• Title, Summary, Keyword: phenolic content

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Relationship of Phenolic Compounds and Free-radical Scavenging Activity in Black and Red Rice Extract

  • Hu, Gao-Sheng;Xu, Kai-Xiu;Jeong, Soon Jae;Kim, Doh-Hoon
    • Korean Journal of Breeding Science
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    • v.42 no.2
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    • pp.129-138
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    • 2010
  • Total phenolic content, total anthocyanin content and antioxidant activity were analyzed from rice samples collected in Korea, Japan and China. The results showed that the total phenolic content and free-radical scavenging activity differed significantly in these rice lines. The correlation between content and activity was subsequently investigated. The results showed that in black rice, anthocyanin was the major phenolic component and that both phenolic content and anthocyanin content were closely correlated with free-radical scavenging activity. Reverse Phase High Performance Liquid Chromatography (RP-HPLC) data showed that cyanidin-3-O-glucoside and peonidin-3-O-glucoside composed about 90% of the total anthocyanin content in black rice and in red rice. In the red rice extract, the total phenolic content produced a high correlation coefficient with antioxidant activity but correlated very poorly with the total anthocyanin content. The $OD_{458}$ and the $OD_{500}$ values which represent the proanthocyanidin content of the rice extract, produced high correlation coefficients with antioxidant activity and total phenolic content. These results suggest that the $OD_{458}$ and the $OD_{500}$ values can be used to evaluate the quality of red rice. In addition, based on the data obtained, a competitive accumulation model of anthocyanin and proanthocyanidin in black and red rice was proposed.

Changes in Antioxidant Activity and Total Phenolic Content of Water Spinach (Ipomoea aquatic Forsk.) under In Vitro Biomimicking System

  • Lee, A-Young;Kim, Young-Suk;Shim, Soon-Mi
    • Food Engineering Progress
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    • v.14 no.4
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    • pp.342-345
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    • 2010
  • The purpose of current study was to examine bioaccessibility of antioxidant activity and total phenolic content in each part of water spinach (Ipomoea aquatic Forsk.). In vitro biomimicking system simulated human digestive fluid was employed in order to measure bioavailable anti-oxidative effect and phenolic content. Antioxidant activity and total phenolic content was measured by using the DPPH method and the Folin-Ciocalteu assay, respectively. Stem of water spinach had a higher DPPH free radical scavenging effect (5.43 mg/mL for $IC_{50}$) than leaf (5.95 mg/mL for $IC_{50}$), while leaf had a greater level of total phenolic content (287.45 ${\mu}g$ GAE/mL) than stem (216.45 ${\mu}g$ GAE/mL). Bioaccessible antioxidant capacity and digestive stability of total phenolic content showed a similar pattern to what found in raw materials. Our result also indicated that total phenolic content was not found to be a major marker for prediction of antioxidant activity. It is plausible that other constituents such as vitamin E and C in water spinach could be contributors for antioxidant activities.

Evaluation of antimicrobial activity and total phenolic content of three Pinus species

  • Kim, Hyeusoo;Lee, Byongsoon;Yun, Kyeong Won
    • Journal of Ecology and Environment
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    • v.36 no.1
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    • pp.57-63
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    • 2013
  • This study compared the antimicrobial activity and total phenolic content of three Pinus plants (Pinus densiflora, P. thunbergii, P. rigida) for the first time. The antimicrobial activity of the water fraction of methanol extract of fresh leaves was stronger than that of fallen leaves at any concentrations. The water fraction of crude methanol extract from fresh leaves of P. thunbergii showed a higher growth inhibitory activity against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria than that of P. densiflora and P. rigida. The results from the disc diffusion method followed by measurements of minimal inhibition concentration (MIC) indicate that Bacillus subtilis was the most sensitive microorganism with the lowest MIC value. The highest total phenolic content was found in fresh leaves of P. rigida and P. thunbergii. The assay showed that the fresh leaves of the three Pinus plants contained higher total phenolic content than fallen leaves of the three plants. The antimicrobial activity was related with the total phenolic content.

