• Title, Summary, Keyword: phloroglucinol

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Antioxidative Effectiveness of Extract of Nut and Leaf of Ginkgo biloba L. (은행(Ginkgo biloba L.) 종실 및 잎 추출물의 항산화 효과에 관하여)

  • Bae, Jae Oh;Lee, Gee Dong;Kim, Jeong Sook;Yoon, Hyung Sik
    • Current Research on Agriculture and Life Sciences
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    • v.9
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    • pp.61-69
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    • 1991
  • Free phenolic acid, esterified and insoluble phenolic acid extract were extracted from Ginkgo nuts and leaves. Antioxidative effectiveness was measured by Peroxide value and TBA value at each extract, control, 0.02%(w/w) BHA and BHT in corn oil, at $45{\pm}1^{\circ}C$ and dark thermo static oven for 45 days. Laboratory tube was added by BHA, BHT, separated free phenolic acids, esterified and insoluble-bound phenolic acid extract of Ginkgo nuts and leaves 127, 95, 140, 121, 280 meq/kg, oil. On the other hand, at the same condition TBA values of each antioxidative matter were 0.430, 0.153, 0.059, 0.175, 0.260, 0.187, 0.160, 0.174, 0.195. This result remarkably appeared antioxidative effectiveness in corn oil substrate, ${\rho}$-Hydroxybenzoic acid, Syringic acid, Gallic acid, Protocatechuic acid, Pyrogallol, Caffeic acid, Coumaric acid, trans-Cinnamic acid, Phloroglucinol.

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Elucidation of Anti-tumor Initiator and Promoter Derived from Seaweed-3 : Anti-tumor Promoters of Ecklonia stolonifera Extracts (해조류 중의 anti-tumor initiator 및 promoter의 해석-3 : 곰피 추출물중의 발암 promotion억제 인자)

  • PARK Young-Beom;KIM In-Soo;YOO Sung-Jae;AHN Jong-Khan;LEE Tae-Gee;PARK Douck-Chon;KIM Seon-Bong
    • Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
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    • v.31 no.4
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    • pp.587-593
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    • 1998
  • To elucidate anti-tumor promoter from seaweed, the anti-tumor promoting activity of Ecklonia stolonifera, Undaria pinnatifida and Laminaria japonica extracts were determined by Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-early antigen (EA) induction caused by a tumor promoter, teleocidin B-4. The methanol extracts of seaweed were subsequently fractionated with diethyl ether, distilled water, chloroform and ethyl acetate. Among the solvent fractions tested, chloroform and ethyl acetate fraction of E. stolonifera showed a high anti-tumor promoting activity at the levels of 88.0 and $85.9\%$ by the addition of 20 ${\mu}g/m{\ell}$, respectively. To characterize anti-tumor promoters from solvent fractions of E. stolonifera, the effects of phenols, chlorophyll derivatives and carotenoids on the anti-tumor promoting activity were investigated. Phenols, such as bromophenol and phloroglucinol showed anti-tumor promoting activity of $57\~66\%$ at 20 ${\mu}g/m{\ell}$. Pigments, such as chlorophylls and carotenoids exerted high anti-tumor promoting activities. Chlorophyll a and pheophorbide a exhibited the activity of $77.4\%$ and $66.6\%$ at 5${\mu}M/m{\ell}$, respectively. The active compounds of carotenoids were tentatively identified as lutein and $\alpha-cryptoxanthin$ from the profiles of visible spectra and R_f value of their authentic compounds, and showed anti-tumor promoting activities of $76.9\%$ and $84.4\%$ at dose of 20 ${\mu}g/m{\ell}$, respectively.

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Effect of Ensiling with Acremonium Cellulase, Lactic Acid Bacterial and Formic Acid on Tissue Structure of Timothy and Alfalfa

