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Effects of Phosphate Complex on the Functional Properties of Fish Meat paste (혼합 인산염의 첨가가 어류 연육의 기능적 성질에 미치는 영향)

  • 우상규
    • The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition
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    • v.10 no.4
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    • pp.544-548
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    • 1997
  • Effects of four kinds of phosphate complex on the water holding capacity(W.H.C) and protein solubility of yellow-corvenia(Pseudosciance manchurica) and hair tail(Trichurus lepturns) meat paste were investigated. The formulations of four kinds of phosphate complex employed to this experiment were made by mixing several phosphates such as sodium polyphosphate, sodium pyro-phosphate, sodium acid pyro-phosphate, potassium pyro-phosphate, sodium tetra meta-phosphate, sodium ultra meta-phosphate and sodium hexa meta-phosphate, and monoglyceride at different mixture ratios. Among the four kinds of phosphate complex, phosphate B complex which was formulated by mixing sodium poly-phosphate 50%, sodium pyro-phosphate 20%, sodium tetra meta-phosphate 20%, sodium acid pyrophosphate 5% and sodium ultra meta-phosphate 5% was most effective on enhancing the W.H.C and protein solubility of yellow corvenia meat paste, and in case of hair tail meat paste, phosphate C complex which was formulated by mixing sodium poly-phosphate 40%, sodium pyro-phosphate 30%, potassium pyro-phosphate 15%, sodium tetra meta-phosphate 10%, and sodium hexa meta-phosphate 5% was more effective than other phosphate complex, and their optimum addition level was 0.4% respectively in weight of fish meat paste. Texture characteristics such as hardness, cohesiveness, and springiness value of Kamaboko(fish meat paste product) were evaluated as best when 0.3% of phosphate B complex was added. The optimum cooking condition of Kamaboko to get good texture was heating for 45 minutes at 85$^{\circ}C$.

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Isolation and Cultural Characteristics of a Phosphate-solubilizing Fungus, Penicillium sp. PS-113 (인산가용화 사상균, Penicillium sp. PS-113 균주의 분리 및 배양특성)

  • 강선철;최명철
    • KSBB Journal
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    • v.13 no.5
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    • pp.497-501
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    • 1998
  • A fungus with high phosphate solubilizing activites was isolated from soil using potato dextrose agar-calcium phosphate medium and identified to Penicillium sp. PS-113, based on the morphological characteristics of conidiophore and conidia; flask shape of phialide, simple branching type of conidiophore, and columnar shape of conidial head, in malt extract agar and potato dextrose agar media. The optimum temperature ad initial pH to solubilize rock phosphate in potato dextrose broth-rock phosphate medium were 30$^{\circ}C$ and pH 8.0, respectively. In these conditions phosphate solubilizing activities of Penicillium sp. PS-113 against four types of insoluble phosphate like tricalcium-phosphate, aluminium phosphate, hydroxyapatite and rock phosphate were quantitatively determined. As results, this fungus highly produced free phosphates to the culture broth with the concentrations of 1,283 ppm against tricalcium-phosphate, 585 ppm against rock phosphate, 528 ppm against aluminium phosphate, and 242 ppm against hydroxyapatite, respectively.

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Effects of Phosphate Complex on the Functional Properties of Fish Meat Paste (혼합 인산염의 첨가가 어류연육의 기능적 성질에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Dong-Soo;Kim, Young-Myung;Kim, Il-Hwan;Lee, Byung-Joon
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.17 no.4
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    • pp.253-257
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    • 1985
  • Effects of four kinds of phosphate complex on the water holding capacity (W.H.C) and protein solubility of yellow-corvenia (Pseudosciance manchurica) and hair tail (Tichurus lepturus) meat paste were investigated. The formulations of four kinds of phosphate complex employed to this experiment were made by mixing several phosphates such as sodium polyphosphate, sodium pyro-phosphate, sodium acid pyro-phosphate, potassium pyro-phosphate, sodium tetra meta-phosphate, sodium ultra meta-phosphate and sodium hexa meta-phosphate, and monoglyceride at different mixture ratios. Among the four kinds of phosphate complex, phosphate B complex which was formulated by mixing sodium poly-phosphate 50%, sodium pyrophosphate 20%, sodium tetra meta-phosphate 20%, sodium acid pyrophosphate 5% and sodium ultra meta-phosphate 5% was most effective on enhancing the W.H.C and protein solubility of yellow corvenia meat paste, and in case of hair tail meat paste, phosphate C complex which was formulated by mining sodium poly-phosphate 40%, sodium pyro-phosphate 30%, potassium pyro-phosphate 15%, sodium tetra meta-phosphate 10%, and sodium hexa meta-phosphate 5% was more effective than other phosphate complex, and their optimum addition level was 0.4% respectively in weight of fish meat paste. Texture characteristics such as hardness, cohesiveness, and springiness value of Kamaboko (fish meat paste product) were evaluated as best when 0.3% of phosphate B complex was added. The optimum cooking condition of Kamaboko to get good texture was heating for 45 mimutes at $85^{\circ}C$.