Composition and Antioxidative Characteristics of Phenolic Fraction Isolated from Soybean Fermented Food (콩 발효식품으로부터 분리한 페놀물질획분의 성분분석과 항산화 작용 특성)

  • 이정수;최홍식
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.26 no.3
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    • pp.383-389
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    • 1997
  • Doenjang(fermented soybean paste) was prepared by the series of processes including soaking, cooking, first fermentation(3 days at 30$\pm$2$^{\circ}C$) for the preparation of meju(soybean koji) after inoclulation of Aspergillus oryzae, and further fermentation (60 days at 30$\pm$2$^{\circ}C$) for the ripening after addition of salt 13% to meju. the crude phenolics extracted from defatted soybean and doenjang were fractionated onto the neutral phenolics(isofavonoids) and acidic phenolics(phenolic acids), respectively. Composition and antioxidative characteristics of phenolic fractions were determined. The neutral phenolic fractions contained genistin, genistein and daidzein; on the other hand, acidic phenolic fractions had syringic acid and seven other components. The content of genistin in doenjang dramatically decreased at the early stage of fermentation, whereas the content of genistein rather increased. In addition, the content of syringic acid of acidic phenolic fractions were increased during fermentation. These changes in individual phenolic components affected the antioxidative activity of neutral phenolics or acidic phenolics. antioxidative activity of phenolic compounds were evaluated during soybean fermentation. The antioxidative and free radical scavenging activity of neutral phenolic fractions and acidic phenolic fractions on linoleic acid autoxidation were also investigated.

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Study on the Color Characteristics of Korean Red (한국산 적포도주의 색도 변화에 관한 연구 (II))

  • Lee, Jang-Eun;Shin, Yong-Sub;Sim, Jun-Ki;Kim, Sung-Soo;Koh, Kyung-Hee
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.34 no.2
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    • pp.164-169
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    • 2002
  • Five kinds of red wine from three different grape varieties, such as Gerbong (G), Campbell (C), Moru (M), Gerbong+Moru (70:30, GM), and Gerbong+Campbell(70:30, GC) were prepared in the year of 2000. The total phenolic content and color changes were monitored using hunter colorimeter and spectrophotometry methods during wine processing. The total phenolic content of Gerbong (G), Campbell (C), Moru (M), Gerbong+Moru(70:30, GM), and Gerbong+Campbell(70:30, GC) were 712.6 mg/L, 3472.9 mg/L, 2209.4 mg/L, 2019.4 mg/L, and 1184.5 mg/L, respectively. Between total phenolic content and hunter colorimeter value (L, a, and b) of red wine showed no significant difference, but that of spectrophotometry color value (hue and intensity) were significantly different (p<0.001). The total phenolic content, hue, and intensity values represented significantly different between grape varieties (p<0.01, p<0.001). the hue showed a negative correlation relationship $(r^2=0.8660,\;p<0.0001)$, and that of intensity was a positive $(r^2=0.8304,\;p<0.0001)$ between total phenolic contents. The total phenolic content of red wine could be estimated simply using these equations, $Y_{Total\;phenolic\;content\;(mg/L)}=3319.3-X_{Hue}/2208.36,\;and\;Y_{Total\;phenolic\;content\;(mg/L)}=1230.97-X_{intensity}/98.93$

Analysis of the Phenolic Content and Antioxidant Activities of Soybean Extracts from Different Regions and Cultivars

  • Nam, Jung-Hwan;Kang, Suk-Woo;Hong, Su-Young;Kim, Su-Jeong;Jin, Young-Ik;Kim, Hyun-Sam;Yoon, Young-Ho;Jeong, Jin-Cheol;Pan, Cheol-Ho;Um, Byung-Hun;Nho, Chu-Won;Ok, Hyun-Choong
    • Korean Journal of Plant Resources
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    • v.27 no.6
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    • pp.610-621
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    • 2014
  • Phenolic compounds such as isoflavones contribute to the antioxidant properties of soybean. This study investigated differences in the phenolic content and antioxidant activity of ten soybean cultivars grown in two different locations in Korea. We observed a wide range of variation in total isoflavone and phenolic content by location and cultivar. The total isoflavone content of cultivars grown at Pyeongchang (sub-highland) was significantly higher than that in cultivars grown at Gangneung (lowland). In contrast, the total phenolic content of cultivars grown at Gangneung was greater than that of cultivars grown at Pyeongchang. The radical scavenging activity of DPPH was similar to that of the total phenolic content rather than that of the total isoflavone content. These results suggest that antioxidant activity of soybean was associated with phenolic compounds rather than isoflavones. To identify the individual antioxidant components, we used an on-line HPLC-$ABTS^+$-based assay system, ESI/MS, and NMR. The results showed that the strongest antioxidant activity was linked to epicatechin.