  • Asian, Aniwaru;Okamoto, M.;Yoshihira, T.;Ataku, K.;Narasaki, N.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.10 no.6
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    • pp.593-598
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    • 1997
  • The changes of tissue structure in timothy and alfalfa during ensiling process with silage additives; lactic acid bacteria, cellulase and formic acid, were observed with a video microscope. Stem samples were obtained from the second internode, and cut to divide into 2 pieces. One piece was for observation of ensiled material and the other was for silage. The latter piece was put into a nylon cloth bag, and ensiled with grass for 50 days in a small experimental silo Lignification of the plant tissues was checked by acid phloroglucinol. Natural silage fermentation resulted in some degradation of less lignified parenchyma in both plant species. However, lignified sclerenchyma and vascular bundles remained intact. The cellulase enhanced the degradation of parenchyma tissue, while the formic acid suppressed the degradation. The effect of lactobacillus was small. The percentage of remained cross sectional area of stem and the loss of NDF and ADF by silage fermentation confirmed the observation. High negative correlations were obtained between the remained area and loss of fibrous components during silage fermentation in both plants, and between the loss of fibrous components and in vitro dry matter digestibility in timothy but not in alfalfa.

Inhibitory Phlorotannins from the Edible Brown Alga Ecklonia stolonifera on Total Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) Generation

  • Kang, Hye-Sook;Chung, Hae-Young;Kim, Ji-Young;Son, Byeng-Wha;Jung, Hyun-Ah;Choi, Jae-Sue
    • Archives of Pharmacal Research
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    • v.27 no.2
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    • pp.194-198
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    • 2004
  • Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play an important role in the pathogenesis of many human degenerative diseases such as cancer, aging, arteriosclerosis, and rheumatism. Much attention has been focused on the development of safe and effective antioxidants. To discover sources of antioxidative activity in marine algae, extracts from 17 kinds of seaweed were screened for their inhibitory effect on total ROS generation in kidney homogenate using 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA). ROS inhibition was seen in three species: UIva pertusa, Symphyocladia latiuscula, and Ecklonia stolonifera. At a final concentration of 25 $\mu\textrm{g}$/mL, U. pertusa inhibited 85.65$\pm$20.28% of total ROS generation, S. latiscula caused 50.63$\pm$0.09% inhibitory, and the Ecklonia species was 44.30$\pm$7.33% inhibition. E. stolonifera OKAMURA (Lam-inariaceae), which belongs to the brown algae, has been further investigated because it is commonly used as a foodstuff in Korea. Five compounds, phloroglucinol (1), eckstolonol (2), eckol (3), phlorofucofuroeckol A (4), and dieckol (5), isolated from the ethyl acetate soluble fraction of the methanolic extrclct of E. stolonifera inhibited total ROS generation.

Hepatoprotective Constituents of the Edible Brown Alga Ecklonia stolonifera on Tacrine-induced Cytotoxicity in Hep G2 Cells

  • Kim, Youn-Chul;An, Ren-Bo;Yoon, Na-Young;Nam, Taek-Jeong;Choi, Jae-Sue
    • Archives of Pharmacal Research
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    • v.28 no.12
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    • pp.1376-1380
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    • 2005
  • In this study, ethanolic extracts from 18 seaweed variants were assessed for hepatoprotective activity against tacrine-induced cytotoxicity in Hep G2 cells. Only one of these, Ecklonia stolonifera Okamura (Laminariaceae), a member of the brown algae, exhibited promising hepatoprotective activity. Bioassay-guided fractionation of the active ethyl acetate (EtOAc) soluble fraction obtained from the ethanolic extract of E. stolonifera, resulted in the isolation of several phlorotannins [phloroglucinol (1), eckstolonol (2), eckol (3), phlorofucofuroeckol A (4), and dieckol (5)]. Compounds 2 and 4 were determined to protect Hep G2 cells against the cytotoxic effects of tacrine, with $EC_{50}$ values of 62.0 and 79.2 $\mu$g/mL, respectively. Silybin, a well characterized hepatoprotective agent, was used as a positive control, and exhibited an $EC_{50}$ value of 50.0 $\mu$g/mL. It has been suggested that the phlorotannins derived from marine brown algae might prove useful sources in the development of novel hepatoprotective agents.

