• Title/Summary/Keyword: phytoestrogen

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Effects of phytoestrogen on sexual development

  • Kim, Shin-Hye;Park, Mi-Jung
    • Clinical and Experimental Pediatrics
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    • v.55 no.8
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    • pp.265-271
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    • 2012
  • Phytoestrogen is an estrogenic compound that occurs naturally in plants. The most common sources of phytoestrogen are soybean products, which contain high levels of isoflavones. This compound, which has structural similarity with estrogen, can act as an estrogen receptor agonist or antagonist. Animal studies provide evidence of the significant effects of phytoestrogen on sexual development, including altered pubertal timing, impaired estrous cycling and ovarian function, and altered hypothalamus and pituitary functions. Although human studies examining the effects of phytoestrogen on sexual development are extremely limited, the results of some studies agree with those of the animal studies. In this paper, we review the possible mechanism of phytoestrogen action and the evidence showing the effects of phytoestrogen on sexual development in animal and human studies.

Effects of Phytoestrogens on Glucose Metabolism in C57BL/KsOlaHsd-db/db Mice (주요 Phytoestrogen들이 제2형 당뇨 마우스의 당질대사에 미치는 효과)

  • Seo, Bo-Hyeon;Kim, Kwang-Ok;Lee, Ji-Hye;Lee, Hye-Sung
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.44 no.4
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    • pp.275-283
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    • 2011
  • This study was conducted to evaluate the antihyperglycemic effects of three phytoestrogens, genistein, coumestrol, and enterolactone, in type 2 diabetic animals. Forty male C57BL/KsOlaHsd-db/db mice were used as a diabetic animal model. The animals were divided into four groups and fed a phytoestrogen-free AIN-76 diet (control), or one of three phytoestrogen-supplemented (3.75 mg/100 g diet) AIN-76 diets for six weeks. During the experimental period, fasting blood glucose levels were measured on week 0, 2, 5, and 6 of the experiment, and oral glucose tolerance tests were performed on the 5th week. After the experimental period, blood concentrations of HbA1c, insulin, and glucagon were measured, and hepatic glycogen content and glucose regulating enzyme activities were analyzed. Fasting blood glucose, HbA1c level, and the area under the blood glucose curve in the oral glucose tolerance test were significantly lower in all of the phytoestrogen-supplemented groups compared to the control group. Plasma glucagon levels were also significantly lower in all of the phytoestrogen-supplemented groups compared to the control group. Hepatic glycogen level was significantly higher in the coumestrol-supplemented group compared to the other groups. However, there were no significant differences in the activities of glucokinase and glucose-6-phosphatase between the groups. These results suggest that all of the three major phytoestrogens tested in the present study were effective in lowering blood glucose levels in type 2 diabetic animals. However, further studies need to be conducted to elucidate the exact mechanism for the hypoglycemic effects of phytoestrogens.

Intake of dietary phytoestrogen and indices of antioxidant and bone metabolism of pre- and post-menopausal Korean women

  • Jang, Jeong-Hee;Yoon, Ji-Young;Cho, Sung-Hee
    • Nutrition Research and Practice
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    • v.1 no.4
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    • pp.305-312
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    • 2007
  • A group of 101 women, aged 40-65 years consisted of 48 premenopausal subjects and 53 postmenopausal ones living in Daegu and Gyeongbuk area in Korea were evaluated with their general characteristics, lifestyle factors, nutrient and phytoestrogen intakes, blood and urinary indices concerning antioxidant status and bone metabolism. Body mass index (BMI), waist hip ratio (WHR) and systolic blood pressure (SBP) of the postmenopausal women were significantly higher (23.8, 0.86, and 126.9 mmHg, respectively) than those of the premenopausal women (22.6, 0.82, and 115.9 mmHg; respectively). Nutrient intakes of the postmenopausal and premenopausal groups were not different except lower fat intake and higher dietary fiber and iron intakes in the postmenopausal group. Daily total phytoestrogen intake was significantly higher in the postmenopausal group (48.54 mg) than the premenopausal (31.41 mg) and was resulted mostly from higher intakes of daidzein and genistein from soy and soy products (45.42 mg vs 28.91 mg). Serum genistein level and excretion of enterolactone, major lignan metabolite, were not very different between the two groups. Serum retinal and ${\alpha}$- tocopherol levels were higher in the postmenopausal group but TBARS levels were not different between the two groups. Serum osteocalcin (7.18 ng/mL) and urinary deoxypyridinoline (7.15 nmol/mmol creatinine), in the postmenopausal group were significantly higher than those in the premenopausal group (4.80 ng/mL, 5.95 nmol/mmol creatinine). Urinary excretion of enterolactone was positively correlated with serum osetocalcin in premenopausal women and serum genistein negatively correlated with the urinary DPD in postmenopausal women. Dietary phytoestrogen intake was negatively correlated with serum level of TBARS in all subjects. It is concluded that the effect of total phytoestrogen intake is beneficial on body antioxidant status in all middle-aged women regardless of menopause but the effect on bone metabolism appears different by the type of the phytoestrogen and the menopausal state.

