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Health Functional Peptides From Milk Products (유제품의 기능성 펩타이드)

  • Lee, Hyong-Joo
    • 한국유가공학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.22-29
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    • 1998
  • Various peptides derived from food are among the most potent physiologically active agents known, and include anticancer peptides, angiotensin converting enzyme(ACE) inhibitor exhibiting antihypertension action, opioid peptides, antithrombotic peptides, hypocholesterolemic peptides, immunomodulators, calcium absorption enhancers, and other peptides. Hydrophobic peptides extracted from a Cheddar-type cheese slurry were fractionated by gel chromatography and repeated HPLC. A peptide fraction from HPLC showed high cytotoxicity on the tumor cell lines such as a human colon carcinoma, and comprised of Tyr, Ser, Leu, Gly, and others. Hypocholesterolemic peptides were isolated from peptic hydrolyzates of casein and soy proteins. Macropeptides of 1,000${\sim}$5,000 dalton were effective on reducing the cholesterol level of mouse serum. Peptides showing high Krigbaum hydrophobicity and ANS surface hydrophobicity resulted in high hypocholesterolemic effect and fecal steroid concentrations. Caseinomacropeptides (CMP) were isolated from whey powder and treated with soluble and immobilized trypsin to obtain antithrombotic peptides. One fraction from the CMP hydrolyzed with immobilized trypsin for 24h exhibited high antithrombotic activity with 52.5% inhibition of platelet aggregation. These results suggested that peptides from various milk products could be utilized as a good bioactive agents for developing health functional foods.

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Health Functional Peptides from Milk Products (유제품의 기능성 펩타이드)

  • Lee, Hyong-Joo
    • Journal of Dairy Science and Biotechnology
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    • v.16 no.2
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    • pp.98-105
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    • 1998
  • Various peptides derived from food are among the most potent physiologically active agents known, and include anticancer peptides, angiotensin converting enzyme(ACE) inhibitor exhibiting antihypertension action, opioid peptides, antithrombotic peptides, hypocholesterolemic peptides, immunomodulators, calcium absorption enhancers, and other peptides. Hydrophobic peptides extracted from a Cheddar-type cheese slurry were fractionated by gel chromatography and repeated HPLC. A peptide fraction from HPLC showed high cytotoxicity on the tumor cell lines such as a human colon carcinoma, and comprised of Tyr, Ser, Leu, Gly, and others. Hypocholesterolemic peptides were isolated from peptic hydrolyzates of casein and soy proteins. Macropeptides of 1,000${\sim}$5,000 dalton were effective on reducing the cholesterol level of mouse serum. Peptides showing high Krigbaum hydrophobicity and ANS surface hydrophobicity resulted in high hypocholesterolemic effect and fecal steroid concentrations. Caseinomacropeptides(CMP) were isolated from whey powder and treated with soluble and immobilized trypsin to obtain antithrombotic peptides. One fraction from the CMP hydrolyzed with immobilized trypsin for 24h exhibited high antithrombotic activity with 52.5% inhibition of platelet aggregation. These result suggested that peptides from various milk products could be utilized as a good bioactive agents for developing health functional foods.

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Cyclic Peptides as Therapeutic Agents and Biochemical Tools

  • Joo, Sang-Hoon
    • Biomolecules & Therapeutics
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    • v.20 no.1
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    • pp.19-26
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    • 2012
  • There are many cyclic peptides with diverse biological activities, such as antibacterial activity, immunosuppressive activity, and anti-tumor activity, and so on. Encouraged by natural cyclic peptides with biological activity, efforts have been made to develop cyclic peptides with both genetic and synthetic methods. The genetic methods include phage display, intein-based cyclic peptides, and mRNA display. The synthetic methods involve individual synthesis, parallel synthesis, as well as split-and-pool synthesis. Recent development of cyclic peptide library based on split-and-pool synthesis allows on-bead screening, in-solution screening, and microarray screening of cyclic peptides for biological activity. Cyclic peptides will be useful as receptor agonist/antagonist, RNA binding molecule, enzyme inhibitor and so on, and more cyclic peptides will emerge as therapeutic agents and biochemical tools.