In Vitro Mass Propagation and Soil Adjastment of Zanthoxylum piperitum var. inerme Makino through Apical Meristem Culture (生長點 培養에 依한 민초피나무(Zanthoxylum piperitum var. inerme Makino)의 器內 大量 增殖 및 土壤 活着)

  • Jeong, Woo-Gyu;Lee, Sang-Rae
    • Korean Journal of Plant Resources
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    • v.6 no.2
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    • pp.171-179
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    • 1993
  • This study was conducted to investigate the effect of growth regulators and medium composition on the growth of each stage in apical meristem culture for mass propagation of Zanthoxylum piperitum var. inerme Makino. The source material, shoot tip segments were taken from three-years old graft trees. Apical meristems were cultured in vitro on basal MS, GD, WS, half strength MS(1/2MS) and half strength GD(1/2GD) media supplemented with various concentrations for growth regulators(BA, IBA) and inorganic nutrients. The results summarized are as follows: 1. In culture establishment stage, ratio of culture establishment was 96.7% and the best resuit was obtained using MS medium supplemented with 1.0mg/l BA and 0.2mg/l IBA. 2. In shoot multitication stage, both shoot multiplication and growth were achieved in average 5.6cm. These results were obtained on in MS medium supplemented with 1.0mg/l BA and 0.2mg/l IBA. 3. In roothing stage, phloroglucinol(PG) acted as IBA synergist in root initiation. The most faverable combinations for root development was half-strength MS medium supplemented with 162mg/l PG and 0.2mg/l IBA, and ratio of rooting was 58.0%. 4. In Vitro formed plantlets were transplanted to paper pots in greenhouse with 85% of relative humidity. 96% of survival rate was obtained from artificial soil mix having same volume of sand, vermiculite, peat, and soil.

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Isolation of Eckol from Ecklonia cava via Centrifugal Partition Chromatography (CPC) and Characterization of it's Anti-inflammatory Activity (고속원심분배 크로마토그래피를 이용한 감태(Ecklonia cava)로부터 Eckol의 분리 및 항염증 활성)

  • Kim, Yoon Taek;Lee, Ji-Hyeok;Ko, Ju-Young;Oh, Jae-Young;Lee, Won-U;Sok, Chang Hyun;Hong, Jin Tae;Jeon, You-Jin
    • Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
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    • v.48 no.3
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    • pp.301-307
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    • 2015
  • Phlorotannins and marine algal polyphenols, including dieckol, 6,6-bieckol, phloroglucinol, phlorofucofuroeckol-A, and eckol, were isolated from brown seaweeds. These compounds have beneficial bioactivities, and Ecklonia cava has become widely used for the extraction and isolation of phlorotannins. Eckol, in particular, has been to shown to have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticoagulatory, and photoprotective properties. However, due to its low abundance in weaweed, the isolation and purification of eckol are difficult. Its limited availability renders the isolation and purification of eckol labor-intensive processes. Centrifugal partition chromatography (CPC) is an efficient technique for the isolation and purification of eckol. In this study, eckol was isolated from the ethyl acetate fraction of the 70% ethanol extract of E. cava using CPC with a two-phase solvent system of a n-hexane:EtOAc:methanol:water (2:8:3:7, v/v) solution. The purity and anti-inflammatory activity of the isolated eckol were verified by high-performance liquid chromatography and by assaying lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory responses in an immortalized murine BV2 microglial cell line, respectively. In conclusion, CPC is a useful technique for simple and efficient isolation of eckol from E. cava.

Dryocrassin ABBA Induces Apoptosis in Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma HepG2 Cells Through a Caspase-Dependent Mitochondrial Pathway

  • Jin, Zhe;Wang, Wen-Fei;Huang, Jian-Ping;Wang, He-Meng;Ju, Han-Xun;Chang, Ying
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.17 no.4
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    • pp.1823-1828
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    • 2016
  • Background: Biological and pharmacological activities of dryocrassin ABBA, a phloroglucinol derivative extracted from Dryopteris crassirhizoma, have attracted attention. In this study, the apoptotic effect of dryocrassin ABBA on human hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells was investigated. Materials and Methods: We tested the effects of dryocrassin ABBA on HepG2 in vitro by MTT, flow cytometry, real-time PCR, and Western blotting. KM male mice were used to detect the effect of dryocrassin ABBA on H22 cells in vivo. Results: Dryocrassin ABBA inhibited the growth of HepG2 cells in a concentration-dependent manner. After treatment with 25, 50, and $75{\mu}g/mL$ dryocrassin ABBA, the cell viability was 68%, 60% and 49%, respectively. Dryocrassin ABBA was able to induce apoptosis, measured by propidium iodide (PI)/annexin V-FITC double staining. The results of real-time PCR and Western ting showed that dryocrassin ABBA up-regulated p53 and Bax expression and inhibited Bcl-2 expression which led to an activation of caspase-3 and caspase-7 in the cytosol, and then induction of cell apoptosis. In vivo experiments also showed that dryocrassin ABBA treatment significantly suppressed tumor growth, without major side effects. Conclusions: Overall, these findings provide evidence that dryocrassin ABBA may induce apoptosis in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells through a caspase-mediated mitochondrial pathway.

