• Title, Summary, Keyword: peptides

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Characterization of Extremely Hydrophobic Immunostimulatory Lipoidal Peptides by Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization Mass Spectrometry

  • 장정석;이성택;장윤석
    • Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.17 no.11
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    • pp.1036-1039
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    • 1996
  • Synthetic lipoidal peptides based on viral protein sequences have been prepared. These peptides contain an N-palmitoyl group at the N-terminal residue, which is a modified cysteine, containing a S-[2,3-bis(acyloxy)-(2-R,S)-propyl] moiety. When this residue (Pam3Cys) is at the N-terminus of a synthetic peptide, it acts as potent immunoadjuvant to enhance both IgM and IgG antibody responses to the attached peptide. Conventional analytical procedures (e.g., Edman degradation and amino acid analysis) are either not applicable due to the N-terminal modification, or do not provide confirmation of the intact structure. Chromatographic analysis is also hindered by the tendency of these lipoidal Pam3Cys peptides to form large aggregates, and in some cases to be permanently adsorbed on reversed phase columns. We have applied several mass spectrometric techniques, including fast atom bombardment (FAB), electrospray ionization (ESI) and matrix assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) to characterize the intact structures of a number of different Pam3Cys synthetic peptides. The MALDI-MS has been found to be the most sensitive for the analysis of the structure of Pam3Cys peptides.

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Neuropeptide Y-based recombinant peptides ameliorate bone loss in mice by regulating hematopoietic stem/progenitor cell mobilization

  • Park, Min Hee;Kim, Namoh;Jin, Hee Kyung;Bae, Jae-sung
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.50 no.3
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    • pp.138-143
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    • 2017
  • Ovariectomy-induced bone loss is related to an increased deposition of osteoclasts on bone surfaces. We reported that the 36-amino-acid-long neuropeptide Y (NPY) could mobilize hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs) from the bone marrow to the peripheral blood by regulating HSPC maintenance factors and that mobilization of HSPCs ameliorated low bone density in an ovariectomy-induced osteoporosis mouse model by reducing the number of osteoclasts. Here, we demonstrated that new NPY peptides, recombined from the cleavage of the full-length NPY, showed better functionality for HSPC mobilization than the full-length peptide. These recombinant peptides mediated HSPC mobilization with greater efficiency by decreasing HSPC maintenance factors. Furthermore, treatment with these peptides reduced the number of osteoclasts and relieved ovariectomy-induced bone loss in mice more effectively than treatment with full-length NPY. Therefore, these results suggest that peptides recombined from full-length NPY can be used to treat osteoporosis.

Lantibiotics, Class I Bacteriocins from the Genus Bacillus

  • Lee, Hyung-Jae;Kim, Hae-Yeong
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.21 no.3
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    • pp.229-235
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    • 2011
  • Antimicrobial peptides exhibit high levels of antimicrobial activity against a broad range of spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms. Compared with bacteriocins produced by lactic acid bacteria, antimicrobial peptides from the genus Bacillus have been relatively less recognized despite their broad antimicrobial spectra. These peptides can be classified into two different groups based on whether they are ribosomally (bacteriocins) or nonribosomally (polymyxins and iturins) synthesized. Because of their broad spectra and high activity, antimicrobial peptides from Bacillus spp. may have great potential for applications in the food, agricultural, and pharmaceutical industries to prevent or control spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms. In this review, we introduce ribosomally synthesized antimicrobial peptides, the lantibiotic bacteriocins produced by members of Bacillus. In addition, the biosynthesis, genetic organization, mode of action, and regulation of subtilin, a well-investigated lantibiotic from Bacillus subtilis, are discussed.

Immunomodulatory Effects of Lactic Acid Bacteria and Bioactive Peptides Derived from Milk (유산균과 유단백질 유래 Peptide의 면역 조절 기능 연구 동향)

  • Kim, Cherl-Hyun
    • Journal of Dairy Science and Biotechnology
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    • v.27 no.1
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    • pp.37-43
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    • 2009
  • The mammalian immune system comprises a complex array of cells and molecules that interact to provide protection from pathogenic microorganisms. The beneficial role played by lactic acid bacteria and milk-derived peptides in humans, including their effect on the immune system, has been extensively reported. Lactic acid bacteria and milk-derived peptides, which are present in dairy products, are frequently used as nutraceuticals to improve some biological functions in the host. Activation of the systemic and secretory immune response by lactic acid bacteria and milk-derived peptides requires many complex interactions among the various constituents of the intestinal ecosystem. Thus, the aim of this review was to examine in detail the immunological potential of lactic acid bacteria and milk-derived peptides.