Changes in the Content of Individual Phenolic Compounds in Apple Slices during Cold Storage (냉장저장 중 사과슬라이스의 개별페놀성분함량과 제변화)

  • Ahn, Sun-Choung
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Culture
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    • v.23 no.4
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    • pp.489-498
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    • 2008
  • The objectives of this study were to provide fundamental information on how individual phenolic compounds form on the inside of apple slices during cold storage, the changes in the content of four types of phenols, ingredient variation of individual phenolic compounds and the influence of phenolic compounds on enzymatic browning. This study measured the changes in the content of soluble solids, pH and vitamin C in order to investigate the correlations between these variables. HD and FA were the main phenolic compounds found in the apple slices, and HD was the most prevalent phenol. Furthermore, comparison of the CG and EP content revealed that there were more CGs than EPs. The phenol content tended to decrease considerably in the fresh apple slices and water-dipped apple slices but only slightly in the CP from sucrose-dipped apple slices and 0.5% ascorbic acid solution-dipped apple slices. The degree of browning increased in the following order: fresh apple slices, water-dipped apple slices, 0.5% ascorbic acid solution-dipped apple slices and CP from sucrose-dipped apple slices. The vitamin C content tended to decrease in the fresh apple slices, water-dipped apple slices, 0.5% ascorbic acid solution-dipped apple slices and CP from sucrose-dipped apple slices. The pH tended to increase in all sample groups, but the pH of the water-dipped apple slices was lower than that of the comparison group. The CP from sucrose-dipped apple slices had the lowest value of pH. The change in soluble solids tended to increase in all treatment groups, but this increase was less in the CP from sucrose-dipped apple slice. Correlation analysis revealed a high degree of correlation between browning and chlorogenic acid content. The results of the present study show that, when stored in the fridge, the change in phenol ingredient content in apple slices influences the browning of the slices. The results also showed that HD and FA were the main phenolic compounds, while CG was shown to have the greatest influence on browning.

Antioxidative Materials in Domestic Meju and Doenjang 4. Separation of Phenolic Compounds and Their Antioxidative Activity (재래식 메주 및 된장 중의 항산화성 물질에 관한 연구 4. 페놀화합물의 함량과 항산화력)

  • 김미혜;임상선;유영법;김경업;이종호
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.23 no.5
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    • pp.792-798
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    • 1994
  • In order to investigate the antioxidant activity of phenolic compounds contained in domestic Meju and Doenjang , the methanolic extract from defatted Meju and Doenjang was fractionated into the phenolic acid and the isoflavone fractions by alumina column and polyamide-6 column chromatography, respectively. Both phenolic acid and isoflavone fractions exhibited an identical antioxidative effect against the oxidation of linoleic acid. GC analysis revealed that the phenolic acid fractio contained vanillic , chlorogenic ,p-coumalic , ferulic, and caffeine acid. The content of caffic acid was greater than 70% in the phenolic acid fraction and the content of vanillic and chlorogenic acids were disappeared during fermentation, and thus, the facts are thought to be reasons for the low antioxidant activity of the phenolic aicd fraction from Doenjang. Similarly, the isoflavone fraction cotained daidzin, glycitin-65-0 glucosider and genistin and their aglycons such as daidzein, glyciten and genistein. The content of daidzin and genistin in Meju dramatically decreased at the early stage of fermentation ,whereas the content of daidzein an dgenistein rather increased ; however, these change in isoflavone contents did not affect the antioxidant activity of isoflavone fractions.