Phytoestrogen Intake and Risk of Ovarian Cancer: a Meta-Analysis of 10 Observational Studies

  • Qu, Xin-Lan;Fang, Yuan;Zhang, Ming;Zhang, Yuan-Zhen
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.21
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    • pp.9085-9091
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    • 2014
  • Background: Epidemiology studies have shown an inconclusive relationship between phytoestrogen intake and ovarian cancer risk and there have been no relevant meta-analyses directly regarding this topic. The purpose of the present meta-analysis was therefore to investigate any association between phytoestrogen intake and ovarian cancer in detail. Materials and Methods: We conducted a search of PubMed, EMBASE, EBSCO, the Cochrane Library, CNKI and Chinese Biomedical Database (up to April 2014) using common keywords for studies that focused on phytoestrogen and ovarian cancer risk. Study-specific risk estimates (RRs) were pooled using fixed effect or random-effect models. Results: Ten epidemiologic studies were finally included in the meta-analysis. The total results indicated higher phytoestrogen intake was associated with a reduced ovarian cancer risk (RR, 0.70; 95%CI: 0.56-0.87). The association was similar in sensitivity analysis. Meta regression analysis demonstrated sources and possibly types and regions as heterogeneous factors. Subgroup analysis of types, sources and regions showed that isoflavones (RR: 0.63; 95%CI: 0.46, 0.86), soy foods (RR: 0.51; 95%CI: 0.39, 0.68) and an Asian diet (RR: 0.48; 95%CI: 0.37, 0.63) intake could reduce the incidence of ovarian cancer. Conclusions: Our findings show possible protection by phytoestrogens against ovarian cancer. We emphasize specific phytoestrogens from soy foods, but not all could reduce the risk. The habit of plentiful phytoestrogen intake by Asians is worthy to recommendation. However, we still need additional larger well designed observational studies to fully characterize underlying associations.

Sterol Composition and Phytoestrogen Activity of Safflower(Carthamus tinctorius L.) Seed (홍화(Carthamus tinctorius L.)씨의 sterol 및 Phytoestrogen 분석)

  • 최영주;최상욱
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.13 no.4
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    • pp.529-534
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    • 2003
  • This study was done to investigated the phytosterol compositions of safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) seed. The phytoestrogen activity was also determined using CAT-ELISA Kit in ethanol extract of safflower seed. The phytosterol of safflower seeds was identified using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry after saponification of the oils. The phytosterol content and composition of safflower seed oils were 4% and identified stigmast-5-en-3-ol (3$\beta$, 24S)-form, ${\gamma}$-sitosterol (clionasterol) with Wiley MS spectrum library. The synergistic effect of human estrogen receptor (hER) has been investigated using a minimal chimeric promoters composed of the TATA region of the adenovirus-2 major late promoter (A22MLP) and two consensus perfectly polindromic Xenopus vitellogenin A2 gene estrogen responsive elements (XVEREl19). Transient transfection experiments in tile human breast adenocarcinoma cell line MCF-7, which is known to express the estrogen receptor endogenously, revealed that phytoestrogen from Carthamus tinctorius L. acts as estrogen. We have observed the transcriptional activities stimulated methanol and ethanol extract of safflower seed in MCF-7, were 0.43 and 0.37 respectively, compared to that by $\beta$-estradiol as 1.0. Our data showed that safflower seeds have estrogenic activity methanol and ethanol extracts and ethanol lower than that of $\beta$-estradiol. This result provides the first evidence that the beneficial effect of safflower seeds may be mediated, at least in part, by the stimulating effect of phytoestrogen ell bone-protecting.

