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Data issue and Improvement Direction for Marine Spatial Planning (해양공간계획 지원을 위한 정보 현안 및 개선 방향 연구)

  • CHANG, Min-Chol;PARK, Byung-Moon;CHOI, Yun-Soo;CHOI, Hee-Jung;KIM, Tae-Hoon;LEE, Bang-Hee
    • Journal of the Korean Association of Geographic Information Studies
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    • v.21 no.4
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    • pp.175-190
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    • 2018
  • Recently, policy of the marine advanced countries were switched from the preemption using ocean to post-project development. In this study, we suggest improvement and the pending issues when are deducted to the database of the marine spatial information is constructed over the GIS system for the Korean Marine Spatial Planning (KMSP). More than 250 spatial information in the seas of Korea were processed in order of data collection, GIS transformation, data analysis and processing, data grouping, and space mapping. It's process had some problem occurred to error of coordinate system, digitizing process for lack of the spatial information, performed by overlapping for the original marine spatial information, and so on. Moreover, solution is needed to data processing methods excluding personal information which is necessary when produce the spatial data for analysis of the used marine status and minimized method for different between the spatial information based GIS system and the based real information. Therefore, collection and securing system of lacking marine spatial information is enhanced for marine spatial planning. it is necessary to link and expand marine fisheries survey system. It is needed to the marine spatial planning. The marine spatial planning is required to the evaluation index of marine spatial and detailed marine spatial map. In addition, Marine spatial planning is needed to standard guideline and system of quality management. This standard guideline generate to phase for production, processing, analysis, and utilization. Also, the quality management system improve for the information quality of marine spatial information. Finally, we suggest necessity need for the depths study which is considered as opening extension of the marine spatial information and deduction on application model.

Development of a Predictive Model Describing the Growth of Staphylococcus aureus in Pyeonyuk marketed (시중 유통판매 중인 편육에서의 Staphylococcus aureus 성장예측모델 개발)

  • Kim, An-Na;Cho, Joon-Il;Son, Na-Ry;Choi, Won-Seok;Yoon, Sang-Hyun;Suh, Soo-Hwan;Kwak, Hyo-Sun;Joo, In-Sun
    • Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety
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    • v.32 no.3
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    • pp.206-210
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    • 2017
  • This study was performed to develope mathematical models for predicting growth kinetics of Staphylococcus aureus in the processed meat product, pyeonyuk. Growth patterns of S. aureus in pyeonyuk were determined at the storage temperatures of 4, 10, 20, and $37^{\circ}C$ respectively. The number of S. aureus in pyeonyuk increased at all the storage temperatures. The maximum specific growth rate (${\mu}_{max}$) and lag phase duration (LPD) values were calculated by Baranyi model. The ${\mu}_{max}$ values went up, while the LPD values decreased as the storage temperature increased from $4^{\circ}C$ to $37^{\circ}C$. Square root model and polynomial model were used to develop the secondary models for ${\mu}_{max}$ and LPD, respectively. Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) was used to evaluate the developed model and the fitness was determind to be 0.42. Therefore the developed predictive model was useful to predict the growth of S. aureus in pyeonyuk and it will help to prevent food-born disease by expanding for microbial sanitary management guide.

Development of a predictive model describing the growth of Staphylococcus aureus in processed meat product galbitang (식육추출가공품 중 갈비탕에서의 Staphylococcus aureus 성장예측모델 개발)

  • Son, Na-Ry;Kim, An-Na;Choi, Won-Seok;Yoon, Sang-Hyun;Suh, Soo-Hwan;Joo, In-Sun;Kim, Soon-Han;Kwak, Hyo-Sun;Cho, Joon-Il
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.49 no.3
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    • pp.274-278
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    • 2017
  • In this study, predictive mathematical models were developed to estimate the kinetics of Staphylococcus aureus growth in processed meat product galbitang. Processed meat product galbitang was inoculated with 0.1 mL of S. aureus culture and stored at 4, 10, 20, $37^{\circ}C$. The ${\mu}_{max}$ (maximum specific growth rate) and LPD (lag phase duration) values were calculated. The primary model was used to develop a response surface secondary model. The growth parameters were analyzed using the square root model as a function of storage temperature. The developed model was confirmed by calculating RMSE (Root Mean Square Error) values as statistic parameters. The LPD decreased, but ${\mu}_{max}$ increased with an increase in the storage temperature. At 4, 10, 20 and $37^{\circ}C$, $R^2$ was 0.99, 0.98, 0.99 and 0.99, respectively; RMSE was 0.39. The developed predictive growth model can be used to predict the risk of S. aureus contamination in processed meat product galbitang; hence, it has potential as an input model for the risk assessment.

A Novel Scheme for Code Tracking Bias Mitigation in Band-Limited Global Navigation Satellite Systems (위성 기반 측위 시스템에서의 부호 추적편이 완화 기법)

  • Yoo, Seung-Soo;Kim, Sang-Hun;Yoon, Seok-Ho;Song, Iich-Ho;Kim, Sun-Yong
    • The Journal of Korean Institute of Communications and Information Sciences
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    • v.32 no.10C
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    • pp.1032-1041
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    • 2007
  • The global navigation satellite system (GNSS), which is the core technique for the location based service, adopts the direct sequence/spread spectrum (DS/SS) as its modulation method. The success of a DS/SS system depends on the synchronization between the received and locally generated pseudo noise (PN) signals. As a step in the synchronization process, the tacking scheme performs fine adjustment to bring the phase difference between the two PN signals to zero. The most widely used tracking scheme is the delay locked loop with early minus late discriminator (EL-DLL). In the ideal case, the EL-DLL is the best estimator among various DLL. However, in the band-limited multipath environment, the EL-DLL has tracking bias. In this paper, the timing offset range of correlation function is divided into advanced offset range (AOR) and delayed offset range (DOR) centering around the correct synchronization time point. The tracking bias results from the following two reasons: symmetry distortion between correlation values in AOR and DOR, and mismatch between the time point corresponding to the maximum correlation value and the synchronization time point. The former and latter are named as the type I and type II tracking bias, respectively. In this paper, when the receiver has finite bandwidth in the presence of multipath signals, it is shown that the type II tracking bias becomes a more dominant error factor than the type I tracking bias, and the correlation values in AOR are not almost changed. Exploiting these characteristics, we propose a novel tracking bias mitigation scheme and demonstrate that the tracking accuracy of the proposed scheme is higher than that of the conventional scheme, both in the presence and absence of noise.