Antimicrobial Cyclic Peptides for Plant Disease Control

  • Lee, Dong Wan;Kim, Beom Seok
    • The Plant Pathology Journal
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    • v.31 no.1
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    • pp.1-11
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    • 2015
  • Antimicrobial cyclic peptides derived from microbes bind stably with target sites, have a tolerance to hydrolysis by proteases, and a favorable degradability under field conditions, which make them an attractive proposition for use as agricultural fungicides. Antimicrobial cyclic peptides are classified according to the types of bonds within the ring structure; homodetic, heterodetic, and complex cyclic peptides, which in turn reflect diverse physicochemical features. Most antimicrobial cyclic peptides affect the integrity of the cell envelope. This is achieved through direct interaction with the cell membrane or disturbance of the cell wall and membrane component biosynthesis such as chitin, glucan, and sphingolipid. These are specific and selective targets providing reliable activity and safety for non-target organisms. Synthetic cyclic peptides produced through combinatorial chemistry offer an alternative approach to develop antimicrobials for agricultural uses. Those synthesized so far have been studied for antibacterial activity, however, the recent advancements in powerful technologies now promise to provide novel antimicrobial cyclic peptides that are yet to be discovered from natural resources.

Memory-Enhancing Effects of Silk Fibroin-Derived Peptides in Scopolamine-Treated Mice

  • Kang, Yong Koo;Lee, Woojoo;Kang, Byunghoon;Kang, Hannah
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.23 no.12
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    • pp.1779-1784
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    • 2013
  • Although enzyme-hydrolyzed silk fibroin has been reported to enhance cognitive function before, it has been still unknown which peptides can improve memory. Here we report that amino acid sequences of three novel peptides were identified from fibroin hydrolysate. Fibroin hydrolysate was obtained by hydrolysis with protease after partial hydrolysis with 5M $CaCl_2$. Synthesized peptides derived from these sequences improved scopolamine-induced memory impairments in mice. We confirmed this hydrolysate had effects that improved learning and memory abilities by performing the Rey-Kim test. From this hydrolysate of silk fibroin, amino acid sequences of eight peptides were identified by LC-MS/MS. Three peptides (GAGAGTGSSGFGPY, GAGAGSGAGSGAGAGSGAGAGY, and SGAGSGAGAGSGAGAGSGA) were synthesized to investigate whether they could improve memory. Passive avoidance test and Morris water maze test were performed, and all peptides showed memory-enhancing abilities on scopolamine-induced memory impairments in mice. In this study, we identified three novel peptides that could improve memory, and that silk fibroin hydrolysate was a mixture of various active peptides that could enhance memory.

Role of Peptides in Rumen Microbial Metabolism - Review -

  • Wallace, R.J.;Atasoglu, C.;Newbold, C.J.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.12 no.1
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    • pp.139-147
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    • 1999
  • Peptides are formed in the rumen as the result of microbial proteinase activity. The predominant type of activity is cysteine ptoteinase, but others, such as serine proteinases, are also present. Many species of protozoa, bacteria and fungi are involved in ptoteolysis; large animal-to-animal variability is found when proteinase activities in different animals are compared. The peptides formed from proteolysis are broken down to amino acids by peptidases. Different peptides are broken down at different rates, depending on their chemical composition and particularly their N-terminal structure. Indeed, chemical addition to the N-terminus of small peptides, such as by acetylation, causes the peptides to become stable to breakdown by the rumen microbial population; the microorganisms do not appear to adapt to hydrolyse acetylated peptides even after several weeks exposure to dietary acetylated peptides, and the amino acids present in acetylated peptides are absorbed from the small intestine. The amino acids present in some acetylated peptides remain available in nutritional trials with rats, but the nutritive value of the whole amino acid mixture is decreased by acetylation. The genus Prevotella is responsible for most of the catabolic peptidase activity in the rumen, via its dipeptidyl peptidase activities, which release dipeptides rather than free amino acids from the N-terminus of oligopeptides. Studies with dipeptidyl peptidase mutants of Prevotella suggest that it may be possible to slow the rate of peptide hydrolysis by the mixed rumen microbial population by inhibiting dipeptidyl peptidase activity of Prevotella or the rate of peptide uptake by this genus. Peptides and amino acids also stimulate the growth of rumen microorganisms, and are necessary for optimal growth rates of many species growing on tapidly fermented substrates; in rich medium, most bacteria use pre-formed amino acids for more than 90% of their amino acid requirements. Cellulolytic species are exceptional in this respect, but they still incorporate about half of their cell N from pre-formed amino acids in rich medium. However, the extent to which bacteria use ammonia vs. peptides and amino acids for protein synthesis also depends on the concentrations of each, such that preformed amino acids and peptides are probably used to a much lesser extent in vivo than many in vitro experiments might suggest.