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Stability of Separated ACE Inhibitory Peptides under Condition of Various pH, Temperature, Gastric Digestion (In Vitro)

  • Jang, Ae-Ra;Lee, Moo-Ha
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society for Food Science of Animal Resources Conference
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    • pp.329-333
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    • 2005
  • ACE inhibition activity of peptides was measured after 2 months of storage at $4^{\circ}C$ under condition of pH 6.0, 6.5, 7.0, 7.5, 8.0. and the ACE inhibitory activity were changed only slightly. After 2 months of chilled storage ($4^{\circ}C$), no dramatic change and significance was found. This indicates that acidic, neutral, weak alkali conditions did not affect ACE inhibitory activity of those peptides. Among peptide 1134, 1152, and 1155, peptides from thermolysin + protease A hydrolysates, inhibition activity of peptide 1134 and 1152 was decreased significantly at $60^{\circ}C$, however, they showed stable inhibition activity from $70^{\circ}C$ to $100^{\circ}C$ (P<0.001). Also, chromatogram of peptide 1134, 1152, and 1155 was shown that retention time of peptide of $60^{\circ}C$ was not correspond to the retention time of the rest of peptides. This indicated that temperature may change the inhibitory activity and profile of peptides.

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Validation of Heterodimeric TAT-NLS Peptide as a Gene Delivery Enhancer

  • Doh, Kyung-Oh
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.25 no.6
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    • pp.788-794
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    • 2015
  • Cationic liposomes have been actively used as gene delivery vehicles despite their unsatisfactory efficiencies because of their relatively low toxicity. In this study, we designed novel heterodimeric peptides as nonviral gene delivery systems from TAT and NLS peptides using cysteine-to-cysteine disulfide bonds between the two. Mixing these heterodimeric peptides with DNA before mixing with lipofectamine resulted in higher transfection efficiencies in MCF-7 breast cancer cells than mixing unmodified TAT, NLS, and a simple mixture of TAT and NLS with DNA, but did not show an adverse effect on cell viability. In gel retardation assays, the DNA binding affinities of heterodimeric peptides were stronger than NLS but weaker than TAT. However, this enhancement was only observed when heterodimeric peptides were premixed with DNA before being mixed with lipofectamine. The described novel transfection-enhancing peptide system produced by the heterodimerization of TAT and NLS peptides followed by simple mixing with DNA, increased the gene transfer efficiency of cationic lipids without enhancing cytotoxicity.

Physiological Effects of Casein-derived Bioactive Peptides (카제인 유래 생리활성 Peptide의 체내 효과)

  • Jung, Ho-Jung;Min, Bock-Ki;Kwak, Hae-Soo
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.29 no.6
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    • pp.659-667
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    • 2009
  • Casein is considered to be the main source of protein in milk; therefore, many studies have been conducted to identify casein-derived bioactive peptides and their physiological effects. Casein is inactive within the parent protein but can be liberated by various proteases and enzymatic hydrolysis during microbial fermentation and gastrointestinal digestion. Once absorbed, casein exhibits different bioavailabilities in the body. Specifically, casein-derived peptides function as angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor in the cardiovascular system; thus, they are expected to reduce and prevent hypertension. Additionally, casein-derived peptides behave as opioid-like peptides in the nervous system, which impacts relaxation. These peptides are also expected to modulate various aspects of immune functions. Finally, caseinophosphopeptide (CPP) and glycomacropeptide (GMP) may exhibit a number of nutritional effects such as the absorption of calcium, iron or zinc. Many studies have been conducted to evaluate casein-derived peptides due to their multifunctional properties and the results of these studies have contributed to the development of a wide variety of functional dairy products. The purpose of this paper was to review the generation of bioactive peptides, their absorption and metabolism, and their specific bioactive effects.