Case studies of shallow marine investigations in Australia with advanced underwater seismic refraction (USR) (최신 수중 탄성파 굴절법(USR)을 이용한 호주의 천부해양탐사 사례연구)

  • Whiteley, Robert J.;Stewart, Simon B.
    • Geophysics and Geophysical Exploration
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    • v.11 no.1
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    • pp.34-40
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    • 2008
  • Underwater seismic refraction with advanced interpretation approaches makes important contributions to shallow marine exploration and geotechnical investigations in Australia's coastal areas. A series of case studies are presented to demonstrate the recent applications of continuous and static USR methods to river crossing and port infrastructure projects at various sites around Australia. In Sydney, static underwater seismic refraction (USR) with bottom-placed receivers and borehole seismic imaging assisted the development of improved geotechnical models that reduced construction risk for a tunnel crossing of the Lane Cove River. In Melbourne, combining conventional boomer reflection and continuous USR with near-bottom sources and receivers improved the definition of a buried, variably weathered basalt flow and assisted dredging assessment for navigation channel upgrades at Geelong Ports. Sand quality assessment with continuous USR and widely spaced borehole information assisted commercial decisions on available sand resources for the reclamation phase of development at the Port of Brisbane. Buried reefs and indurated layers occur in Australian coastal sediments with the characteristics of laterally limited, high velocity, cap layers within lower velocity materials. If these features are not recognised then significant error in depth determination to deeper refractors can occur. Application of advanced refraction inversion using wavefront eikonal tomography to continuous USR data obtained along the route of a proposed offshore pipeline near Fremantle allowed these layers and the underlying bedrock refractor to be accurately imaged. Static USR and the same interpretation approach was used to image the drowned granitic regolith beneath sediments and indurated layers in the northern area of Western Australia at a proposed new berthing site where deep piling was required. This allowed preferred piling sites to be identified, reducing overall pile lengths. USR can be expected to find increased application to shallow marine exploration and geotechnical investigations in Australia's coastal areas as economic growth continues and improved interpretation methods are developed.

Mathematical Models to Predict Staphylococcus aureus Growth on Processed Cheeses

  • Kim, Kyungmi;Lee, Heeyoung;Moon, Jinsan;Kim, Youngjo;Heo, Eunjeong;Park, Hyunjung;Yoon, Yohan
    • Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety
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    • v.28 no.3
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    • pp.217-221
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    • 2013
  • This study developed predictive models for the kinetic behavior of Staphylococcus aureus on processed cheeses. Mozzarella slice cheese and cheddar slice cheese were inoculated with 0.1 ml of a S. aureus strain mixture (ATCC13565, ATCC14458, ATCC23235, ATCC27664, and NCCP10826). The inoculated samples were then stored at $4^{\circ}C$ (1440 h), $15^{\circ}C$ (288 h), $25^{\circ}C$ (72 h), and $30^{\circ}C$ (48 h), and the growth of all bacteria and of S. aureus were enumerated on tryptic soy agar and mannitol salt agar, respectively. The Baranyi model was fitted to the growth data of S. aureus to calculate growth rate (${\mu}_{max}$; ${\log}CFU{\cdot}g^{-1}{\cdot}h^{-1}$), lag phase duration (LPD; h), lower asymptote (log CFU/g), and upper asymptote (log CFU/g). The growth parameters were further analyzed using the square root model as a function of temperature. The model performance was validated with observed data, and the root mean square error (RMSE) was calculated. At $4^{\circ}C$, S. aureus cell growth was not observed on either processed cheese, but S. aureus growth on the mozzarella and cheddar cheeses was observed at $15^{\circ}C$, $25^{\circ}C$, and $30^{\circ}C$. The ${\mu}_{max}$ values increased, but LPD values decreased as storage temperature increased. In addition, the developed models showed acceptable performance (RMSE = 0.3500-0.5344). This result indicates that the developed kinetic model should be useful in describing the growth pattern of S. aureus in processed cheeses.

Multi-residue Pesticide Analysis in Cereal using Modified QuEChERS Samloe Preparation Method (곡물류 중 잔류농약 다성분 분석을 위한 개선된 QuEChERS 시료 정제법의 개발)

