• Title, Summary, Keyword: phenolic compounds

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Phenolic Compounds in Persimmon Fruits and Stabilization of Discoloring Compounds (감의 페놀성 화합물과 변색관련 물질의 안정화)

  • 박용곤;김홍만;강윤한
    • The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition
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    • v.13 no.2
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    • pp.103-110
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    • 2000
  • This study was conducted to determine changes in phenolic compounds of astrigent persimmons before and after softening process and evaluate discoloring properties of major phenolic compounds. Phenolic compounds in soft persimmons were mainly composed of catechins and chlorogenic acid. Although contents of phenolic compounds were reduced during the softening process, little change in the ratio of catechins to total phenolic compounds was observed. Most of phenolic compounds in damaged astringents persimmons were existed in the high molecular weight fraction and more phenolic compounds were extracted at the temperature higher than room temperature. To evaluate discoloring abilities of phenolic compounds, phenolic compounds were dissolved separately into water or 80% methanol. With presence of various amounts of anti-discoloring agents such as vitamin C, citric acid, and L-cystein, (+)catechin was significantly reduced.

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Analytical Methods for Phenolic Compounds in Water and Wastewaters(I) (Phenol류의 분석방법에 관한 연구(I))

  • 김낙주;신현진
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.7 no.6
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    • pp.811-815
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    • 1998
  • Currently in Korea, standard operating procedure for the analyses of phenolic compounds in water is the spectrometric comparison of colors developed by 4-amino antipyrin with phenolic compounds. It is however that this method cannot identify individual compound and that some phenolic compounds do not react with 4-amino antipyrin. Spectrometric determinations of phenolic compounds were compared with chromatographic analyses of gas chromatography (GC) and high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) of various phenolic compounds. Individual phenolic compounds could be determined by both chromatographic methods but HPLC methods were more precise with lower detection levels in general.

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Phenolic Compounds Contents of Rusty-Root Tolerance Ginseng Lines in 6-Year Old Root (6년생 적변내성 인삼계통의 Phenolic Compounds 함량 특성)

  • Lee, Sung-Sik
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.26 no.3
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    • pp.165-169
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    • 2002
  • Experiments were carried out to select marker for rusty tolerance ginseng root using high rusty degree lines(HRL) and low rusty degree lines (LRL) in ginseng plant. A strong positive correlation was detected between degree of rusty-root in 4-year-root and that in 6-year-root. The contents of phenolic compounds among samples were not different in stele and branch & fine roots. The contents of phenolic compounds of rusty-roots was higher than that of healthy-roots in cortex, but those of high 겨sty degree lines (HRL) were not different compared with low rusty degree lines (LRL) in cortex using same rusty-degree samples. These suggest that phenolic compounds in cortex tissue were not adequate as a marker to select rusty tolerance ginseng roots. The contents of phenolic compounds of rusty-roots were higher than that of healthy-roots in epidermis, and those of HRL were higher than LRL in epidermis using same rusty-degree samples. These suggested that the contents of phenolic compounds in epidermis tissue might be a potent marker to select rusty tolerance ginseng roots.

The Stimultaneous Determination of Phenolic Compounds by GC and GC/MS

  • Kim, Jong-Bae;Park, Jyung-Rewng
    • Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
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    • v.3 no.2
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    • pp.111-118
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    • 1998
  • To develop a simple, rapid and simultaneous analytical method of phenolic compounds using gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography/mass spectrophometer (GC/Ms), this experiment was carried out to search the retention times of capillary columns and the characteristics of fragment ions in electron impact mass spectra. Most of trimethylsilyl derivatives and underivatized phenolic compounds were separated very well on three kinds of capillary columns(HP-1), Ultra-2 and HP-35). Quantitiative determination of phenolic compounds was achieved by internal standards (p-hydroxybenzoic acid iopropyl ester, p-hydroxybenzoic acid ethyl ester). Calibration plts were linear in the investigated range, and the limits of detection were about 5 ng at split mode method. When analyzed by three columns, theseparation times were fairly constant on two nonpolar columns, but a few compounds showed slightly different separation order by the itnermediate polar HP-35 column. The important characteristic patterns of TMS derivatives of phenolic compounds on the EI/MS spectrra appeared at the base peak of [M-15]+ ion and presented at high abundance in most TMS derivatives of phenoloc compounds. [M]+, [M-CH3-COO]+, [M-Si(CH3)4]+ and [M-Si(CH3)4 -CH3]+ also observed in mass spectra of these compounds . Although several compounds have the same retention times on GC column, it might be possible to identify these compounds by the different patternsof mass frgement ions. The TMS derivatives, thus , provide additional information for identification of phenolic compounds in biological systems.

