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Effects of Silk Protein Hydrolysates on Blood Glucose in C57BL/KsJ db/db Mice (실크단백질 효소 가수분해물이 2형 당뇨 마우스 C57BL/KsJ db/db의 혈당에 미치는 영향)

  • Shin, Mi-Jin;Park, Min-Jeong;Youn, Myung-Sub;Lee, Young-Sook;Nam, Moon-Suk;Park, In-Sun;Jeong, Yoon-Hwa
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.35 no.9
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    • pp.1166-1171
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    • 2006
  • This study was performed to investigate the effect of silk protein hydrolysates on blood glucose in diabetic mice (C57BL/KsJ db/db). The silk protein hydrolysates hydrolyzed by protease contains 87.52% of peptides of which molecular weight was below 2,000 dalton. The content of free amino acids was 14.80 g/100 g silk protein hydrolysates and major free amino acids were Pro, Thr, Arg and Ala. Silk protein hydrolysates were administered to the animals for 9 weeks at doses of 0.2, 0.5% and 0.8% solution. The body weight increase in the 0.5 and 0.8% fed groups were higher than control group. Food and water intake in the silk protein hydrolysates fed groups were lower than control group. The weight of liver was not different among groups, while the weight of kidney in control group was higher than silk protein hydrolysates fed groups. The blood glucose level in silk protein hydrolysates fed groups was lower than control group. In the glucose tolerance test, the blood glucose level in control group was the highest at 15 minutes after glucose injection while those in silk protein hydrolysates fed groups were the highest at 30 minutes. Results in this study suggest that silk protein hydrolysates show hypoglycemic effect in C57BL/KsJ db/db mice.

The effect of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α to induce matrix metalloproteinase (MMPs) from the human dental pulp, gingival, and periodontal ligament cells (사람의 치수, 치은, 치주인대 세포에 tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α로 자극 시 matrix metalloproteinase (MMPs)의 분비에 관한 연구)

  • Rhim, Eun-Mi;Park, Sang-Hyuk;Kim, Duck-Su;Kim, Sun-Young;Choi, Kyoung-Kyu;Choi, Gi-Woon
    • Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics
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    • v.36 no.1
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    • pp.26-36
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    • 2011
  • Objectives: In the present study, three kinds of tissues cells (pulp, gingiva, and periodontal ligament) were investigated if those cells express MMP and TIMP when they were stimulated with neuropeptides (substance P, CGRP) or proinflammatory cytokine, TNF-$\alpha$. Materials and Methods: The cells cultured from human dental pulp (PF), gingiva (GF) and periodontal ligament were (PDLF) stimulated with Mock, SP, TNF-$\alpha$, and CGRP for 24 hrs and 48 hrs. for an RNase protection assay and Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay. Cells (PF, GF and PDLF) seeded in 100 mm culture dish were stimulated with SP ($10^{-5}$, $10^{-8}\;M$) or only with medium (Mock stimulation) for 4hrs and for 24 hrs for RNase Protection Assay, and they were stimulated with CGRP ($10^{-5}\;M$) and TNF-$\alpha$(2 ng/mL) for 24 hrs and with various concentraion of TNF-$\alpha$(2, 10, and 100 ng/mL) for Rnase Protection Assay with a human MMP-1 probe set including MMP 1, 2, 8, 7, 8, 9, 12, and TIMP 2, 3. In addition, cells (PF, GF and PDLF) were stimulated with Mock and various concentraion of TNF-$\alpha$(2, 10, and 100 ng/mL) for 24 hrs and with TNF-$\alpha$(10 ng/mL) for 48 hrs, and the supernatents from the cells were collected for Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) for MMP-1 and MMP-13. Results: The expression of MMPs in PF, GF, PDLF after stimulation with SP and CGRP were not changed compared with Mock stimulation for 4 hrs and 24 hrs. The expression of MMP-1, -12, -13 24 hrs after stimulation with TNF-$\alpha$ were upregulated, however the expression of TIMP-3 in PF, GF, PDLF after stimulation with TNF-$\alpha$ were downregulated. TNF-$\alpha$(2 ng/mL, 10 ng/mL, 100 ng/mL) increased MMP-1 and MMP-12 expression in PF dose dependently for 24 hrs. Conclusions: TNF-$\alpha$ in the area of inflammation may play an important role in regulating the remodeling of dentin, cementum, and alveolar bone.

