• Title, Summary, Keyword: photolysis

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Photodegradation of Phosphamidon and Profenofos (Phosphamidon과 Profenofos의 광분해성)

  • 민경진;차춘근
    • Journal of Environmental Health Sciences
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    • v.26 no.2
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    • pp.49-58
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    • 2000
  • The present study was performed to investigate photodegradation rate constants and degradation products of phosphamidon and profenofos by the USEPA method. The two pesticides were very stable in 16 days exposure of sunlight from September 3 to 22, 1999 and humic acid had no sensitizing effect on the photolysis of each pesticide in sunlight. In the UV irradiation test, phosphamidon was rapidly degraded as increasing UV intensity. In case of UV irradiation with TiO2 and with TiO2 powder amount, degradation of profenofos showed no significant difference with UV irradiation. Photodegradation rate of profenofos was slower than that of phosphamidon. In order to identify photolysis products, the extracts of degradation products were analyzed by GC/MS. The mass spectra of photolysis products of phosphamidon were at m/z 153 and 149, those of the profenofos were at m/z 208 and 240, respectively. It was suggested that the photolysis products of phosphamidon were 0, 0-dimethyl phosphate(DMP) and N, N-diethylchloroacetamide, those of profenofos were 4-bromo-2-chlorophenol and 0-ethyl-S-propyl phosphate.

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Photolysis of a New Insecticide KH-502 [O,O-diethyl O-(1-phenyl-3- trifluoromethyl-5-pyrazolyn) thiophosphoric acid ester] (신규(新規) 살충제(殺蟲劑)인 KH-502 [O,O-Diethyl O-(1-phenyl-3-trifluoromethyl-5-pyrazoyl) thiophosphoric acid ester]의 광(光)에 의한 분해성(分解性))

  • Cho, Boo-Yeon;Han, Dae-Sung;Yang, Jae-E
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
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    • v.12 no.2
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    • pp.176-183
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    • 1993
  • Photolysis experiments were conducted to investigate the stability of a new insecticide, [O,O-Diethyl O-(1-phenyl-3-trifluoromethyl-5-pyrazoyl) thiophosphoric acid ester: KH-502] under the various conditions. In the photolysis experiment, KH-502 was, after being added into the acetone or acetonitrile solution, irradiated under the sunlight or UV lamp $(300{\sim}350nm)$, where acetone or acetonitrile solution was varied with water and $O_2$contents and was treated with humic acid, rosebengal or tryptophan. Results for stability and degradation pattern of KH-502 from the above experiment can be summarized as follows: 1. The significant difference in KH-502 decomposition due to photolysis was shown for between KH-502s irradiated at $300{\sim}350$ nm and non-irradiated. KH-502 was photolyzed in the acetone by the sensitizing effect, but was stable in the acetonitrile. 2. The degradation pattern of KH-502 in the photolysis was different as compared to that in the thermal decomposition, and the decomposed products were O,O-Diethyl O-(1-phenyl-3-trifluoromethyl-5-pyrazoyl)phosphoric acid ester (KH-502 oxo form), O,S-Diethyl O-(1-phenyl-3-trifluoromethyl-5-pyrazoyl)phosphorothiolate(S-ethyl KH-502), 1-Phenyl-3-trifluoromethyl-5-hydroxy pyrazole (PTMHP) and several unknown compounds. 3. Treatments of acetone or acetonitrile solution with humic acid, rosebengal or tryptophan revealed no-sensitizing effect on the photolysis of KH-502. Dissolved oxygen in the acetone played as a cosensitizer with acetone competitively to enhance the photolysis of KH-502. 4. Treatments of acetone with humic acid or paddy soil water collected from fields decreased the photolysis of KH-502.

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Photodegradation of some Organophosphorous Pesticides (일부 유기인계 농약의 광분해성)

  • 민경진;차춘근
    • Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety
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    • v.14 no.4
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    • pp.339-345
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    • 1999
  • The present study was performed to investigate photodegradation rate constants and degradation products of dichlorvos and methidathion by the USEPA method. The two pesticides were very stable in sunlight for 16 days from September 2 to 18, 1998 and humic acid had no sensitizing effect on the photolysis of each pesticide in sunlight. The photolysis rate was fast-est for methidathion, followed by dichlorvos in the presence of UV irradiation. Photodegradation rate constant and half-life of dichlorvos were 0.0208 and 33.3 min, respectively. Photodegradation rate constant and half-life of methidathion were 0.6789 and 1.0min, respectively. The two pesticides were degraded completely in the presence of UV irradiation and UV irradiation with TiO$_2$in about 3 hours. Therefore, it is suggested that UV treatment will be effective for the degradation of pesticides in the process of drinking water purification. In case of dichlorvos and methidathion, UV irradiation with TiO$_2$was more effective for degradation than W irradiation. In order to identify photolysis products, the extracts of degradation products were analyzed by GC/ MS. The mass spectrum of photolysis products of dichlorvos was at m/z 153, those of the photolysis of methidathion were at m/z 198 and 214, respectively. Photolysis products of dichlorvos was Ο, Ο-dimethyl phosphate(DMP), those of methidathion were Ο, Ο-dimethyl phosphorothioate(DMTP) and Ο, Ο-dimethyl phosphorodithioate (DMDTP).