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Effects of Insulin and IGFs on Phosphate Uptake in Primary Cultured Rabbit Renal Proximal Tubule Cells

  • Han, Ho-Jae;Park, Kwon-Moo
    • The Korean journal of physiology & pharmacology
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    • v.30 no.1
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    • pp.63-76
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    • 1996
  • The aim of present study was to characterize phosphate uptake and to investigate the mechanism for the insulin and insulin-like growth factor(IGF) stimulation of phosphate uptake in primary cultured rabbit renal proximal tubule cells. Results were as follows : 1. The primary cultured proximal tubule cells had accumulated $6.68{\pm}0.70$ nmole phosphate/mg protein in the presence of 140 mM NaCl and $2.07{\pm}0.17$ nmole phosphate/mg protein in the presence of 140 mM KCl during a 60 minute uptake period. Raising the concentration of extracellular phosphate to 100 mM$(48.33{\pm}1.76\;pmole/mg\;protein/min)$ induced decrease in phosphate uptake compared with that in control cells maintained in 1 mM phosphate$(190.66{\pm}13.01\;pmole/mg\;protein/min)$. Optimal phosphate uptake was observed at pH 6.5 in the presence of 140 mM NaCl. Phosphate uptake at pH 7.2 and pH 7.9 decreased to $83.06{\pm}5.75%\;and\;74.61{\pm}3.29%$ of that of pH 6.5, respectively. 2. Phosphate uptake was inhibited by iodoacetic acid(IAA) or valinomycin treatment $(62.41{\pm}4.40%\;and\;12.80{\pm}1.64%\;of\;that\;of\;control,\;respectively)$. When IAA and valinomycin were added together, phosphate uptake was inhibited to $8.04{\pm}0.61%$ of that of control. Phosphate uptake by the primary proximal tubule cells was significantly reduced by ouabain treatment$(80.27{\pm}6.96%\;of\;that\;of\;control)$. Inhibition of protein and/or RNA synthesis by either cycloheximide or actinomycin D markedly attenuated phosphate uptake. 3. Extracellular CAMP and phorbol 12-myristate 13 acetate(PMA) decreased phosphate uptake in a dose-dependent manner in all experimental conditions. Treatment of cells with pertussis toxin or cholera toxin inhibited phosphate uptake. cAMP concentration between $10^{-6}\;M\;and\;10^{-4}\;M$ significantly inhibited phosphate uptake. Phosphate uptake was blocked to about 25% of that of control at 100 ng/ml PMA. 3-Isobutyl-1-methyl-xanthine(IBMX) inhibited phosphate uptake. However, in the presence of IBMX, the inhibitory effect of exogenous cAMP was not significantly potentiated. Forskolin decreased phosphate transport. Acetylsalicylic acid did not inhibit phosphate uptake. The 1,2-dioctanoyl-sn-glycorol(DAG) and 1-oleoyl-2-acetyl-sn- glycerol(OAG) showed a inhibitory effect. However, staurosporine had no effect on phosphate uptake. When PMA and staurosporine were treated together, inhibition of phosphate uptake was not observed. In conclusion, phosphate uptake is stimulated by high sodium and low phosphate and pH 6.5 in the culture medium. Membrane potential and intracellular energy levels are also an important factor fer phosphate transport. Insulin and IGF-I stimulate phosphate uptake through a mechanisms that involve do novo protein and/or RNA synthesis and decrease of intracellular cAMP level. Also protein kinase C(PKC) is may play a regulatory role in transducing the insulin and IGF-I signal for phosphate transport in primary cultured proximal tubule cells.