  • Yang, In-Cheol;Hong, Su-Myeong;Kwon, Hye-Young;Kim, Taek-Kyum;Kim, Doo-Ho
    • The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science
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    • v.17 no.4
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    • pp.314-334
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    • 2013
  • This study explored an efficient modified Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged and safe (QuEChERS) method combined with liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization with tandem mass spectrometric detection for the analysis of residues of 76 pesticides in brown rice, barley and corn including acidic sulfonylurea herbicides. Formic acid (1%) acid in acetonitrile and dispersive solid phase extractions used for extraction of pesticides and clean-up of the extract respectively. Two fortified spikes at 50 and 200 ng $g^{-1}$ levels were performed for recovery test. Mean recoveries of majority of pesticides at two spike levels ranged from 73.2 to 132.2, 80.9 to 136.8, 66.6 to 143.5 for brown rice, barley and corn respectively with standard error (CV) less than 10%. Good linearity of calibration curves were achieved with $R^2$ > 0.9907 within the observed concentration ranged. The modified method also provided satisfactory results for sulfonylurea herbicides. The method was applied to the determination of residues of target pesticides in real samples. A total of 26 pesticides in 36 out of 98 tasted samples were observed. The highest concentration was observed for tricyclazole at 1.17 mg $kg^{-1}$ in brown rice. This pesticide in two brown rice samples exceeded their MRLs regulated for rice in republic of Korea. Except tricyclazole none of the observed pesticides' concentration was higher than their MRLs. The results reveal that the method is effectively applicable to routine analysis of residues of target pesticides in brown rice, barley and corn.

Dose verification for Gated Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy according to Respiratory period (호흡연동 용적변조 회전방사선치료에서 호흡주기에 따른 선량전달 정확성 검증)

  • Jeon, Soo Dong;Bae, Sun Myung;Yoon, In Ha;Kang, Tae Young;Baek, Geum Mun
    • The Journal of Korean Society for Radiation Therapy
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    • v.26 no.1
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    • pp.137-147
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    • 2014
  • Purpose : The purpose of this study is to verify the accuracy of dose delivery according to the patient's breathing cycle in Gated Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy Materials and Methods : TrueBeam STxTM(Varian Medical System, Palo Alto, CA) was used in this experiment. The Computed tomography(CT) images that were acquired with RANDO Phantom(Alderson Research Laboratories Inc. Stamford. CT, USA), using Computerized treatment planning system(Eclipse 10.0, Varian, USA), were used to create VMAT plans using 10MV FFF with 1500 cGy/fx (case 1, 2, 3) and 220 cGy/fx(case 4, 5, 6) of doserate of 1200 MU/min. The regular respiratory period of 1.5, 2.5, 3.5 and 4.5 sec and the patients respiratory period of 2.2 and 3.5 sec were reproduced with the $QUASAR^{TM}$ Respiratory Motion Phantom(Modus Medical Devices Inc), and it was set up to deliver radiation at the phase mode between the ranges of 30 to 70%. The results were measured at respective respiratory conditions by a 2-Dimensional ion chamber array detector(I'mRT Matrixx, IBA Dosimetry, Germany) and a MultiCube Phantom(IBA Dosimetry, Germany), and the Gamma pass rate(3 mm, 3%) were compared by the IMRT analysis program(OmniPro I'mRT system software Version 1.7b, IBA Dosimetry, Germany) Results : The gamma pass rates of Case 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 were the results of 100.0, 97.6, 98.1, 96.3, 93.0, 94.8% at a regular respiratory period of 1.5 sec and 98.8, 99.5, 97.5, 99.5, 98.3, 99.6% at 2.5 sec, 99.6, 96.6, 97.5, 99.2, 97.8, 99.1% at 3.5 sec and 99.4, 96.3, 97.2, 99.0, 98.0, 99.3% at 4.5 sec, respectively. When a patient's respiration was reproduced, 97.7, 95.4, 96.2, 98.9, 96.2, 98.4% at average respiratory period of 2.2 sec, and 97.3, 97.5, 96.8, 100.0, 99.3, 99.8% at 3.5 sec, respectively. Conclusion : The experiment showed clinically reliable results of a Gamma pass rate of 95% or more when 2.5 sec or more of a regular breathing period and the patient's breathing were reproduced. While it showed the results of 93.0% and 94.8% at a regular breathing period of 1.5 sec of Case 5 and 6, it could be confirmed that the accurate dose delivery could be possible on the most respiratory conditions because based on the results of 100 patients's respiratory period analysis as no one sustained a respiration of 1.5 sec. But, pretreatment dose verification should be precede because we can't exclude the possibility of error occurrence due to extremely short respiratory period, also a training at the simulation and careful monitoring are necessary for a patient to maintain stable breathing. Consequently, more reliable and accurate treatments can be administered.

On the Bibliographies of Chinese Historical Books - Classifying and cataloguing system of six historical bibliographies - (중국의 사지서목에 대하여 -육사예문$\cdot$경적지의 분류 및 편목체재 비교를 중심으로-)