Inhibition of 5α-reductase of de novo Generation of Short Anti-oxidant Peptides

  • Lee, Sung-Gyu;Kang, Hyun
    • Biomedical Science Letters
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    • v.24 no.3
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    • pp.263-269
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    • 2018
  • This study aims to investigate the biological activities related to hair loss of short anti-oxidant peptides (DK peptides) $5{\alpha}$-reductase inhibition and anti-oxidation. The series of DK peptides were generated amphipathic helical properties using leucines, lysines and tryptophan residues. Cell viability and free radical scavenging activities were performed using 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) and 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay, respectively. The DK peptides were investigated for inhibitory activity against $5{\alpha}$-reductase. Antioxidant activities were determined by means of, 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assays. All peptides could inhibit $5{\alpha}$-reductase in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated macrophage. In conclusion, DK peptides was suggested as the most attractive ingredients for improving hair loss, because of the high inhibitory against $5{\alpha}$-reductase inhibition.

Recent Trends in Cyclic Peptides as Therapeutic Agents and Biochemical Tools

  • Choi, Joon-Seok;Joo, Sang Hoon
    • Biomolecules & Therapeutics
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    • v.28 no.1
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    • pp.18-24
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    • 2020
  • Notable progress has been made in the therapeutic and research applications of cyclic peptides since our previous review. New drugs based on cyclic peptides are entering the market, such as plecanatide, a cyclic peptide approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration in 2017 for the treatment of chronic idiopathic constipation. In this review, we discuss recent developments in stapled peptides, prepared with the use of chemical linkers, and bicyclic/tricyclic peptides with more than two rings. These have widespread applications for clinical and research purposes: imaging, diagnostics, improvement of oral absorption, enzyme inhibition, development of receptor agonist/antagonist, and the modulation of protein-protein interaction or protein-RNA interaction. Many cyclic peptides are expected to emerge as therapeutics and biochemical tools.

Antifungal activities of peptides with the sequence 10-17 of magainin 2 at the N-termini against aspergillus fumigatus (Antifungal Activities of Peptides with the Sequence 10-17 of Magainin 2 at the N-termini against Aspergillus fumigatus)

  • Lee, Myung Kyu;Lee, Dong Gun;Shin Song Yub;Lee, Sung Gu;Kang Joo Hyun;Hahm, Kyung Soo
    • Journal of Microbiology
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    • v.34 no.3
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    • pp.274-278
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    • 1996
  • Two peptides, MA-inv AND MA-ME, with the sequence 10-17 of maganin 2 at their-N-termini were designed and synthesized. The peptides had higher antifungal activities against Aspergilus fumigatus without hemolytic activities. The minimal inhibition concentratory (MIC) values of both peptides against A. fumigatus were 5 .mu.g/ml, whereas those of the native peptides, magainin 2 and melittin, were 10.mu.g/ml. At 3 .mu.g/ml, MA-inv and MA-ME inhibited the mycelium growth of A. fumigatus by 94.6% and 97.3% respectively, whereas magainin 2 and melittin inhibited by 62.2% and 32.4, respectively. MA-inv showed up to 80% inhibition of (1, 3)-.betha.-D-glucan synthase activity of A. fumigatus. The peptides also showed up to 80% inhibition of (1, 3)-.betha.-D glucan synthase activity of A. fumigatus. The peptides also showed antifungal activities for other fungi of Aspergillus sp. However, the antibiotic activities of MA-ME against Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis and Fusarium oxysporum were more effective than those of MA-inv, suggesting that the C-terminal sequences of MA-inv and MA-ME may also influence their antibiotic activities. These results suggest that the N-terminal sequence of the designed peptides, KKFGKAFV, is important for their antifungal activities against A. fumigatus and their C- terminal sequences are related to the organism selectivity.

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Antibacterial Activities of Peptides Designed as Hybrids of Antimicrobial Peptides

  • Shin, Song-Yub;Kang, Joo-Hyun;Lee, Myung-Kyu;Hahm, Kyung-Soo
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.29 no.6
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    • pp.545-548
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    • 1996
  • CA(1-8)ME(1-12), the CA-ME hybrid peptide of the amino terminal segments of cecropin A (CA) and melittin (ME), has been reported to have a broad spectrum and improved potency without a hemolytic property. In order to obtain new synthetic peptides with powerful antibacterial activity without hemolytic activity, several hybrid peptides were designed from the sequences of CA, ME, magainin 2, bombinin and lactoferricin. All hybrid peptides were constructed to form an amphipathically basic-flexible-hydrophobic structure and synthesized by the solid phase method. Their hemolytic activities against human red blood cells and antibacterial activities against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria were detennined. CA(1-8)MA(1-12), CA(1-8)BO(1-12), MA(10-17)ME(1-12) and LF(20-29)ME(1-12) showed comparable activities with broad spectra against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria relative to CA(1-8)ME(1-12) but without hemolytic properties. These hybrid peptides, therefore, could be useful as model peptides to design a novel peptide with improved antibacterial activity and study on structure-activity relationships of antimicrobial peptides.

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