• Title, Summary, Keyword: phloem exudate

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Flower-Inducing Activity in the Phloem Exudata and Gene Expression Specific to Photoperiodic Floral Induction in Pharbitis Cotyledons

  • Kim, Kang-Chang;Lee, Jin-Hwan;Her, Yoon-Kang;Maeng, Jue-Son
    • Journal of Plant Biology
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    • v.39 no.4
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    • pp.257-263
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    • 1996
  • Flower-inducing activity in the phloem exudata of Pharbitis cotyledons was investigated using the bioassay of Pharbitis and Lemna. By SDS-PAGE and 2-D gel electrophoresis of the phloem exudate, two polypeptides of 11 kDa and of approximately 32 kDa (pI 6.9) showing qualitative changes during the flower induction were detected. A polypeptide of approximately 20 kDa (pI 4.8) specifically labeled in vivo with [35S]methionine was found during the inductive dark period in Pharbitis cotyledon tissues. The polypeptide of the equivalent molecular mass and with the identicl pI value was also detected by in vitro translation assay. Thus, it is assumed that the 20 kDa polypeptide plays a role in the process of flower induction in Pharbitis cotyledons.

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Effects of Electric Current on Flowering in Pharbitis and Floral Stimulus activity in the Phloem Exudate of Cotyledons

  • Jueson Maeng
    • Journal of Plant Biology
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    • v.37 no.2
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    • pp.159-166
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    • 1994
  • Direct current (DC) applied to cotyledons during a 16 h inductive dark period inhibited the flowering in the short-day plant, Pharbitis nil Choisy cv. Violet. The inhibitory effect of DC was more profound when the current flowed from roots to cotyledons, showing its polarity-dependent action. The second half on the inductive dark period was more sensitive to DC stimulus. The flowering was significantly depressed only when DC stimuli were applied to the translocation path of the floral stimulus from the induced cotyledon to the apex, suggesting that the transport of floral stimulus was damaged by the DC treatment. The vegetative apex culture bioassay system showed that a significant level of the floral stimulus activity existed in the phloem exudate from the cotyledons which would fail to form their own floral buds. These results strongly support the hypothesis that DC partially impede, at least temporarily, the transmission path of the floral stimulus from florally-induced cotyledon to the apex, rather than depressing in situ synthesis of the floral stimulus.

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Root Exudation by Aphid Leaf Infestation Recruits Root-Associated Paenibacillus spp. to Lead Plant Insect Susceptibility

  • Kim, Bora;Song, Geun Cheol;Ryu, Choong-Min
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.26 no.3
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    • pp.549-557
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    • 2016
  • Aphids are a large group of hemipteran pests that affect the physiology, growth, and development of plants by using piercing mouthparts to consume fluids from the host. Based an recent data, aphids modulate the microbiomes of plants and thereby affect the overall outcome of the biological interaction. However, in a few reports, aboveground aphids manipulate the metabolism of the host and facilitate infestations by rhizosphere bacteria (rhizobacteria). In this study, we evaluated whether aphids alter the plant resistance that is mediated by the bacterial community of the root system. The rhizobacteria were affected by aphid infestation of pepper, and a large population of gram-positive bacteria was detected. Notably, Paenibacillus spp. were the unique gram-positive bacteria to respond to changes induced by the aphids. Paenibacillus polymyxa E681 was used as a rhizobacterium model to assess the recruitment of bacteria to the rhizosphere by the phloem-sucking of aphids and to test the effect of P. polymyxa on the susceptibility of plants to aphids. The root exudates secreted from peppers infested with aphids increased the growth rate of P. polymyxa E681. The application of P. polymyxa E681 to pepper roots promoted the colonization of aphids within 2 days of inoculation. Collectively, our results suggest that aphid infestation modulated the root exudation, which led to the recruitment of rhizobacteria that manipulated the resistance of peppers to aphids. In this study, new information is provided on how the infestation of insects is facilitated through insect-derived modulation of plant resistance with the attraction of gram-positive rhizobacteria.