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A Study on the Degradation Mechanism of Diazinon and the Acute Toxicity Assessment in Photolysis and Photocatalysis (광반응과 광촉매 반응을 이용한 Diazinon 농약의 분해 기전과 독성 평가에 관한 연구)

  • Oh, Ji-Yoon;Kim, Moon-Kyung;Son, Hyun-Seok;Zoh, Kyung-Duk
    • Journal of Korean Society of Environmental Engineers
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    • v.30 no.11
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    • pp.1087-1094
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    • 2008
  • Diazinon is a phosphorothiate insecticide widely used in the world including Korea. This study investigates the feasibility of photolysis and photocatalysis processes for the degradation of diazinon in water. Both photolysis and photocatalysis reactiosn were effective in degrdading diazinon, however lower TOC removals were achieved. In case of photocatalysis, approximately 40% of nitrogen from diazinon was recovered as NO$_3^-$, and less than 5% of phosphorus as PO$_4{^{3-}}$. However, the sulfur in diazinon molecule was completely recovered to SO$_4{^{2-}}$ from photocatalysis reaction, and the recovery from photolysis was 50%, indicating that P=S bond easily breaks first during photolysis and photocatalysis. The poor recoveries of ionic byproducts and TOC from photolysis and photocatalysis indicate the presence of other organic intermediates during reactions. The formation of organic intermediates were identified during reactions using GC/MS and LC/MS/MS, and the main degradation products were diazoxon, and 2-isopropyl-4-methyl-6-hydroxypyrimidine (IMP), respectively. Finally, the acute 48-hr toxicity test using Daphnia magna were employed to measure the toxicity reduction during photocatalysis of degradation. The results showed that the toxicity increased until 180 min of the photocatalysis reaction (from EC$_{50}$ (%) of 69.6 to 13.2%), however, acute toxicity completely disappeared (>100%) after 360 min. The toxicity results showed that the intermediates from photocatalysis such as diazoxon were more toxic than diazinon itself, however these intermediates can be degraded or mineralized with further reaction.

Microbial hydrogen production: Dark Anaerobic Fermentation and Photo-biological Process (미생물에 의한 수소생산: Dark Anaerobic Fermentation and Photo-biological Process)

  • Kim, Mi-Sun;Baek, Jin-Sook
    • KSBB Journal
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    • v.20 no.6
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    • pp.393-400
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    • 2005
  • Hydrogen($H_2$) as a clean, and renewable energy carrier will be served an important role in the future energy economy. Several biological $H_2$ production processes are known and currently under development, ranging from direct bio-photolysis of water by green algae, indirect bio-photolysis by cyanobacteria including the separated two stage photolysis using the combination of green algae and photosynthetic microorganisms or green algae alone, dark anaerobic fermentation by fermentative bacteria, photo-fermentation by purple bacteria, and water gas shift reaction by photosynthetic or fermentative bacteria. In this paper, biological $H_2$ production processes, that are being explored in fundamental and applied research, are reviewed.

Depletion Kinetics of the Ground State CrO Generated from the Reaction of Unsaturated Cr(CO)x with O2 and N2O

  • Son, H.S.;Ku, J.K.
    • Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.23 no.2
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    • pp.184-188
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    • 2002
  • Unsaturated $Cr(CO)_x(1{\leq}x{\leq}5)$molecules were generated in the gas phase from photolysis of $Cr(CO)_6$vapor in He using an unfocussed weak UV laser pulse and their reactions with $O_2$ and $N_2O$ have been studied. The formation and disappearance of the ground state CrO molecules were identified by monitoring laser-induced fluorescence(LIF) intensities vs delay time between the photolysis and probe pulses. The photolysis laser power dependence as well as the delay time dependence of LIF intensities from the CrO orange system showed different behavior as those from ground state Cr atoms, suggesting that the ground state CrO molecules were generated from the reaction between $O_2/N_2O$ and photo-fragments of $Cr(CO)_6$ by one photon absorption. The depletion rate constants for the ground state CrO by $O_2$ and $N_2O$ are $5.4{\pm}0.2{\times}10^{-11}$ and $6.5{\pm}0.4{\times}10^{-12}cm^3molecule^{-1}s^{-1}$, respectively.