Review of the developmental trend of implant surface modification using organic biomaterials (생체활성 유기물로 표면이 개질된 임플란트 개발 추이 분석 연구)

  • Hwang, Sung-Taek;Han, In-Ho;Huh, Jung-Bo;Kang, Jeong-Kyung;Ryu, Jae-Jun
    • The Journal of Korean Academy of Prosthodontics
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    • v.49 no.3
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    • pp.254-262
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    • 2011
  • Purpose: This study aims to evaluate and prospect for current research trend and developmental perspectives via analyzing recent biomaterial coated-implants study. Materials and methods: To investigate each subject respectively, several biomaterials that are using for implant surface coating were set as 'keywords'. By these keywords, major research groups in each subject were chosen, and research trend of them was analyzed. Trend of In vivo studies that examined selected biomaterials were analyzed to evaluate commercial potential. Results: The collagen research accounted for 40% of total implant study, which was the highest, and fibronectin, BMPs (bone morphogenetic proteins) and RGD (Arg-Gly-Asp) peptides followed, which were ranked in descending order. Furthermore, figures of all four research subjects were also increased with time, especially a sharp increase in RGD research. According to the results of major research group, collagen that was combined with other organic and inorganic biomaterials was mostly examined, rather than using collagen only. Major research groups investigating BMPs mostly focused on rhBMP-2. In animal studies, collagen was used as resorbable membrane in guided bone regeneration (GBR) or drug carrier, while BMPs were used with bone graft materials or coating material for titanium implant surface. Conclusion: There is not consistency of results even in identical subjects research field. Many studies are ongoing to optimize combination between mechanical surface treatment and biomaterials such as extracellular matrix component and growth factors.

Effects of Vegetable Peptones on Promotion of Cell Proliferation and Collagen Production (Vegetable Peptones의 세포증식 및 콜라겐생성 촉진효과)

  • Jung, Eun-Sun;Lee, Jong-Sung;Lee, Jienny;Huh, Sung-Ran;Kim, Young-Soo;Hwang, Wang-Taek;Park, Deok-Hoon
    • Journal of the Society of Cosmetic Scientists of Korea
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    • v.35 no.1
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    • pp.65-72
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    • 2009
  • Skin aging appears to be principally attributed to a decrease in both levels of Type I collagen and regeneration ability of dermal fibroblasts. It is important to introduce an efficient and safe agent for effective management of skin aging. To this end, we performed screening for anti-ageing agents and then found that vegetable peptones (pea and wheat) promoted cell proliferation of adult stem cells. Vegetable peptones may be considered as useful medium additives because it can supply nutrients, peptides, amino acids or growth factor analogues. This study was designed to investigate effects of vegetable peptones on cell proliferation/collagen production and their possible mechanisms in human dermal fibroblasts. In cell proliferation assay, vegetable peptones significantly promoted cell proliferation in a concentration-dependent manner. In addition, human COL1A2 promoter luciferase and type I procollagen synthesis assays showed that vegetable peptones induce type I procollagen production through the activation of COLlA2 promoter. In both TGF-${\beta}1$ luciferase reporter and ELISA assays, vegetable peptones was found to induce TGF-${\beta}1$ production, suggesting that vegetable peptones induce type I procollagen production through the activation of TGF-${\beta}1$. When applied topically in a human skin twice a day for an 4-week period of time, vegetable peptones did not induce any adverse reactions. Theretore, based on these results, we suggest the possibility that vegetable peptones may be considered as an attractive, wrinkle-reducing candidate for topical application.