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A Study on Low Temperature Properties of Kaolin-Phosphate-Water Systems (카올린-인산염-물계의 저온 특성에 관한 연구)

  • 박금길;박근원
    • Journal of the Korean Ceramic Society
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    • v.18 no.3
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    • pp.192-200
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    • 1981
  • This study deals with the low temperature ($25^{\circ}C$-$600^{\circ}C$) properties of Kaolin-Phosphate-water systems. Phosphoric acid, mono aluminum phosphate, mono ammonium phosphate, the mixture of phosphoric acid and mono aluminum phosphate, and the mixture of phosphoric acid and mono ammonium phosphate were used to characterize the M.O.R. of the systems with to quantity of phosphates, curing time, and firing temperature. Firing shrinkage, viscosity, surface tension, DTA, TGA, and X-ray diffraction patterns were also measured in order to investigated the factors of strengthening. The results of this study were summarized as follows: 1. The M.O.R. of kaolin-phosphate systems were stronger than that of Kaolin-water system at room temperature or low temperature($25^{\circ}C$-$600^{\circ}C$). Though it was increased according to the longer curing time, the higher temperature, and the more addition of phosphate, the M.O.R. were decreased in the case of 10 wt% phosphate addition in the system of phosphoric acid, mono aluminum phosphate and phosphoric acid-mono aluminum phosphate. 2. When the concentration of Phosphate was at 4 wt%, the M.O.R. of specimen cured at $25^{\circ}C$ and added to the phosphoric acid was strongest among the specimens in added to the others phosphates. Whereas, when the concentration of phosphate was above 6wt%, the M.O.R. of specimen cured at $25^{\circ}C$ and added to the phosphoric acid mono ammonium phosphate system cured at $25^{\circ}C$ was the strongest. 3. The M.O.R. of the specimen heated, in the temperature range of 15$0^{\circ}C$-1$600^{\circ}C$, and added to the mixture of phosphoric acid-mono aluminum phosphate system or phosphoric acid-mono ammonium phosphate system was stronger than that of specimen added to Phosphoric acid, mono-aluminum Phosphate or mono-ammonium phosphate alone. 4. The bonding force of phosphate binders was more closely related to surface tension than viscosity and it tended to be inversely proportional to surface tension. The bonding force after heating treatment seemed to be caused by the change of structure of phosphate according to heating.

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Solubilization of Insoluble Phosphates by Penicillium sp. GL-101 Isolated from Soil (토양에서 분리한 Penicillium sp. GL-101에 의한 난용성 인산염의 가용화)

  • Choi, Myoung-Chul;Chung, Jong-Bae;Sa, Tong-Min;Lim, Sun-Uk;Kang, Sun-Chul
    • Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.40 no.4
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    • pp.329-333
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    • 1997
  • Phosphate solubilizing microorganisms (1,000 bacteria and 200 fungi) were isolated from soil around Kyungnam and Kyungbook regions using potato dextrose agar-calcium phosphate medium. A fungus with the greatest phosphate solubilizing activity was selected and identified to Penicillium sp. GL-101, based on the morphological characteristics of conidiophore and conidia; flask shape of phialide, simple branching type of conidiophore, and columnar shape of conidial head, in malt extract agar and potato dextrose agar media. The optimum temperature and initial pH to solubilize rock phosphate in potato dextrose broth-rock phosphate medium were $25^{\circ}C$ and pH 7.5, respectively. In these optimum conditions, phosphate solubilizing activities of Penicillium sp. GL-101 against four types of insoluble phosphate: tricalcium-phosphate, aluminium phosphate, hydroxyapatite and rock phosphate, were quantitatively determined. As results, this fungus highly discharged free phosphates to the culture broth with the concentrations of 1,152 ppm against tricalcium-phosphate, 565 ppm against rock phosphate, 292 ppm against aluminium phosphate, and 217 ppm against hydroxyapatite, respectively.

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Phosphate Solubilization and Gene Expression of Phosphate-Solubilizing Bacterium Burkholderia multivorans WS-FJ9 under Different Levels of Soluble Phosphate

  • Zeng, Qingwei;Wu, Xiaoqin;Wang, Jiangchuan;Ding, Xiaolei
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.27 no.4
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    • pp.844-855
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    • 2017
  • Phosphate-solubilizing bacteria (PSB) have the ability to dissolve insoluble phosphate and enhance soil fertility. However, the growth and mineral phosphate solubilization of PSB could be affected by exogenous soluble phosphate and the mechanism has not been fully understood. In the present study, the growth and mineral phosphate-solubilizing characteristics of PSB strain Burkholderia multivorans WS-FJ9 were investigated at six levels of exogenous soluble phosphate (0, 0.5, 1, 5, 10, and 20 mM). The WS-FJ9 strain showed better growth at high levels of soluble phosphate. The phosphate-solubilizing activity of WS-FJ9 was reduced as the soluble phosphate concentration increased, as well as the production of pyruvic acid. Transcriptome profiling of WS-FJ9 at three levels of exogenous soluble phosphate (0, 5, and 20 mM) identified 446 differentially expressed genes, among which 44 genes were continuously up-regulated when soluble phosphate concentration was increased and 81 genes were continuously down-regulated. Some genes related to cell growth were continuously up-regulated, which would account for the better growth of WS-FJ9 at high levels of soluble phosphate. Genes involved in glucose metabolism, including glycerate kinase, 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase, and sugar ABC-type transporter, were continuously down-regulated, which indicates that metabolic channeling of glucose towards the phosphorylative pathway was negatively regulated by soluble phosphate. These findings represent an important first step in understanding the molecular mechanisms of soluble phosphate effects on the growth and mineral phosphate solubilization of PSB.

