• Title, Summary, Keyword: phytochemicals

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Changes in Phytochemical Stability and Food Functionality during Cooking and Processing (식품의 조리.가공 공정 중 phytochemical 및 기능성의 변화)

  • Kim, Hyun-Jung;Chun, Hyang-Sook
    • Korean journal of food and cookery science
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    • v.22 no.3
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    • pp.402-417
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    • 2006
  • Research interest on functional food and phytochemicals has mainly focused on their health effects, mechanism of action and structure-activity relationship for the development of nutraceuticals. Considering the intake of phytochemicals via the normal diet, further information is required on changes in food functionality or individual phytochemicals that occur during the cooking or processing of foods, in order to increase the intake of these bioactive compounds, because many of the unit-operating procedures involved in cooking or food processing may result in physicochemical changes of food constituents. This study reviews the changes of selected phytochemicals, i.e. flavonoids, organosulfur compounds and carotenoids, or food functionality by major cooking or processing procedures such as heating, fermentation, and pH changes. In general, heating has a negative effect on food functionality, although in some cases, mild heating increases bioactive phytochemical contents. Some phytochemicals, including anthocyanins and catechins, are stabilized in lower pH conditions. The structures of phytochemicals, including isoflavones and catechins, are changed by fermentation. The loss of bioactive compounds may be decreased by recently developed cooking or processing methods such as microwave cooking or use of high hydrostatic pressure. However, the effects of cooking and processing procedures on food functionality and phytochemicals are so diverse and dependent on test conditions that further research efforts are needed to form accurate conclusions on the effects of cooking and processing of foods.

The Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Phytochemicals by the Modulation of Innate Immunity

  • Youn, Hyung-Sun
    • Biomedical Science Letters
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    • v.18 no.3
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    • pp.181-192
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    • 2012
  • Toll-like receptors (TLRs) induce innate immune responses that are essential for host defense against invading microbial pathogens. In general, TLRs have two major downstream signaling pathways; myeloid differential factor 88 (MyD88) and Toll/IL-1R domain-containing adaptor inducing IFN-${\beta}$ (TRIF) leading to the activation of NF-${\kappa}B$ and IRF3. Numerous studies demonstrated that certain phytochemicals possessing anti-inflammatory effects inhibit NF-${\kappa}B$ activation induced by pro-inflammatory stimuli including lipopolysaccharide and tumor necrosis factor-${\alpha}$ ($TNF{\alpha}$). However, the direct molecular targets for such anti-inflammatory phytochemicals are not fully identified. In this paper, we will discuss about the molecular targets of phytochemicals in TLRs signaling pathways. These results present a novel anti-inflammatory mechanism of phytochemicals in TLRs signaling.

An in vitro Actinidia Bioassay to Evaluate the Resistance to Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae

  • Wang, Faming;Li, Jiewei;Ye, Kaiyu;Liu, Pingping;Gong, Hongjuan;Jiang, Qiaosheng;Qi, Beibei;Mo, Quanhui
    • The Plant Pathology Journal
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    • v.35 no.4
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    • pp.372-380
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    • 2019
  • Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae (Psa) is by far the most important pathogen of kiwifruit. Sustainable expansion of the kiwifruit industry requires the use of Psa-tolerant or resistant genotypes for the breeding of tolerant cultivars. However, the resistance of most existing kiwifruit cultivars and wild genotypes is poorly understood, and suitable evaluation methods of Psa resistance in Actinidia have not been established. A unique in vitro method to evaluate Psa resistance has been developed with 18 selected Actinidia genotypes. The assay involved debarking and measuring the lesions of cane pieces inoculated with the bacterium in combination with the observation of symptoms such as callus formation, sprouting of buds, and the extent to which Psa invaded xylem. Relative Psa resistance or tolerance was divided into four categories. The division results were consistent with field observations. This is the first report of an in vitro assay capable of large-scale screening of Psa-resistance in Actinidia germplasm with high accuracy and reproducibility. The assay would considerably facilitate the breeding of Psa-resistant cultivars and provide a valuable reference and inspiration for the resistance evaluation of other plants to different pathogens.

Immunomodulatory effects of phytogenics in chickens and pigs - A review

  • Huang, C.M.;Lee, T.T.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.31 no.5
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    • pp.617-627
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    • 2018
  • Environmental stressors like pathogens and toxins may depress the animal immune system through invasion of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) tract, where they may impair performance and production, as well as lead to increased mortality rates. Therefore, protection of the GIT tract and improving animal health are top priorities in animal production. Being natural-sourced materials, phytochemicals are potential feed additives possessing multiple functions, including: anti-inflammatory, anti-fungal, anti-viral and antioxidative properties. This paper focuses on immunity-related physiological parameters regulated by phytochemicals, such as carvacrol, cinnamaldehyde, curcumin, and thymol; many studies have proven that these phytochemicals can improve animal performance and production. On the molecular level, the impact of inflammatory gene expression on underlying mechanisms was also examined, as were the effects of environmental stimuli and phytochemicals in initiating nuclear factor kappa B and mitogen-activated protein kinases signaling pathways and improving health conditions.