Neuropeptides in Clinical Psychiatric Research : Endorphins and Cholecystokinins (정신질환에 있어서의 신경펩타이드 연구 - Endorphin과 cholecystokinin을 중심으로 -)

  • Kim, Young Hoon;Shim, Joo Chul
    • Korean Journal of Biological Psychiatry
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    • v.5 no.1
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    • pp.34-45
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    • 1998
  • We provide the reader with a brief introduction to the neurobiology of neuropeptides. Several comprehensive reviews of the distribution and neurochemical, neurophysiological, neuropharmacological and behavioral effects of the major neuropeptides have recently appeared. In reviews of the large number of neuropeptides in brain and their occurance in brain regions thought to be involved in the pathogenesis of major psychiatric disorders, investigators have sought to determine whether alternations in neuropeptide systems are associated with schizophrenia, mood disorders, anxiety disorders, alcoholism and neurodegenerative disease. There is no longer any doubt that neuropeptide-containing neurons are altered in several neuropsychiatric disorders. One of the factors that has hindered neuropeptide research to a considerable extent is the lack of pharmacological agents that specifically alter the synaptic availability of neuropeptides. With the exception of naloxone and naltrexone, the opiate-receptor antagonists, there are few available neuropeptide- receptor antagonists. Two independent classes of neuropeptide-receptor antagonists has been expected to be clinically useful. Naltrexone, a potent ${\mu}$-receptor antagonist, has been used successfully to reduce the need for alcohol consumption. And cholecycstokinin antagonists are now in development as a new class of anxiolytics, which would be expected to be free from tolerance and physical dependence and lack of sedation. In this review, we deal with these two kinds of neuropeptide system, the opioid system and cholesystokinins in the brain. The role of opioid systems in the reinforcement after alcohol consumtion and that of cholesystokinins in the pathogenesis of anxiety will be discussed briefly. As we know, the future for neuropeptides in psychiatry remains bright indeed.

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Characterization and Expression of Penaeidin 3-2 from Fleshy Prawn Fenneropenaeus chinensis (대하 Penaeidin 3-2 유전자의 동정 및 발현)

  • Park, Eun-Mi;Cho, Hyun Kook;Hong, Gyeong-Eun;Nam, Bo-Hye;Kim, Young-Ok;Kim, Woo-Jin;Lee, Sang-Jun;Han, Hyon Sob;Lee, Jae Yong;Kim, Jong-Sheek;Jang, In-Kwon;Cheong, JaeHun;Choi, Tae-Jin;Kong, Hee Jeong
    • Journal of Marine Bioscience and Biotechnology
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    • v.2 no.1
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    • pp.34-39
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    • 2007
  • Penaeidins are members of a special family of antimicrobial peptides existing in several species of shrimp and play a crucial role in the immunological defense of shrimp. In this study, we isolated and characterized one EST clone (penaeidin) from cDNA library of fleshy prawn Fenneropenaeus chinensis hemocytes. Amino acids sequence comparison and phylogenetic analysis with other known penaeidins revealed that our clone was completely identical to F. chinensis Penaeidin 3-2 (Accession no. ABC33920), which composed of 71 amino acids with a putative signal peptide (1-19) and a cysteine-rich domain (C-terminal part). The expression and distribution of Penaeidin 3-2 transcripts in shrimp were detected in hemocytes, hepatopancreas, and muscles, and that Penaeidin 3-2 was constitutively expressed mainly in hemocytes. The artificial infection of white spot syndrome virus to F. chinensis resulted in Penaeidin 3-2 mRNA up-regulation in hemocytes, suggesting that the possible role of Penaeidin 3-2 in host defense system of F. chinensis.