  • Kang Soon-Ae
    • Journal of the Korean Society for Library and Information Science
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    • v.24
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    • pp.289-332
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    • 1993
  • In china, six bibliographies of offical historical books are evaluated at the most important things among the systematically-editing bibliographies. These bibliographies would be usful to study the orign of classical sciences and their development, bibliographic research of Chinese classics, bibliographic judgement on genuine books, titles, authors, volumes. They could be refered to research into graving, correcting, and existence of ancient books. therefore, these bibliographies would be applied to estimation the phase of scientific and cultural development. The study of these bibliographies has been not yet made in Korea. This thesis lays its importance on the background of their appearance, their classification norms, organizing system of their catalogue, and comparison between their difference. 1. Editing and compiling of Chilyak (칠약) by Liu Chin (유흠) and official histories played an important role of entering an apperance of historical book's bibliographies. Chilyak has been lost. However, its classification and compiling system of classical books would be traced by Hansoyemunji(한서예문지) of which basic system is similar to Chilyak. It classified books according to their scientific characteristic. If a few books didn't have their own categories, they were combined by the circles parallel to the books' characteristic. With the books classified under the same scientific characteristic, they were again divided into the scientific schools or structures. It also arranged the same kinds of books according to the chronology. The some books wi th duplicate subjects were classified multiplely by their duplicate subject. 2. Ssu-ma Chon's (사마천) The Historical Records (Saki, 사기) and Pan Ku's (반고) The History of the Former Han Dynasty (Hanso, 한서) has also took effects on appearance of historical books' bibliographies. Covering overall history, Saki was structured by the five parts: The basic annals(본기), the chronological tables (표), the documents (서), the hereditary houses (세가), biographies (열전). The basic annals dealt with kings and courts' affairs according to the chronology. The chronological tables was the records of the annals. The documents described overall the social and cultural systems. The hereditary houses recorded courts' meritorious officials and public figures. The biographies showed exemplars of seventy peoples selected by their social status. Pan Ku(반구)'s The History of the Former Han Dynasty(한서) deserved to be called the prototype for the offical histories after Saki's (사기; The Historical Records) apperance. Although it modelled on Saki, it had set up its own cataloguing system. It was organized by four parts; the basic annals (본기), the chronological tables (표), treatises(지), biographies (열전). The documents in the Hanso(한서) was converted into treatises(지). The hereditary houses and biographies were merged. For the first time, the treatise with The Yemunji could operate function for historical bibliographies. 3. There were six historical bibliographies: Hansoyemunji(한서예문지), Susokyongjeokji (수서경적지), Kudangsokyongjeokji(구당서경적지), Shindangsoyemunji (신당서예문지), Songsayemunji (송사예문지), Myongsayemunji (명사예문지). 1) Modelling on Liu Chin's Chilyak except Chipryak(집략), Hansoyemunji divided the characteristic of the books and documents into six parts: Yukrye(육예), Cheja(제자), Shibu(시부), Pyongsoh(병서), Susul(수술), Pangki(방기). Under six parts, there were thirty eight orders in Hansoyemunji. To its own classification, Hansoyemunji applied the Chilyak's theory of classification that the books or documents were managed according to characteristic of sciences, the difference of schools, the organization of sentences. However the overlapped subjects were deleted and unified into one. The books included into an unsuitable subject were corrected and converted into another. The Hansoyemunji consisted of main preface (Taesoh 대서), minor preface (Sosoh 소서) , the general preface (Chongso 총서). It also recorded the introduction of books and documents, the origin of sciences, the outline of subjects, and the establishment of orders. The books classified by the subject had title, author, and volumes. They were rearranged by titles and the chronological publication year. Sometimes author was the first access point to catalogue the books. If it was necessary for the books to take footnotes, detail notes were formed. The Volume number written consecutively to order and subject could clarify the quantity of books. 