Potential crosstalk of oxidative stress and immune response in poultry through phytochemicals - A review

  • Lee, M.T.;Lin, W.C.;Lee, T.T.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.32 no.3
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    • pp.309-319
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    • 2019
  • Phytochemicals which exist in various plants and fungi are non-nutritive compounds that exert numerous beneficial bioactive actions for animals. In recent years following the restriction of antibiotics, phytochemicals have been regarded as a primal selection when dealing with the challenges during the producing process in the poultry industry. The selected fast-growing broiler breed was more fragile when confronting the stressors in their growing environments. The disruption of oxidative balance that impairs the production performance in birds may somehow be linked to the immune system since oxidative stress and inflammatory damage are multi-stage processes. This review firstly discusses the individual influence of oxidative stress and inflammation on the poultry industry. Next, studies related to the application of phytochemicals or botanical compounds with the significance of their antioxidant and immunomodulatory abilities are reviewed. Furthermore, we bring up nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2) and nuclear factor kappa B ($NF-{\kappa}B$) for they are respectively the key transcription factors involved in oxidative stress and inflammation for elucidating the underlying signal transduction pathways. Finally, by the discussion about several reports using phytochemicals to regulate these transcription factors leading to the improvement of oxidative status, heme oxygenase-1 gene is found crucial for Nrf2-mediated $NF-{\kappa}B$ inhibition.

The Inhibitory Effect of Phytochemicals on the Oxidative DNA Damage in Lymphocytes by Chrysotile

  • Ryu, A-Reum;Kim, Jum-Ji;Lee, Mi-Young
    • Journal of Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.55 no.3
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    • pp.179-184
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    • 2012
  • We investigated the cytotoxicity and oxidative DNA damage by chrysotile, one of the asbestos, in this investigation. Chrysotile enhanced malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and intracellular reactive oxygen speices generation in human airway epithelial cells. Furthermore, asbestos-induced oxidative DNA damage in lymphocytes was evaluated by single cell gel electrophoresis and quantified as DNA tail moment. Notably, phytochemicals such as curcumin, berberine, and sulforaphane presented inhibitory effect on the asbestos-induced oxidative DNA damage in lymphocytes.

Comparison of Phytochemicals Ingredient Contents According to Flower Color of Abeliophyllum distichum Nakai

  • Mun, Jeong-Yun;Jang, Tae-Won;Choi, Ji-Soo;Im, Jong-Yun;Park, Jae-Ho
    • Proceedings of the Plant Resources Society of Korea Conference
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    • pp.118-118
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    • 2019
  • Abeliophyllum distichum Nakai belonging to Oleaceae is only species in Korean endemic genus, Abeliophyllum. Abeliophyllum distichum (AD) is divided into various types according to flower shape and color. AD is known to have various colors such as white, pink, and ivory. Recently, light yellow flowers have been registered as new varieties (Okhwang 1ho). To date, various ecological and morphological studies on AD have been carried out, but no studies have been made on the phytochemicals and activities according to various traits. In this study, we analyzed the phytochemicals and antioxidative activities of from four kinds of flowers (white, pink, ivory, light yellow) in full bloom. The contents of phytochemicals such as chlorogenic acid, Hirsutrin, Rutin, Acteoside and Isoacteoside were analyzed by HPLC. Antioxidant activity was evaluated by DPPH, ABTS. As a result, the content of each substance varied according to the flower color. These results will provide basic data for evaluating the usefulness of genetic resources in Korea and developing new functional materials in preparation for the Nagoya Protocol.

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Development of functional substances on Alzheimer's disease

  • Heo, Ho-Jin
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Postharvest Science and Technology of Agricultural Products Conference
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    • pp.65-72
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    • 2007
  • Phytochemicals have long been known to hold a number of physiological benefits, including antioxidant, anticardiovascular activities and anticancer. The profitable effects of phytochemicals from food sources such as vegetables and fruits, with respect to neurodegeneration, are only beginning to receive increased attention. Alzheimer's disease (AD) is one of the major neurodegenerative diseases for which no treatment is available, and characterized by loss of cognition and memory. Many recent studies show that the brain of AD patient is subjected to increased oxidative stress resulting from free radical damage, and the resulting cellular malfunctions are widely believed to be responsible for neuronal degeneration in AD. In this study, the relative relation between AD and phytochemicals were surveyed.

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Development of functional substances on Alzheimer's disease

  • Heo, Ho-Jin
    • Food preservation and processing industry
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    • v.6 no.2
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    • pp.25-29
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    • 2007
  • Phytochemicals have long been known to hold a number of physiological benefits, including antioxidant, anticardiovascular activities and anticancer. The profitable effects of phytochemicals from food sources such as vegetables and fruits, with respect to neurodegeneration, are only beginning to receive increased attention. Alzheimer's disease(AD) is one of the major neurodegenerative diseases for which no treatment is available, and characterized by loss of cognitiion and memory. Many recent studies show that the brain of AD patient is subjected to increased oxidative stress resulting from free radical damage, and the resulting cellular malfunctions are widely believed to be responsible for neuronal degeneration in AD. In this study, the relative relation between D and phytochemicals were surveyed.

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