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Plasma Levels of Brain Natriuretic Peptide Predict Postoperative Atrial Fibrillation in Patients Undergoing Heart Surgery (심장 수술 후 심방세동 발생의 예측 인자로서 혈중 BNP 농도)

  • Kwon, Jin-Tae;Jung, Tae-Eun;Lee, Jang-Hoon;Lee, Dong-Hyup
    • The Korean Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
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    • v.40 no.6
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    • pp.407-413
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    • 2007
  • Background: The brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) level has been reported in some studies to be associated with the occurrence of atrial fbrillation (AF). The aim of this study is to evaluate the potential usefulness of the BNP level as a predictor of the occurrence of postoperative (postop) AF and to assess the relationship of the BNP level with the onset of AF and the restoration of sinus rhythm. Material and Method: From January 1, 2005 to February 28, 2006, 82 patients without a history of atrial arrhythmia that had undergone cardiac surgery were enrolled in the study. Blood samples for plasma BNP were drawn daily for all these patients from the preoperative (preop) day to the 7th postop day. The patient records were reviewed and postop EKGs were checked daily for AF until the time of discharge. Result: Patients were divided into two groups based on development of postop AF. Postoperative AF developed in 26 patients (31.7%). There was no significant statistical difference in age, sex distribution, preop left ventricle ejection fraction, hypertension, left ventricular hypertrophy, or the use of beta blockers between the non-postop AF and postop AF group. More patients in the AF group had undergone valve surgery (39.3% versus 76.9%, p=0.002). The preop left atrium size was significantly larger in the AF patients ($43.8{\pm}10.3 mm$ versus $49.8{\pm}11.5 mm$, p=0.029). The preop plasma BNP levels were higher in the postop AF patients ($144.1{\pm}20.8 pg/mL$ versus $267.5{\pm}68 pg/mL$, p=0.034). In the postop AF group, the plasma BNP level was the highest on the 3rd postop day. Postop AF developed in most patients by the 3rd postop day; restored sinus rhythm developed by the 7th postop day. Conclusion: Elevated plasma BNP levels may lead to the occurrence of postop AF in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. Patients who have a high risk of postop AF should be considered for aggressive prophylactic antiarrhythmic therapy.

Mouse Embryonic Stem Cell Uptakes of Buforin 2 and pEP-1 Conjugated with EGFP (생쥐 배아 줄기세포의 Buforin 2 및 pEP-1에 결합된 EGFP의 세포 내 수송)

  • Jung, Su-Hyun;Park, Seong-Soon;Lim, Hyun-Jung;Cheon, Yong-Pil
    • Development and Reproduction
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    • v.11 no.2
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    • pp.111-119
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    • 2007
  • Differentiation of cells can be induced through modulation of endogenous regulators using exogenous factors. Useful transfection systems to transport a specific exogenous regulator into cell have been tried but still there are many obstacles to overcome. In this study, we examined the transfection efficiency of cell permeable peptides (CPPs) in mouse embryonic stem cell under the various conditions. To identify the CPP-mediated translocation of a protein, we employed recombinant CPP-enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP). Viability of R1 cells was different between experimental groups depending on the kind of CPP and the concentration of CPP-EGFP. Translocation of CPP-EGFPs into the R1 cells was not detected until 30 min after CPP-EGFPs treatment in all groups. After 1 hr, translocation of pEP-1-EGFP-N was detected, but it could not be detected in the other group. Transfection of pEP-1EGFP-N was independent on its concentration. The time course did not show saturation even after 24 hr in pEP-1-EGFP-N. These results showed that the permeability depended on the kind of CPP and the location of His-tag in the case of examined CPPs, and did not need biological energy. On summary, the efficiency of transfection of CPP-EGFP depends on the CPP sequences but the culture time is not a key factor in transfection for the mouse embryonic stem cell. For the future studies to improve the efficiency of translocation of protein into embryonic stem cells, it is needed to develop modified CPP or mediator. The studies would be very useful to induce the differentiation of embryonic stem cells.