Relationship between Singlet Oxygen Formation and Photolysis of Phloxine B in Aqueous Solutions

  • Keum, Young-Soo;Kim, Jeong-Han;Li, Qing-Xiao
    • Journal of Photoscience
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    • v.10 no.3
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    • pp.219-223
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    • 2003
  • Phloxine B (2,4,5,7-tetrabromo-4,5,6,7-tetrachlorofluorescein disodium salt), also referred as D&C red dye no. 28, is phototoxic to many insects such as Tephritidae fruit flies. Sunlight photolysis of phloxine B in aqueous solutions was a first order kinetic reaction at low concentrations. But it turned to be more complex reactions with the increase of phloxine B concentration. The half-lives of phloxine B (6-120 ${\mu}$M) were 18-41 and 52-289 hours in oxygenated and deaerated distilled water, respectively. The photolysis rate constants increased as the phloxine B concentrations increased. The singlet oxygen formation positively correlated with the concentrations of phloxine B and humic acid in oxygenated distilled water. The formation of singlet oxygen did not stop even after the complete degradation of phloxine B, which suggested an involvement of photoproduct-mediated reactions. The results showed that singlet oxygen mediated photooxidation was a dominant reaction for phloxine B dissipation in an aqueous solution, and the self-sensitized and photoproduct-mediated reactions were also involved at the higher concentrations. Iodide and bromide ions significantly decreased phloxine B photolysis rate constants, which were in relation to the decrease of singlet oxygen formation.

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A Study on the Photolytic and Photocatalytic Oxidation of VOCs in Air (대기 중 휘발성 유기화합물의 광산화 공정 및 광촉매산화 공정의 처리효율 비교)

  • 서정민;정창훈;최금찬
    • Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment
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    • v.18 no.2
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    • pp.139-148
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    • 2002
  • Both UV Photolysis and Phtocatalytic Oxidation Processing are an emerging technology for the abatemant of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) in atmospheric -pressure air streams. However, each process has some drawbacks of their own. The former is little known as an application for air pollution treatment, so it has been a rare choice in the field. Therefore we have to do more experiment and study for its application for treatment of VOCs. Although the latter has been used in the industrial fields, it still has a difficulty in decomposing high concentrations of VOCs. To solute these problems, we have been studying simultaneous application of those two technologies. We have studied the effects of background gas composition and gas temperature on the decomposition chemistry. It has shown that concentration of TCE and B.T.X., diameter of reactor, and wavelength of lamp have effects on decomposition efficiency. When using Photolysis Process only, the rates of fractional conversion of each material are found at TCE 79%, Benzene 65%, Toluene 68%, Xylene 76%. In case of Photocatalytic Oxidation Process only, the rates of fractional conversion decreased drastically above 30 ppm. When there two methods were combined, the rates of fractional conversion of each material are enhanced such as TCE 93%, Benzene 75%, Toluene 81%, Xylene 90%. Therefore, we conclude that the combination of Photolysis-Photocatalytic Oxidation process is more efficient than each individual process.

A Study on the Degradation and the Reduction of Acute Toxicity of Simazine Using Photolysis and Photocatalysis (광반응 및 광촉매 반응을 이용한 simazine의 분해 및 독서저감에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Moon-Kyung;Oh, Ji-Yoon;Son, Hyun-Seok;Zoh, Kyung-Duk
    • Journal of Environmental Health Sciences
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    • v.35 no.2
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    • pp.124-129
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    • 2009
  • The photocatalysis degradation of simazine, s-triazine type herbicide was carried out using circulating photo reactor systems. In order to search for the effective method to mineralize this compound into environmentally compatible products, this study compared the removal efficiencies of simazine by changing various parameters. First, under the photocatalytic condition, simazine was more effectively degraded than by photolysis and $TiO_2$ only condition. With photocatalysis, 5 mg/l simazine was degraded to approximately 90% within 30 min, and completely degraded after 150 min. Ionic byproducts such as ${NO_2}^-$, ${NO_3}^-$, and $Cl^-$ were detected from the photocatalysis of simazine, however, the recoveries were poor, indicating the presence of organic intermediates rather than the mineralization of simazine during photocatalysis. Two bioassays using V. fischeri and D. magna were employed to measure the toxicity reduction in the reaction solutions treated by both photocatalysis and photolysis. Simazine and its photocatalysis treated water did not exert any significant toxicity to V. fischeri, marine bacterium. However, the acute toxicity test using D. magna indicates that initial acute toxicity ($EC_{50}$ = 57.30%) was completely reduced ($EC_{50}$ = 100%) after 150 min under both photocatalysis and photoysis of simazine. This results indicates that photocatalysis and photolysis of simazine reduced the acute toxicity through mineralization.