2) Refering to Classfication System by Seven Norms (칠분법) and Classification System by Four Norms(사분법), Susokyongjeokji(수서경적지) had accomplished the classification by four norms. In fact, its classification largely imitated Wanhyosoh(완효서)'s Chilrok(칠록), Susokyongjeokji's system of classification consisted of four parts-Kyung(경), Sa(사), Cha(자), Chip(칩). The four parts were divided into 40 orders. Its appendix was again divided into two parts, Buddihism and Taiosm. Under the two parts there were fifteen orders. Totally Susokyongjeokji was made of six parts and fifty five orders. In comparison with Hansoyemunji(한서예문지), it clearly showed the conception of Kyung, Sa, Cha, Chip. Especially it deserved to be paid attention that Hansoyemunji laied history off Chunchu(춘추) and removed history to Sabu(사부). However Chabu(사부) put many contrary subjects such as Cheja(제자), Kiye(기예), Sulsu(술수), Sosol(소설) into the same boundary, which committed errors insufficient theoretical basis. Anothor demerit of Susokyongjeokji was that it dealt with Taiosm scriptures and Buddism scriptures at the appendix because they were considered as quasi-religion. Its compilation of bibliographical facts consisted of main preface(Taesoh 대서), minor preface(Sosoh 소서), general preface (Chongsoh 총서), postscript (Husoh 후서). Its bibliological facts mainly focused on the titles. Its recorded authors' birth date and their position. It wrote the lost and existence of books consecutive to total number of books, which revealed total of the lost books in Su Dynasty. 3) Modelling on the basis of Kokumsorok(고분서록) and Naewaekyongrok(내외경록), Kudangsokyongjeokji(구당서경적지) had four parts and fourty five orders. It was estimated as the important role of establishing basic frame of classification by four norms in classification theory's history. However it had also its own limit. Editing and compling orders of Kudangsokyongjeokji had been not progressively changed. Its orders imitated by and large Susokyongjeokji. In Its system of organizing catalogue, with its minor preface and general preface deleting, Kudangsokyongjeokji by titles after orders sometimes broke out confusion because of unclear boundaries between orders. 4) Shindangsoyemunji(신당서예문지), adding 28,469 books to Kudangsokyongjeokji, recorded 82,384 books which were divided by four parts and fourty four orders. In comparison with Kudangkyongjeokj, Sindangsoyemunji corrected unclear order's norm. It merged the analogical norms four orders (for instance, Kohun 고훈 and Sohakryu 소학류) and seperated the different norms four orders (for example, Hyokyong 효경 and Noneuhryu 논어류, Chamwi 참위 and Kyonghaeryu 경해류, Pyonryon 편년 and Wisaryu 위사류). Recording kings' behaviors and speeches (Kikochuryu 기거주류) in the historical parts induced the concept of specfication category. For the first time, part of Chipbu (집부) set up the order of classification norm for historical and literatural books and documents (Munsaryu 문사류). Its editing and compiling had been more simplified than Kudangsokyongjeokji. Introduction was written at first part of bibliographies. Appendants except bibliographic items such subject, author, title, volume number, total were omitted. 5) Songsayemunji(송사예문지) were edited in the basis of combining Puksong(북송) and Namsong(남송), depending on Sabukuksayemunji(사부국사예문지). Generally Songsayemunji had lost a lot of bibliographical facts of many books. They were duplicated and wrongly classified books because it committed an error of the incorrectly annalistic editing. Particularly Namsong showed more open these defaults. Songsayemunji didin't include the books published since the king Youngchong(영종). Its system of classification was more better controlled. Chamwiryu(참위류) in the part of Kyongbu(경부) was omitted. In the part of history(Sabu 사부), recordings of kings' behaviors and speeches more merged in the annals. Historical abstract documents (Sachoryu 사초류) were seperately arranged. In the part of Chabu(자부), Myongdangkyongmaekryu(명당경맥류) and Euisulryu(의술류) were combined. Ohangryu(오행류) were laied off Shikuryu(시구류). In the part of Chipbu(집부), historical and literatural books (Munsaryu 문사류) were independentely arranged. There were the renamed orders; from Wisa(위사) to Paesa(패사), Chapsa (잡사) to Pyolsa(열사), Chapchonki(잡전기) to Chonki(전기), Ryusoh(류서) to Ryusa(류서). Introduction had only main preface. The books of each subject catalogued by title, the volume number, and author and arranged mainly by authors. Annotations were written consecutively after title and the volume number. In the afternote the number of not-treated books were revealed. Difference from Singdangsohyemunji(신당서예문지) were that the concept and boundary of orders became more clearer. It also wrote the number of books consecutive to main subject. 6) Modelling on Chonkyongdangsomok (경당서목), Myongsayemunji(명사예문지) was compiled in the basis of books and documents published in the Ming Danasty. In classification system, Myongsayemunji partly merged and the seperated some orders for it. It also deleted and renamed some of orders. In case of necessity, combining of orders' norm was occured particulary in the part of Sabu(사부) and Chabu(자부). Therefore these merging of orders norm didn't offer sufficient theretical background. For example, such demerits were seen in the case that historical books edited by annals were combined with offical historical ones which were differently compiled and edited from the former. In the part of Chabu(자부), it broke out another confusion that Pubga(법가), Meongga(명가), Mukga(묵가), Chonghweongka's(종횡가) thoughts were classified in the Chapka(잡가). Scriptures of Taiosim and Buddhism were seperated from each other. There were some deleted books such as Mokrokryu(목록류), Paesaryu(패사류) in the part of history (Sabu 사부) and Chosaryu(초사류) in the part of Chipbu(집부). The some in the each orders had been renamed. Imitating compiling system of Songsayemunji(송사예문지), with reffering to its differ-ence, Myongsayemunji(명사예문지) wrote the review and the change of the books by author. The number of not-treated books didn't appear at the total. It also deleted the total following main subject.