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Effect of Cosmetics Contained Isotonic Water Mimicked Body Fluid on Cell Activities and Skin (생체 모사수 화장품이 세포 활성과 피부에 미치는 효과)

  • Park, Sun Young;Lee, Sung Hoon;Kim, Eun Joo;Choi, So Woong;Kim, Ji Young;Cho, Seong A;Cho, Jun Cheol;Lee, Hae Kwang
    • Journal of the Society of Cosmetic Scientists of Korea
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    • v.40 no.2
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    • pp.195-201
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    • 2014
  • Body fluid has been studied for diverse fields like Ringer's solutions, artificial joint fluids, cell growth culture media because it plays a crucial role in controlling body temperature and acts as a solvent for diverse metabolite processes in the body and delivery media of mineral, energy source, hormone, signal and drug from and to cell via blood or lymphatic vessel by osmotic pressure or active uptake. Stratum corneum containing extracellular lipids and NMF (natural moisturizing factor) absorbs atmospheric water residing outside of cells and utilize it to hydrate inside of their own. This process is related to skin barrier function. In this study, we conducted the cell viability test with Cell Bio Fluid $Sync^{TM}$, which mimicks body fluids including amino acids, peptides, and monosaccharides to strengthen skin barrier, and the clinical skin improvement test with cosmetics containing Cell Bio Fluid $Sync^{TM}$. In the cell viability test, HaCaT cell was treated with PBS for 3 hours, followed by the treatment of a cell culture medium (DMEM) and isotonic solution (PBS) and Cell Bio Fluid $Sync^{TM}$ for 3 hours each. Then, MTT assay and image analysis were conducted. In the clinical skin improvement test, twenty-one healthy women participated. Participants applied cosmetics containing Cell Bio Fluid $Sync^{TM}$ on their face for a week and evaluated the skin hydration, skin roughness, brightness and evenness. All measurements were conducted after they washed off their face and took a rest under the constant temperature ($22{\pm}2^{\circ}C$) and constant humidity conditions ($50{\pm}5%$) for 20 minutes. All the data were analyzed by SPSS (version 21) software program. Results showed that Cell Bio Fluid $Sync^{TM}$ improved both the cell viability and in vivo skin conditions such as skin hydration, roughness, brightness and evenness.

Allergenicity Change of Soybean Proteins by Thermal Treatment Methods (열처리 방법에 따른 품종별 콩 단백질의 항원성 변화)

  • Seol, Hui-Gyeong;Ko, Yu-Jin;Kim, Eun-Jung;Lee, Gyeong-Lan;Kim, Do-Gyeong;Lee, Jeong-Ok;Ahn, Kang-Mo;Ryu, Chung-Ho
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.22 no.4
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    • pp.524-531
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    • 2012
  • Soybean is one of the most common food materials causing food hypersensitivity reactions in Korea. In this study, we have investigated the effect of roasting and fermentation on the allergenicity of soybean. Three kinds of soybean ($Daepung$, $Daewon$, and $Taegwang$) were prepared as raw, roasted, and fermented by $Bacillus$ $subtilis$ GSK 3580, and then their proteins were extracted. The proteins were separated using SDS-PAGE, and the detection of IgE specific to soybean proteins was performed by immunoblotting using 7 sera of soybean allergy patients and non-allergic control individuals. Serum specific IgE to soybean was measured by ELISA. The SDS-PAGE of raw soybean proteins showed various-sized bands ranging from 9 to 76 kDa, which are known as major allergens. In particular, 9, 21, 34, 52, 72, and 76 kDa proteins are known as LTP, Kunits trypsin inhibitor, $Gly$ m Bd 30K, ${\beta}$-subunit, ${\alpha}$-subunit, and ${\alpha}$'-subunit of ${\beta}$-conglycinin, respectively; these are major allergens in soybean. In contrast, only peptides of less than 35 kDa were found in roasted and fermented soybeans. IgE immunoblot analysis of three roasted species of soybeans commonly detected at 38-40 kDa and 10-15 kDa. The protein bands in fermented soybean showed very weak signals or were not detected. In addition, the reactivity of most patients' sera to soybean was decreased after roasting and fermentation. With these results, it may be concluded that the allergenicity of soybeans is reduced by the roasting and fermentation processes. It is supposed that allergenic proteins in soybean were degraded by heat treatment methods and proteolytic enzymes were secreted from fermenting microorganisms.