Simultaneous Determination of Urinary Phytoestrogens and Estrogens by Gas Chromatography/Mass spectrometry (GC/MS에 의한 뇨 중 Phytoestrogen과 Estrogen의 동시 분석)

  • Yang, Yoon Jung;Lee, Seon Hwa;Chung, Bong Chul
    • Analytical Science and Technology
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    • v.11 no.5
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    • pp.374-385
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    • 1998
  • Phytoestrogens are biologically active compounds derived from plants foods. It had been suggested that phytoestrogens, by inhibiting aromatase in peripheral and/or cancer cells and lowering estrogen levels, may play a protective role as antipromotional compounds during growth of estrogen-dependent cancers. Therefore, simultaneous analysis of estrogens and phytoestrogens is necessary to elucidate the possible involvement of phytoestrogens in estrogen metabolism. In this view, we developed a simple and reproducible procedure to quantitatively determine estrogen and phytoestrogen metabolites. The proposed method consisted of solid phase extraction using preconditioned Serdolit AD-2 resin, enzyme hydrolysis with ${\beta}$-glucuronidase/arylsulfatase from Helix pomatia, liquid-liquid extraction and TMS-ether derivatization. And the final determination was carried out by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) in selected ion monitoring mode (SIM). The precision and accuracy of this method was evaluated through within-a-day and day-to-day test. Recovery range and detection limit were 71.96~105.66%, 2~4 ng/mL, respectively. Using this method, 17 estrogen and 5 phytoestrogen compositions in urine of normal subjects were analyzed. It was found that amounts and relative distribution of urinary phytoestrigens and estrogens showed different pattern in male and female subjects.

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Endocrine - Mimicking Phytoestrogens: Health Effects and Signaling

  • Ahn, Hae Sun;Gye, Myung Chan
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Biology
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    • v.22 no.4
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    • pp.479-486
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    • 2004
  • Phytoestrogens display estrogen-like activity because of their structural similarity to human estrogens and exhibit high affinity binding for the estrogen receptors (ERs). The prevalence of phytoestrogens in our diets and the biological effects that they may cause need to be fully examined. ER is the ancestral receptor from which all other steroid receptors have evolved. Although phytoestrogens serve specific signaling functions between the plants and insects, fungi, and bacteria, many chemical signals are often misinterpreted as estrogenic signals in non-target organisms such as vertebrates. There are no ERs in plants or in their most common partners, insects. However, Rhizobium soil bacteria have NodD proteins which is an intended target of phytoestrogen signaling and share genetic homology with the ER. These two evolutionarily distant receptors both recognize and respond to a shared group of chemical signals and ligands, including both agonists and antagonists. This review briefly summarizes estrogen and estrogen receptors, kinds of important phytoestrogens, their health effects as well as some of the evolutionary aspects of mechanism by which phytoestrogen mimics the endogenous ER signaling in our body.

Phytoestrogen and Estrogen Regulation of Antioxdative Potential, and Cell Cycle Regulatory Protein and Constitutive Cycloxygenase-2 Expression

  • Shin, Jang-In;Park, Ock-Jin
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Toxicology Conference
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    • 2003.10b
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    • pp.160-160
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    • 2003
  • Antioxidative potentials of estrogen and genistein were compared by measuring the degree of protection against plasmid DNA strand breakage induced by peroxyl free radicals using the DNA strand scission assay with pBR322 DNA. Genistein decreased DNA strand breakage by AAPH radical treatment at the all of three concentrations tested (0.5, 1.0, 1.5 $\mu\textrm{g}$/$m\ell$) with the range of 89.5% to 99.6%.(omitted)

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