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Sensory Information Processing

  • Yoshimoto, Chiyoshi
    • Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research
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    • v.6 no.2
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    • pp.1-8
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    • 1985
  • The wall shear stress in the vicinity of end-to end anastomoses under steady flow conditions was measured using a flush-mounted hot-film anemometer(FMHFA) probe. The experimental measurements were in good agreement with numerical results except in flow with low Reynolds numbers. The wall shear stress increased proximal to the anastomosis in flow from the Penrose tubing (simulating an artery) to the PTFE: graft. In flow from the PTFE graft to the Penrose tubing, low wall shear stress was observed distal to the anastomosis. Abnormal distributions of wall shear stress in the vicinity of the anastomosis, resulting from the compliance mismatch between the graft and the host artery, might be an important factor of ANFH formation and the graft failure. The present study suggests a correlation between regions of the low wall shear stress and the development of anastomotic neointimal fibrous hyperplasia(ANPH) in end-to-end anastomoses. 30523 T00401030523 ^x Air pressure decay(APD) rate and ultrafiltration rate(UFR) tests were performed on new and saline rinsed dialyzers as well as those roused in patients several times. C-DAK 4000 (Cordis Dow) and CF IS-11 (Baxter Travenol) reused dialyzers obtained from the dialysis clinic were used in the present study. The new dialyzers exhibited a relatively flat APD, whereas saline rinsed and reused dialyzers showed considerable amount of decay. C-DAH dialyzers had a larger APD(11.70$\pm$1.32mmHg/min)compared to CF dialyzers(4.32$\pm$0.55mmHg/min)(p<0.05). However, there was no observable difference in the UFR between the two dialyzers. Neither APD nor UFR showed any significant increase with an increasing number of reuses for up to more than 20reuses. A substantial number of failures observed in APD(larger than 20mmHe/min)on the reused dialyzers(2 out of 40 CP and S out 26 C-DAK) were attributed to the Possible damage on the fibers. The CF 15-11 HFDs which failed APD test did not show changes in the UFR compared to normal dialyzers indicating that APD is a more sensitive test than UFR test to evaluate the integrity of the fibers. 30527 T00401030527 ^x For quantitative measurement of reflected light from a clinical diagnostic strip, a prototype old reflectance photometer was designed. The strip loader and cassette were made to obtain more accurate reflectance parameters. The strip was illuminated at 45˚c through optical fiber and the intensity of reflected light was determined at rectanguLat angle using a photodiode. The kubelka-munk coefficient and reflection optical density were determined ar four different wavelengths(500, 550, 570 and 610nm) for blood glucose strip. For higher concentration than 300mg/41 about glucose, a saturation state of abforbance was observed at 500, 550 and 570nm. The correlation between glucose concentration and parameters was the best at 610nm. 30535 T00401030535 ^x Radiation-induced fibrosarcoma tumors were grown on the flanks of C3H mice. The mice were divided into two groups. One group was injected with Photofrin II, intravenously (2.5mg/kg body weight). The other group received no Photofrin II. Mice from both groups were irradialed for approximately 15 minutes at 100, 300, or 500 mW/cm2 with the argon (488nm/514.5 nm), dye(628nm) and gold vapor (pulsed 628 nm) laser light. A photosensitizer behaved as an added absorber. Under our experimental conditions, the presence of Photolfrin II increased surface temperature by at least 40% and the temperature rise due to 300 mW/cm2 irradiation exceeded values for hyperthermia. Light and temperature distributions with depth were estimated by a computer model. The model demonstrated the influence of wavelength on the thermal process and proved to be a valuable tool to investigate internal temperature rise. 30536 T00401030536 ^x We investigated the structural geometry of thirty-eight Korean femurs. The purpose of this study is to identify major geometrical differences between Korean femurs 3nd others that we believe belong to Caucasians so that we would be able to get insights into the femoral component design that fits Asians including Koreans. We utilized computerized tomography (CT) images of femurs extracted from cadavers. The CT images were transformed into bitmap data by using a film scanner, and then analyzed by using a commercially available software called Image v.1.0 and a Macintosh IIci computer.The resulting data were compared with already published data. The major results show that the geometry of the Korean femurs is significantly different from that of Caucasians: (1) the anteversion angle and the canal flare index are greater by the amount of approximately 8˚ and 0.5, respectively, (2) the shape of the isthmus cross section is more round, and (3) the distance between the teaser trochanter and the proximal border of the isthmus is shelter by about 15 mm. The results suggested that the femoral component suitable for Asians should be different from the currently-used components designed and manufactured mostly by European or American companies. 30537 T00401030537 ^x It is well known that nonlinear propagation characteristics of the wave in the tissue may give very useful information for the medical diagnoisis. In this paper, a new method to detect nonlinear propagation characteristics of the internal vibration in the tissue for the low frequency mechanical vibration by using bispectral analysis is proposed. In the method, low frequency vibration of f0( = 100Hz) is applied on the surface of the object, and the waveform of the internal vibration x (t) is measured from Doppler frequency modulation of silmultaneously transmitted probing ultrasonic waves. Then, the bispectra of the signal x (t) at the frequencies (f0, f0) and (f0, 2f0) are calculated to estimate the nonlinear propagation characteristics as their magnitude ratio, w here since bispectrum is free from the gaussian additive noise we can get the value with high S/N. Basic experimental system is constructed by using 3.0 MHz probing ultrasonic waves and the several experiments are carried out for some phantoms. Results show the superiority of the proposed method to the conventional method using power spectrum and also its usefulness for the tissue characterization. 30541 T00401030541 ^x This paper describes the implementation of a computerized radial pulse diagnosis by aids of a clinical expert. On this base, we composed of the radial pulse diagnosis system in korean traditional medicine. The system composed of a radial pulse wave detection system and a radial pulse diagnosis system. With a detection system, we detected Inyoung and Cheongu radial pulse wave and processed it. Then, we have got the characteristic parameters of radial pulse wave and also quantified that according to the method of Inyoung-Cheongu Comparison Radial Pulse Diagnosis. We defined the jugement standard of radial pulse diagnosis system and then we confirmed the possibility for realization of automatic radial pulse diagnosis in korean traditional medicine. 30545 T00401030545 ^x Microspheres are expected to be applied to biomedical areas such as solid-phase immunoassays, drug delivery systems, immunomagnetic cell separation. To synthesize microspheres for biomedical application, "two stage shot growth method" was developed. The uniformity ratio of synthesized microspheres was always smaller than 1.05. And the surface charge density (or the number of ionizable functional groups) of the microspheres synthesized by "two stage shot growth method" was 6~13 times higher than that of the microspheres synthesized by conventional seeded batch copolymerization. As a previous step for biomedical application, adsorption experiments of bovine albumin on microspheres were carried out under various conditions. The maximum adsorbed amount was obtained in the neighborhood of pH 4.5. Isoelectric point of bovine albumin is pH 5.0, so experimental result shows that it shifted to acid area. The adsorption isotherm was obtained, the plateau region was always reached at 2.Og/L (bulk concentration of bovine albumin).The effect of the kind and the amount of surface functional group was also examined. 