Solubilization of Insoluble Phosphates by Aspergillus sp. PS-104 Isolated from Soil (토양에서 분리한 Aspergillus sp. PS-104 균주에 의한 난용성 인산염 분해)

  • Kang, Sun-Chul;Shin, Seung-Yong
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
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    • v.26 no.1
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    • pp.36-41
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    • 2007
  • Phosphate-solubilizing microorganisms were isolated from soil around Kyungnam and Kyungbook regions using potato dextrose agar-calcium phosphate medium. A fungus with the greatest phosphate-solubilizing activity was selected and identified to Aspergillus sp. PS-104, based on the morphological characteristics of conidiophore and conidia; unbranching type of conidiophore, terminally swelling of conidiophore and septate of mycelium, in malt extract agar and potato dextrose agar media. The optimum temperature and initial pH to solubilize rock phosphate in potato dextrose broth-rock phosphate medium were $30^{\circ}C$ and pH 7.0, respectively. In these optimum conditions, phosphate-solubilizing activities of Aspergillus sp. PS-104 against four twos of insoluble phosphate, tricalcium phosphate, aluminium phosphate, hydroxyapatite and rock phosphate, were quantitatively determined. As result, the maximum phosphate-solubilizing activity was obtained with tricalcium-phosphate (1,900 ppm) while minimum activity was obtained with hydroxyapatite (320 ppm). Futhermore, phosphate-solubilizing activity of Aspergillus sp. PS-104 was found higher when treated with nitrates as compared to the ammonium salts as a nitrogen sources.

Application of Immobilization Technology in Solubilization of Rock Phosphate

  • Walpola, Buddhi Charana;Kim, Ah Young;Jeon, Ju Hyeon;Yoon, Min-Ho
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.47 no.4
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    • pp.249-253
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    • 2014
  • Phosphates solubilizing bacterial strains belong to Pantoea, Burkholderia and Enterobacter were isolated and employed in assessing their solubilization ability of Ca phosphate and ER phosphate (Eppawala Rock Phosphate). Among the bacterial strains used, PSB-13 (Pantoea rodasii) showed higher Ca-phosphate solubilization ($1100{\mu}g\;ml^{-1}$) as well as rock phosphate solubilization ($168{\mu}g\;ml^{-1}$). The strain was then immobilized in agar to further assess its phosphate solubilization ability. According to the results, agar encapsulated strain solubilized 0.3%, 7.31%, 20.24%, and 20.62% more Ca-phosphate and 11.53%, 15.29%, 28.48%, 36.55% (respectively in 4 cycles) more ER-phosphate than free cells. The reuse efficiency of agar entrapped bacterial cells for Ca-phosphate and ER-phosphate solubilization was greater than that by freely suspended bacterial cells. In conclusion, immobilization could enhance the phosphate solubilization capacity of the strains and thus could be used effectively in enhancing solubilization of ER phosphate.

Bacterial Phosphate Homeostasis: Role of Phosphate Transporters (세균의 인산 항상성: 인산 수송 단백질들의 역할)

  • Park, Yoon-Mee;Bang, Iel-Soo
    • Korean Journal of Microbiology
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    • v.48 no.2
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    • pp.57-65
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    • 2012
  • Phosphorous is an essential element for the synthesis of various biomolecules including phospholipids, carbohydrates and nucleic acids. Bacterial cells can uptake it as forms of phosphate and phosphate-containing nutrients from extracellular environments, and reserve extra phosphate to polyphosphate inside the cell. Among five phosphate transport systems, Pst plays central roles in phosphate transport, and its expression is coordinated by the regulation of PhoB-PhoR two component signal transduction system in response to extracellular levels of phosphate. Genomic studies on the response regulator PhoB reveal many genes independent of phosphate metabolism. Based on recent findings on phenotypes of bacteria lacking proper function of each phosphate transport system, this review discusses roles of phosphate transporters in maintaining optimum intracellular phosphate levels, and presents diverse phenotypes of phosphate transporters related with other environmental signals as well as phosphate, then finally points out functional redundancy among phosphate transport systems or their regulators, which emphasize importance of phosphate homeostasis in governing metabolism, adaptation, and virulence of bacteria.