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Antioxidant Activity and Total Phenolic Content of Triphala churna

  • Jayajothi, E.;Elavarasu, T.;Hamsaveni, M.;Sridhar, S.K.
    • Natural Product Sciences
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    • v.10 no.1
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    • pp.16-19
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    • 2004
  • Triphala churna is a widely used herbal formulation that contains equal proportion of dried fruit powder of Emblica officinalis, Terminalia chebula and Terminalia belirica. In the Indian system of medicine, it is used in cleaning wounds, urinary disorders, diabetes mellitus, leprosy, constipation, eyesight promotion, piles, and as a rejuvenator. In the present study, the methanolic extract of 5 commercial Triphala was evaluated for antioxidant activity by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl free radical scavenging method, total phenolic content by Folin-Ciocalteu method and gallic acid equivalents (GAE) by high performance thin layer chromatographic (HPTLC) method. All extracts exhibited antioxidant activity significantly. The $IC_{50}$ of the extracts ranged between $7.16\;to\;12.96\;{\mu}g/ml$. The total phenolic content of the extracts was found to be 195.3-296.4 mg of GAE/gm of GAE/gm dw. The HPTLC chromatographic data reveal that the content of GAE present in the extract was found to be $7.17-4.11\;{\mu}g/ml$. The study reveals that out of the churnas analysed, C was found to exhibit the most potent antioxidant activity. A clear correlation between $IC_{50}$ and content of GAE nor the total phenolic content could be observed. The study reveals that the consumption of Triphala would exert several beneficial effects by virtue of its antioxidant activity.

Screening of the total phenol content and analysis of phenolic compound in rice (Oryza saiva L.) genetic resources

  • Lee, Ji-Hee;An, Min-Jeong;Kim, Seung-Hyun;Chung, Ill-Min
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Crop Science Conference
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    • pp.290-290
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    • 2017
  • Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is one of the most consumed staple food crop which is energy source as carbohydrate and also is considered as the important antioxidant sources including various phenolic compounds. According to the increasing demand of healthy life, the concern to antioxidant also is increasing because of its health-promoting effect. Phenolic compounds are one of the plant secondary metabolites class, which shows various benefits to preventing or treating chronic diseases. In this study, we have measured the total phenol content from total 647 rice samples using the Floin-Ciocalteau method, and then were selected 30 rice genetic resources classified with high, middle, and low group on the basis of total phenol content. The average of the total phenol content of each group was high-group ($6892.9{\pm}488.5{\mu}g\;GAE/g$) > middle-group ($1428.1{\pm}76.0{\mu}g\;GAE/g$) > low-group ($97.6{\pm}11.4{\mu}g\;GAE/g$). The selected rice samples were analyzed with LC-MS/MS to find the composition and concentration of individual phenolic in rice grain. High-group and middle-group contained large amounts of protocatechuic acid and (+)-catechin whereas low-group showed limited amount. Among high-group samples, rice samples with black pericarp color (IT 174089, IT 220079, and IT 259958) had high content of peonidin-3-O-glucoside. Further, these black rice samples were special since polydatin, rarely found stilbenoid in rice grain, was detected. Overall, both the sum of phenolic acid and the sum of flavonoid were high-group > middle-group > low-group. Also, each group exhibited different phenolic compositions; high-group consisted of flavonoid more than phenolic acid, middle-group and low-group was comprised of phenolic acid rather than flavonoid, and non-pigmented rice was composed by fully phenolic acid. The total phenol content had positive relationships with the sum of phenolic compound (r = 0.64), the sum of flavonoid (r = 0.74) at the significance level of p < 0.0001. In addition, protocatechuic acid and quercetin showed positive correlation with above phenolic composition parameters; in order, r = 0.98, 0.65 for protocatechuic acid and r = 0.73, 0.78 for quercetin (p < 0.0001). In conclusion, the total phenol content assay showed the possibility of utilization as a phenolic composition indicator in rice grain. Also, this result was suggested study pigment on other material.

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