30575 T00401030575 ^x A medical image workstation was developed using multimedia technique. The system based on PC-486DX was designed to acquire medical images produced by medical imaging instruments and related audio information, that is, doctors' reporting results. Input information was processed and analyzed, then the results were presented in the form of graph and animation. All the informations of the system were hierarchically related with the image as the apex. Processing and analysis algorithms were implemented so that the diagnostic accuracy could be improved. The diagnosed information can be transferred for patient diagnosis through LAN(local area network). 30592 T00401030592 ^x In the conventional infrared imaging system, complex infrared lens systems are usually used for directing collimated narrow infrared beams into the high speed 2-dimensional optic scanner. In this paper, a simple reflective infrared optic system with a 2-dimensional optic scanner is proposed for the realization of medical infrared thermography system. It has been experimentally proven that the intfrared thermography system composed of the proposed optic system has the temperature resolution of 0.1˚c under the spatial resolution of lmrad, the image matrix size of 256 X 240, and tile imaging time of 4 seconds. 30593 T00401030593 ^x In this paper, MIIS (Medical Image Information System) has been designed and implemented using INGRES RDBMS, which is based on a client/server architecture. The implemented system allows users to register and retrieve patient information, medical images and diagnostic reports. It also provides the function to display these information on workstation windows simultaneously by using the designed menu-driven graphic user interface. The medical image compression/decompression techniques are implemented and integrated into the medical image database system for the efficient data storage and the fast access through the network. 30594 T00401030594 ^x In this paper, computerized BEAM was implemented for the space domain analysis of EEG. Trans-formation from temporal summation to two-dimensional mappings is formed by 4 nearest point inter-polaton method. Methods of representation of BEAM are two. One is dot density method which classify brain electrical potential 9 levels by dot density of gray levels and the other is colour method which classify brain electrical 12 levels by red-green colours. In this BEAM, instantaneous change and average energy distribution over any arbitrary time interval of brain electrical activity could be observed and analyzed easily. In the frequency domain, the distribution of energy spectrum of a special band can easily be distinguished normality and abnormality. 30608 T00401030608 ^x Laboratory information system (LIS) is a key tool to manage laboratory data in clinical pathology. Our department has developed an information system for routine hematology using down-sized computer system. We have used an IBM 486 compatible PC with 16MB main memory, 210 MB hard disk drive, 9 RS-232C port and 24 pin dot printer. The operating system and database management system were SCO UNIX and SCO foxbase, respectively. For program development, we used Xbase language provided by SCO foxbase. The C language was used for interface purpose. To make the system use friendly, pull-down menu was used. The system connected to our hospital information system via application program interface (API), so the information related to patient and request details is automatically transmitted to our computer. Our system interfaced with fwd complete blood count analyzers(Sysmex NE-8000 and Coulter STKS) for unidirectional data tansmission from analyzer to computer. The authors suggests that this system based on down-sized computer could provide a progressive approach to total LIS based on local area network, and the implemented system could serve as a model for other hospital's LIS for routine hematology. 30609 T00401030609 ^x To develop an artificial bone substitute that is gradually degraded and replaced by the regenerated natural bone, the authors designed a composite that is consisted of calcium phosphate and collagen. To use as the structural matrix of the composite, collagen was purified from human umbilical cord. The obtained collagen was treated by pepsin to remove telopeptides, and finally, the immune-free atelocollagen was produced: The cross linked atelocollagen was highly resistant to the collagenase induced collagenolysis. The cross linked collagen demonstrated an improved tensile strength. 30618 T00401030618 ^x This paper is a study on the design of adptive filter for QRS complex detection. We propose a simple adaptive algorithm to increase capability of noise cancelation in QRS complex detection with two stage adaptive filter. At the first stage, background noise is removed and at the next stage, only spectrum of QRS complex components is passed. Two adaptive filters can afford to keep track of the changes of both noise and QRS complex. Each adaptive filter consists of prediction error filter and FIR filter The impulse response of FIR filter uses coefficients of prediction error filter. The detection rates for 105 and 108 of MIT/BIH data base were 99.3% and 97.4% respectively. 30619 T00401030619 ^x To develop an artificial bone substitute that is gradually degraded and replaced by the regenerated natural bone, the authors designed and produced a composite that is consisted of calcium phosphate and collagen. Human umbilical cord origin pepsin treated type I atelocollagen was used as the structural matrix, by which sintered or non-sintered carbonate apatite was encapsulated to form an inorganic-organic composite. With cross linking atelocollagen by UV ray irradiation, the resistance to both compressive and tensile strength was increased. Collagen degradation by the collagenase induced collagenolysis was also decreased. 30620 T00401030620 ^x We have developed a monoleaflet polymer valve as an inexpensive and viable alternative, especially for short-term use in the ventricular assist device or total artificial heart. The frame and leaflet of the polymer valve were made from polyurethane, To evaluate the hemodynamic performance of the polymer valve a comparative study of flow dynamics past a polymer valve and a St. Jude Medical prosthetic valve under physiological pulsatile flow conditions in vitro was made. Comparisons between the valves were made on the transvalvular pressure drop, regurgitation volume and maximum valve opening area. The polymer valve showed smaller regurgitation volume and transvalvular pressure drop compared to the mechanical valve at higher heart rate. The results showed that the functional characteristics of the polymer valve compared favorably with those of the mechanical valve at higher heart rate. 30621 T00401030621 ^x Explosive evaporative removal process of biological tissue by absorption of a CW laser has been simulated by using gelatin and a multimode Nd:YAG laser. Because the point of maximun temperature of laser-irradiated gelatin exists below the surface due to surface cooling, evaporation at the boiling temperature is made explosively from below the surface. The important parameters of this process are the conduction loss to laser power absorption (defined as the conduction-to-laser power parameter, Nk), the convection heat transfer at the surface to conduction loss (defined as Bi), dimensionless extinction coefficient (defined as Br.), and dimensionless irradiation time (defined as Fo). Dependence of Fo on Nk and Bi has been observed by experiment, and the results have been compared with the numerical results obtained by solving a 2-dimensional conduction equation. Fo and explosion depth (from the surface to the point of maximun temperature) are increased when Nk and Bi are increased.To find out the minimum laser power for explosive evaporative removal process, steady state analysis has been also made. The limit of Nk to induce evaporative removal, which is proportional to the inverse of the laser power, has been obtained. 