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Total Phenolic Compounds and Flavonoids in the Parts of Artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) in Viet Nam

  • Thi, Bui Ha Thu;Park, Moon-Ki
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.17 no.1
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    • pp.19-27
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    • 2008
  • Artichoke extracts are widely used alone or in association with other herbs for embittering alcoholic and soft drinks and to prepare herbal teas or herbal medicinal products in Viet Nam. The objective of this paper was a screening of flavonoids and total phenolic compounds content in the parts of artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) as flowers, leaves, roots, trunks, stumps, The total phenolic compounds and flavonoids in the parts of artichoke were extracted among 3 extraction methods as methanol extraction (EM1), mixing methanol and water method (EM2) and water extraction method (EM3). Total phenolic compounds and flavonoids were determined by UV/VIS, HPLC techniques. The apigenin 7-O-glucosides, cynarin, narirutin, gallic acid, caffeic acid were found as the main flavonoids constituents in all parts of artichoke. It showed that value of total phenolic compounds and flavonoids by EM3 were higher than that of total phenolic compounds and flavonoids by EM1 and EM2. Furthermore, the results of this study revealed that total phenolic compounds and flavonoids, obtained by these convenient extraction methods, may show the quick efficacy of artichoke in all respects of their quality and quantity.

Quantitative Changes in Phenolic Compounds of Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) Seeds during Growth and Processing

  • Kim, Eun-Ok;Lee, Jun-Young;Choi, Sang-Won
    • Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
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    • v.11 no.4
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    • pp.311-317
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    • 2006
  • Phenolic compounds in safflower seeds were recently found to stimulate bone formation and increase plasma HDL cholesterol levels in estrogen deficient rats, and to inhibit melanin synthesis. Nine phenolic compounds: $N-feruloylserotonin-5-O-{\beta}-D-glucoside,\;8'-hydroxyarctigenin-4'-O-{\beta}-D-glucoside,\;luteolin-7-O-{\beta}-D-glucoside$, N-(p-coumaroyl)serotonin, N-feruloylserotonin, 8'-hydroxy arctigenin (HAG), luteolin (LT), $acacetin-7-O-{\beta}-D-glucuronide$ (ATG) and acacetin (AT), were quantified by HPLC in safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) seeds during growth and processing. During growth, levels of the nine phenolic compounds in the seeds increased progressively with increasing growth stages, reached a maximum on July 30 (42nd day after flowering), and then remained relatively constant. During the roasting process, levels of phenolic compounds, except HAG, LT and AT, generally decreased with increased roasting temperature and time, whereas those of HAG, LT and AT increased progressively with increased roasting temperature and time. During the steaming process, levels of other phenolic compounds except HAG and AT generally tended to increase with increased steaming time, whereas those of HAG and AT were scarcely changed. During the microwave treatment, quantitative changes of phenolic compounds were similar to the roasting process, although there were some differences in levels of phenolic compounds between two heat treatments. These results suggest that the steamed safflower seeds after harvesting on late July may be useful as potential dietary supplement source of phenolic compounds for prevention of several pathological disorders, such as atherosclerosis and osteoporosis and aging.

Analysis of Phenolic Compounds in Sorghum, Foxtail Millet and Common Millet

  • Jeon, Hyun-Seok;Chung, Ill-Min;Ma, Kyung-Ho;Kim, Eun-Hye;Yong, Soo-Jung;Ahn, Joung-Kuk
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.56 no.4
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    • pp.361-374
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    • 2011
  • The cereal grain crops have strong flexibility against adverse environment and they have various functional compounds. The objective of the present study was to screen phenolic compounds in sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench], foxtail millet (Setaria italica), common millet (Panicum miliaceum L.) by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with photodiode array (PDA) detector. Sorghum contained the highest amount of phenolic compounds among three different crops (sorghum, foxtail millet, common millet). Especially Moktaksusu showed the highest amount of phenolic compounds concentrations and biggest regional differences. The comparison of average phenolic compounds in sorghums by regions showed order to Milyang ($963.3\;{\mu}g{\cdot}g^{-1}$), Yeongyang ($923.1\;{\mu}g{\cdot}g^{-1}$), Gijang ($831.3\;{\mu}g{\cdot}g^{-1}$) and Bonghwa ($735.6\;{\mu}g{\cdot}g^{-1}$). Among the sorghum cultivars, Moktaksusu ($1407.9\;{\mu}g{\cdot}g^{-1}$) had the highest concentration of phenolic compounds. The average phenolic compounds of foxtail millets showed similar amount among Milyang ($319.0\;{\mu}g{\cdot}g^{-1}$), Gijang ($288.1\;{\mu}g{\cdot}g^{-1}$) and Bonghwa ($281.9\;{\mu}g{\cdot}g^{-1}$) areas. The phenolic compounds of Yeongyang ($246.6\;{\mu}g{\cdot}g^{-1}$) slightly low and that showed similar concentrations among three different regions. The concentration of phenolic compounds in foxtail millets, Chungchajo ($335.6\;{\mu}g{\cdot}g^{-1}$) showed the highest concentrations. The average phenolic compounds of common millets showed the highest concentrations in Milyang ($305.5\;{\mu}g{\cdot}g^{-1}$), Bonghwa ($262.0\;{\mu}g{\cdot}g^{-1}$), Gijang ($195.1\;{\mu}g{\cdot}g^{-1}$), Yeongyang ($237.2\;{\mu}g{\cdot}g^{-1}$) in decreasing order. The concentration of phenolic compounds of common millets was the highest in the Norangchalgijang ($337.0\;{\mu}g{\cdot}g^{-1}$), Hwanggumgijang ($250.0\;{\mu}g{\cdot}g^{-1}$) was also relatively higher than others. The results of this study will provide basic information for breeding sorghums, foxtail millets and common millets with higher phenolic compound concentrations.

