가한 쌀 마들렌의 항산화성과 품질 특성)

  • Kim, Won-Ji;Kim, Ji-Myoung;Cheong, Hyeonsook;Huh, Young Ran;Shin, Malshick
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.43 no.3
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    • pp.446-453
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    • 2014
  • To develop health functional gluten-free rice madeleines added with pine needle, rice flours were prepared by adding different contents (0.6, 1.2, and 1.8% on rice flour basis) of freeze-dried pine needle powder (PP) and extract (PE, by pressing pine needles). The preparation, textural and sensory properties, and antioxidative activities of rice madeleines were investigated. The antioxidative activities of rice madeleines added with PP and PE were higher than those of the control and were significantly different from each other. The specific volume of rice madeleines added with PE was higher than that added with PP. Lightness and yellowness decreased with increasing PP or PE content, whereas redness showed the reverse trend. Textural properties were also significantly different according to pine needle type and content. Hardness values of rice madeleines added with 1.2 and 1.8% PP or 1.2% PE were reduced compared to that of control. Hardness values increased while other textural properties decreased during storage. In the sensory test, color, flavor, and taste scores increased with increasing PP or PE contents, whereas flavor and overall quality scores were highest in rice madeleine added with 1.2% PP. Based on these results, pine needle powder addition improved antioxidative activities and overall quality.