30622 T00401030622 ^x N1 and N2 gross neural action potentials were measured from the round window of the guinea pig cochlea at the onset of the acoustic stimuli. N1-N2 audiograms were made by means of regulating stimulant intensities in order to produce constant N1-N2 potentials as criteria for different input tone pip frequencies. The lowest threshold was measured with an input tone pip I5 dB SPL in intensity and 12 KHz in frequency when the animal was in normal physiological condition. The procedure of experimental measurements is explained in detail. This experimental approach is very useful for the investigation of the Cochlear function. Both noN1inear and active functions of the Cochlea can be monitored by N1-N2 audiograms. 30623 T00401030623 ^x In electrical impedance tomography(EIT), we use boundary current and voltage measurements toprovide the information about the cross-sectional distribution of electrical impedance or resistivity. One of the major problems in EIT has been the inaccessibility of internal voltage or current data in finding the internal impedance values. We propose a new image reconstruction method using internal current density data measured by NMR. We obtained a two-dimensional current density distribution within a phantom by processing the real and imaginary MR images from a 4.77 NMR machine. We implemented a resistivity mage reconstruction algorithm using the finite element method and sensitivity matrix. We presented computer simulation results of the mage reconstruction algorithm and furture direction of the research. 30624 T00401030624 ^x A new method of digital image analysis technique for discrimination of cancer cell was presented in this paper. The object image was the Thyroid eland cells image that was diagnosed as normal and abnormal (two types of abnormal: follicular neoplastic cell, and papillary neoplastic cell), respectively. By using the proposed region segmentation algorithm, the cells were segmented into nucleus. The 16 feature parameters were used to calculate the features of each nucleus. A9 a consequence of using dominant feature parameters method proposed in this paper, discrimination rate of 91.11% was obtained for Thyroid Gland cells. 30625 T00401030625 ^x An electrical stimulator was designed to induce locomotion for paraplegic patients caused by central nervous system injury. Optimal stimulus parameters, which can minimize muscle fatigue and can achieve effective muscle contraction were determined in slow and fast muscles in Sprague-Dawley rats. Stimulus patterns of our stimulator were designed to simulate electromyographic activity monitored during locomotion of normal subjects. Muscle types of the lower extremity were classified according to their mechanical property of contraction, which are slow muscle (msoleus m.) and fast muscle (medial gastrocneminus m., rectus femoris m., vastus lateralis m.). Optimal parameters of electrical stimulation for slow muscles were 20 Hz, 0.2 ms square pulse. For fast muscle, 40 Hz, 0.3 ms square pulse was optimal to produce repeated contraction. Higher stimulus intensity was required when synergistic muscles were stimulated simultaneously than when they were stimulated individually. Electrical stimulation for each muscle was designed to generate bipedal locomotion, so that individual muscles alternate contraction and relaxation to simulate stance and swing phases. Portable electrical stimulator with 16 channels built in microprocessor was constructed and applied to paraplegic patients due to lumbar cord injury. The electrical stimulator restored partially gait function in paraplegic patients. 30626 T00401030626 ^x Two-Dimensional modelling of the Cochlear biomechanics is presented in this paper. The Laplace partial differential equation which represents the fluid mechanics of the Cochlea has been transformed into two-dimensional electrical transmission line. The procedure of this transformation is explained in detail. The comparison between one and two dimensional models is also presented. This electrical modelling of the basilar membrane (BM) is clearly useful for the next approach to the further. Development of active elements which are essential in the producing of the sharp tuning of the BM. This paper shows that two-dimension model is qualitatively better than one-dimensional model both in amplitude and phase responses of the BM displacement. The present model is only for frequency response. However because the model is electrical, the two-dimensional transmission line model can be extended to time response without any difficult. 30627 T00401030627 ^x A method has been proposed for the fully automatic detection of left ventricular endocardial boundary in 2D short axis echocardiogram using geometric model. The procedure has the following three distinct stages. First, the initial center is estimated by the initial center estimation algorithm which is applied to decimated image. Second, the center estimation algorithm is applied to original image and then best-fit elliptic model estimation is processed. Third, best-fit boundary is detected by the cost function which is based on the best-fit elliptic model. The proposed method shows effective result without manual intervention by a human operator. 30628 T00401030628 ^x The intelligent trajectory control method that controls moving direction and average velocity for a prosthetic arm is proposed by pattern recognition and force estimations using EMG signals. Also, we propose the real time trajectory planning method which generates continuous accelleration paths using 3 stage linear filters to minimize the impact to human body induced by arm motions and to reduce the muscle fatigue. We use combination of MLP and fuzzy filter for pattern recognition to estimate the direction of a muscle and Hogan's method for the force estimation. EMG signals are acquired by using a amputation simulator and 2 dimensional joystick motion. The simulation results of proposed prosthetic arm control system using the EMf signals show that the arm is effectively followed the desired trajectory depended on estimated force and direction of muscle movements. 30638 T00401030638 ^x A new neural network architecture for the recognition of patterns from images is proposed, which is partially based on the results of physiological studies. The proposed network is composed of multi-layers and the nerve cells in each layer are connected by spatial filters which approximate receptive fields in optic nerve fields. In the proposed method, patterns recognition for complicated images is carried out using global features as well as local features such as lines and end-points. A new generating method of matched filers representing global features is proposed in this network. 30659 T00401030659 ^x An implementation scheme of the magnetic nerve stimulator using a switching mode power supply is proposed. By using a switching mode power supply rather than a conventional linear power supply for charging high voltage capacitors, the weight and size of the magnetic nerve stimulator can be considerably reduced. Maximum output voltage of the developed magnetic nerve stimulator using the switching mode power supply is 3, 000 volts and switching time is about 100 msec. Experimental results or human nerve stimulations using the developed stimulator are presented. 30768 T00401030768 ^x In this paper, we describe the design methodology and specifications of the developed module-based bedside monitors for patient monitoring. The bedside monitor consists of a main unit and module cases with various parameter modules. The main unit includes a 12.1" TFT color LCD, a main CPU board, and peripherals such as a module controller, Ethernet LAN card, video card, rotate/push button controller, etc. The main unit can connect at maximum three module cases each of which can accommodate up to 7 parameter modules. They include the modules for electrocardiograph, respiration, invasive blood pressure, noninvasive blood pressure, temperature, and SpO2 with Plethysmograph.SpO2 with Plethysmograph.

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