Potential Antioxidant Peptides in Rice Wine

  • Rhee, Sook-Jong;Lee, Chung-Yung J.;Kim, Mi-Ryung;Lee, Cherl-Ho
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.14 no.4
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    • pp.715-721
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    • 2004
  • Many food protein hydrolysates have been shown to have antioxidant activities, and recent research focuses on low molecular peptides produced during hydrolysis of food protein. Korean rice wine contains about 60-70% of protein at dry base and originates from raw materials. It has been suggested that the protein is transformed into low molecular weight peptides, and have antioxidant activity during fermentation. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the antioxidant activity of the pre-purified and purified peptides found in Korean rice wine and to identify the responsible peptides. The wine extract of Samhaeju, a traditional Korean rice wine made by low temperature fermentation, was evaporated at $35^{\circ}C$. The two methods employed in the evaluation of antioxidant activity were the DPPH radical scavenging method and the beta-carotene bleaching test. The pre-purified samples showed 808 AAC (Antioxidant Activity Coefficient) and 56.5% AOA (Antioxidant Activity), which were higher than $\alpha$-tocopherol (572 AAC and 78% AOA). The rice wine extract was separated by reversed-phase HPLC. The protective effect of the four most antioxidant active fractions were tested for t-butyl hydroperoxide induced oxidation of healthy human erythrocytes and the byproduct was determined by malondialdehyde formation. Fraction No.5 showed 35% lower MDA concentration as compared to the control. The peptides were further purified using consecutive chromatographic methods and 4 antioxidant peptides were isolated. The amino acid sequences of the peptides were identified as Ile-His-His, Val- Val-His(Asn), Leu-Val-Pro, and Leu(Val)-Lys-Arg-Pro. The AAC value of the synthetic form of the identified peptides was the highest for Ile-His-His.

Identification of Antihypertensive Peptides Derived from Low Molecular Weight Casein Hydrolysates Generated during Fermentation by Bifidobacterium longum KACC 91563

  • Ha, Go Eun;Chang, Oun Ki;Jo, Su-Mi;Han, Gi-Sung;Park, Beom-Young;Ham, Jun-Sang;Jeong, Seok-Geun
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.35 no.6
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    • pp.738-747
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    • 2015
  • Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity was evaluated for the low-molecular-weight fraction (<3 kDa) obtained from milk fermentation by Bifidobacterium longum KACC91563. The ACE inhibitory activity in this fraction was 62.3%. The peptides generated from the <3 kDa fraction were identified by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization quantitative time-of-flight mass spectrometry analysis. Of the 28 peptides identified, 11 and 16 were identified as β-casein (CN) and αs1-CN, respectively. One peptide was identified as κ-CN. Three peptides, YQEPVLGPVRGPFPIIV, QEPVLGPVRGPFPIIV, and GPVRGPFPIIV, from β-CN corresponded to known antihypertensive peptides. We also found 15 peptides that were identified as potential antihypertensive peptides because they included a known antihypertensive peptide fragment. These peptides were as follows: RELEELNVPGEIVE (f1-14), YQEPVLGPVRGPFP (f193-206), EPVLGPVRGPFPIIV (f195-206), PVLGPVRGPFPIIV (f196-206), VLGPVRGPFPIIV (f197-206), and LGPVRGPFPIIV (f198-206) for β-CN; and APSFSDIPNPIGSENSEKTTMPLW (f176-199), SFSDIPNPIGSENSEKT- TMPLW (f178-199), FSDIPNPIGSENSEKTTMPLW (f179-199), SDIPNPIGSENSEKTTMPLW (f180-199), DIPNPIGSENSEKTTMPLW (f181-199), IPNPIGSENSEKTTMPLW (f182-199), PIGSENSEKTTMPLW (f185-199), IGSENSEKTTMPLW (f186-199), and SENSEKTTMPLW (f188-199) for αs1-CN. From these results, B. longum could be used as a starter culture in combination with other lactic acid bacteria in the dairy industry, and/or these peptides could be used in functional food manufacturing as additives for the development of a product with beneficial effects for human health.

Antimicrobial Peptides from Lactobacillus plantarum UTNGt2 Prevent Harmful Bacteria Growth on Fresh Tomatoes

  • Tenea, Gabriela N.;Pozo, Tatiana Delgado
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.29 no.10
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    • pp.1553-1560
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    • 2019
  • In a previous study, the antimicrobial peptides extracted from Lactobacillus plantarum UTNGt2 of wild-type fruits of Theobroma grandiflorum (Amazon) were characterized. This study aimed to investigate the antimicrobial mechanisms of peptides in vitro and its protective effect on fresh tomatoes. The addition of partially purified Gt2 peptides to the E. coli suspension cells at the exponential ($OD_{605}=0.7$) growth phase resulted in a decrease with 1.67 (log10) order of magnitude compared to the control without peptide. A marginal event (< 1 log10 difference) was recorded against Salmonella, while no effect was observed when combined with EDTA, suggesting that the presence of a chelating agent interfered with the antimicrobial activity. The Gt2 peptides disrupted the membrane of E. coli, causing the release of ${\beta}$-galactosidase and leakage of DNA/RNA molecules followed by cell death, revealing a bacteriolytic mode of action. The tomatoes fruits coated with Gt2 peptides showed growth inhibition of the artificially inoculated Salmonella cocktail, demonstrating their preservative potential.