Overexpression of ginseng patatin-related phospholipase pPLAIIIβ alters the polarity of cell growth and decreases lignin content in Arabidopsis

  • Jang, Jin Hoon;Lee, Ok Ran
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.44 no.2
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    • pp.321-331
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    • 2020
  • Background: The patatin-related phospholipase AIII family (pPLAIIIs) genes alter cell elongation and cell wall composition in Arabidopsis and rice plant, suggesting diverse commercial purposes of the economically important medicinal ginseng plant. Herein, we show the functional characterization of a ginseng pPLAIII gene for the first time and discuss its potential applications. Methods: pPLAIIIs were identified from ginseng expressed sequence tag clones and further confirmed by search against ginseng database and polymerase chain reaction. A clone showing the highest homology with pPLAIIIβ was shown to be overexpressed in Arabidopsis using Agrobacterium. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction was performed to analyze ginseng pPLAIIIβ expression. Phenotypes were observed using a low-vacuum scanning electron microscope. Lignin was stained using phloroglucinol and quantified using acetyl bromide. Results: The PgpPLAIIIβ transcripts were observed in all organs of 2-year-old ginseng. Overexpression of ginseng pPLAIIIβ (PgpPLAIIIβ-OE) in Arabidopsis resulted in small and stunted plants. It shortened the trichomes and decreased trichome number, indicating defects in cell polarity. Furthermore, OE lines exhibited enlarged seeds with less number per silique. The YUCCA9 gene was downregulated in the OE lines, which is reported to be associated with lignification. Accordingly, lignin was stained less in the OE lines, and the expression of two transcription factors related to lignin biosynthesis was also decreased significantly. Conclusion: Overexpression of pPLAIIIβ retarded cell elongation in all the tested organs except seeds, which were longer and thicker than those of the controls. Shorter root length is related to auxinresponsive genes, and its stunted phenotype showed decreased lignin content.

Breeding of 'Joyskin' Pear as fruit for Eating with the Skin (껍질째 먹는 배 '조이스킨' 육성)

  • Kim, Yoon-Kyeong;Kang, Sam-Seok;Cho, Kwang-Sik;Won, Kyung-Ho;Shin, Il-Sheob;Kim, Myung-Su;Ma, Kyeong-Bok;Lee, In Bog
    • Horticultural Science & Technology
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    • v.34 no.6
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    • pp.959-965
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    • 2016
  • In 1994, a new cultivar 'Joyskin' was created from a cross between the cultivars 'Whangkeumbae' and 'Waseaka' at the Pear Research Institute of the National Institute of Horticultural and Herbal Science, Rural Development Administration. In 2006, the 'Joyskin' was selected from among the 317 seedlings resulting from the cross for its skin and taste qualities. Regional adaptation tests were conducted in nine regions and in ten experimental plots from 2006 to 2011. The cultivar was named in 2011. 'Joyskin' showed a vigorous growth habit and semi-spread characteristics similar to 'Whangkeumbae'. The average full bloom date for 'Joyskin' was April 21st, which was also similar to 'Whangkeumbae'. The optimum fruit ripening time was September 6-8th, which was six or eight days earlier than 'Whangkeumbae'. The fruit was round in shape and the skin was a golden yellow color at maturity. The average fruit weight was 320 g and the flesh firmness was $2.5kg/8mm{\varphi}$. The firmness of the fruit skin determined by a blade-type plunger of texture analyzer was 22.9 N, which was significantly different from that of 'Whangkeumbae' 29.9N. Stone cell analysis of 'Joyskin' by phloroglucinol-HCl, showed that 'Joyskin' stone cells were small in size and few in numbers cpmpared to those of cultivars of was 'Manpungbae', 'Niitaka', and 'Whangkeumbae'. The patent application for 'Joyskin' was submitted in April, 2012 (Grant No. 2012-337). In 2016, 'Joyskin' (Grant No. 5895) was registered as a separate record, with uniformity and stability per Korean Seed Industry Law.