Identification and Effects of Phenolic Compounds from Some Plants (수종 식물의 페놀화합물 분석과 효과)

  • Kim, Yong-Ok;Ho-Joon Lee
    • The Korean Journal of Ecology
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    • v.19 no.4
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    • pp.329-340
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    • 1996
  • The extracts of selected plants and analyzed phenolic compounds were used to study the effects of alleloKDICicals on seed germination and seedling growth. HPLC analysis of the aqueous extracts of seven species identified 15 phenolic compounds including caffeic acid. Among them, protocatechuic acid was detected at 65.87ppm and 6.84ppm, in Erigeron canadensis and Pinus rigida, respectively. And the extract of P. rigida showed the strongest inhibitory effect on seed germination. The extract of P. rigida leaves significantly inhibited germination and radicle growth of Raphanus sativus var. hortensis for. acanthiformis in direct proportion to concentration. However, germination of Cassia mimosoides var. nomame was stimulated by the treated extracts at the same concentrations, but root growth was inhibited at high concentrations. Except chlorogenic acid, eleven of the twelve phenolic compounds inhibited the germination of R. sativus var. hortensis for. acanthiformis. In the case of C. mimosoides var. nomame, some phenolic compounds such as chlorogenic acid, vanillic acid, protocatechuic acid, ferulic acid, gallic acid and ${\rho}-coumaric$ acid stimulated germination, while the others reduced it.

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Effects of Phenolic Compounds and Hosts on the vir Gene Expression of Various Ti Plasmids

  • Sim, Woong-Seop
    • Journal of Plant Biology
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    • v.38 no.1
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    • pp.19-24
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    • 1995
  • The vir genes expression of Ti plasmid is induced by a family of related phenolic compounds. We investigated the effects of various phenolic compounds, Ti plasmids and hosts on the expression of the vir genes in the same type of octopine Ti plasmids, pTiKU12, pTiAch5 and pTiA6. The vir gene induction of pTiKU12 was remarkably stimulated by p-coumaric acid in relation to acetosyringone, but those of pTiAch5 and pTiA6 were more stimulated by acetosyringone than by p-coumaric acid. The effect of phenolic compound on the vir gene induction was different according to the kind of Ti plasmids. Also, the vir gene expression of A. tumefaciens KU913, which has pTiKU12 was about 6.2 times as much as that of A. tumefaciens KU915, which has pTiKU12 in KU12 host, in the presence of ferulic acid. But no difference was shown in the presence of p-coumaric acid. The vir gene induction abilities of phenolic compounds are different according to the kinds of phenolic compounds, Ti plasmids and hosts.

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Antioxidative Activities of Phenolic Compounds Isolated from Inonotus obliquus (차가버섯으로부터 분리한 페놀성 화합물의 항산화효과)

  • Kim, Hyoung-Ja;Jin, Chang-Bae;Lee, Yong-Sup
    • Korean Journal of Pharmacognosy
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    • v.38 no.2
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    • pp.164-169
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    • 2007
  • ln our continued search for biologically active compounds from traditional medicine, we found that ethyl acetate fraction from Inonotus obliquus showed potent antioxidant activities on three different cell-free bioassay systems. Bioassay-directed chromatographic fractionation of the ethyl acetate fraction from Inonotus obliquus afforded four phenolic compounds, 4-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-(E)-3-buten-2-one (1) , 3,4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde (2), protocatechuic acid (3) and caffeic acid (4) along with three sterols such as lanosterol (5), ergosterol peroxide (6) and 9,11-dehydroergosterol peroxide (7). Among isolates, phenolic compounds (1-4) were assessed for antioxidant activities. Almost phenolic compounds showed potent DPPH and superoxide anion radicals scavenging and lipid peroxidation inhibitory activities indicating that these phenolic compounds contribute to the antioxidative activities of I. obliquus. Compounds 2-3 and 7 were isolated for the first time from this plant.