• Title/Summary/Keyword: pepper

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Use of HPLC for the Determination of Provitamin A Carotenoids in Red Peppers (HPLC를 이용한 고추 및 고추 가공품의 비타민 A 함량 측정)

  • 김영남
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.25 no.5
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    • pp.389-396
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    • 1992
  • Provitamin A carotenoids($\alpha$- $\beta$-carotene lutein capsanthin) cintents in various red pepper and red pepper products were analyzed by HPLC and UV/VIS spectroscopy. The amounts of $\beta$-carotene and capsanthin were at its highest in powdered red pepper and lutein in red pepper leaves. There are little $\alpha$-carotene present in all samples analyzed. So vitamin A activity was calculated only from $\beta$-carotene content. Capsanthin and $\beta$-carotene contents of red pepper were higher than those of green pepper whereas lutein content of red pepper was lower than that of green pepper. whereas lutein content of red pepper was lower than that of green pepper. Vitamin A activity from colorimetric analysis was higher than that from chromatographic method and results were not generally in accordance with the vitamin A data presented in current food composition tables. Vitamin A activities in retinol equivalent(R. E. ) of green pepper red pepper powdered red pepper fermented red pepper paste and red pepper leaves were 70, 570, 1, 340, 140, 980 R. E respectively.

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Using the Red Pepper in Korean Traditonal Cuisine (우리나라 전통조리에서 고추의 활용)

  • 한복진
    • Journal of the East Asian Society of Dietary Life
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    • v.12 no.2
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    • pp.173-186
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    • 2002
  • Red pepper have affected traditional cuisines through various ways since they were first introduced in Korea over 400 years. But we on easily determine that red pepper powder and red pepper paste were not used daily dishes until 1940 as we look into traditional cookbooks. Chinese pepper and black pepper were used for hot spices before red pepper was introduced in Korea. It is estimated that red pepper was introduced during the last of 1500s the Japanese invasion of Chosun dynasty, but it was first used to make Sunchang red pepper paste in $\boxDr$Sumunsasul(수문사설)$\boxUl$(1740), and to make Kimchi in $\boxDr$Jeungbo Sanlimkungje(증보 산림경제)$\boxUl$(1766), and it became a general spice for vegetables in the middle of the 1800s. Pepper is mostly used to make Kochujang(red pepper paste), Kimchi, Jutkal(salted flesh) and Jangaji(salited very.) etc as fermentable cuisines. The attribute of using pepper was developed fur fermentable spices, and to give spicy flavor to cuisines. The types of peppers using traditional cuisines are various such as unripened pepper, red pepper, red pepper powder, red pepper paste, and pepper leaves. Traditional dishes with vegetables mostly use red peppers. Fish dishes(soup, stew, bracing, roasting, steaming) also use red peppers. Soup '||'&'||' stew with meat item partly use red pepper but steaming, roasting dishes with meat item not use pepper. roasted pork, pork ribs, steamed chicken of spicy meat cuisines in the 1930s did not use pepper. Kochujangbokkum(고추장볶음) is one of the oldest cuisines for using red pepper paste in the 1800s. Sliced red peppers and red pepper powder are mostly used for garnishing of cuisines.

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Development of a Pepper Removal Mechanism for a Red-Pepper Harvester (I)- Size Reduction of the Pepper Removal Mechanism and Improvement of Pepper Recovery Ratio - (고추수확기의 탈실장치 개발 (I) - 탈실장치의 소형화와 회수율의 제고 -)

  • 이종호;박승제;이중용
    • Journal of Biosystems Engineering
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    • v.22 no.2
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    • pp.177-188
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    • 1997
  • A pepper harvester using a pair of counter rotating helically wound cylinders as a pepper removal mechanism has been developed. Pepper harvesting by machines under the customary cultivation practice was expected to lower land productivity, that most farmers were concerned about. As one way to compensate for loss in land productivity by machine harvest, experts on pepper cultivation suggested change of both varieties and plant density per area. From the view of machine design, their suggestion implied that distance between rows should be narrower and height of the pepper removal mechanism could be shorter. Experiments to improve perfect pepper recovery ratio and to reduce size of the pepper removal mechanism was accomplished. In order to be a economically feasible harvester, minimum pepper recovery ratio was required to be greater or equal to 80%. The research goal was achieved by both reducing the diameter of the wire-helices from 30 cm to 18 cm and increasing rotational speed of the wire-helices up to 425 rpm. The best perfect pepper recovery ratio was 82.3%. Validity of experiment design and interpretation on statistical analysis were discussed. To understand the pepper removal mechanism properly, a pepper removal theory based physics was judged to be necessary.

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An Analysis of the Price and Scale Flexibilities on Different Varieties of Green Pepper (풋고추 품종별 가격 및 규모 신축성 분석)

  • Choi, Se-Hyun;Noh, Su-Jeong;Cho, Jae-Hwan
    • Korean Journal of Organic Agriculture
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    • v.25 no.1
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    • pp.37-52
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    • 2017
  • Three varieties of green pepper - Chungyang pepper, Cucumber-taste pepper and Nokgwang pepper - are competing with one another in consumption due to the overlapping shipment period. The objective of this study is to analyze the influence of monthly variations of shipment quantities on the wholesale market prices. A Linear Approximated Inverse Almost Ideal Demand System (LA/IAIDS) is employed with monthly data set of three different varieties of green pepper consumption. The results show that if there is an excess supply in the market, the rate of the price decline is larger for forcing culture Chungyang pepper than other pepper varieties. On the contrary, change in supply of cucumber-taste pepper and Nokgwang pepper has little effect on the price of Chungyang pepper. The results of this study can be utilized as a basic information for enhancing the farm income and promoting agricultural policies related to the establishment of self-help funds by Chungyang pepper producer groups in Gyeongnam region.

Measurement of Mechanical and Physical Properties of Pepper for Particle Behavior Analysis

  • Nam, Ju-Seok;Byun, Jun-Hee;Kim, Tae-Hyeong;Kim, Myoung-Ho;Kim, Dae-Cheol
    • Journal of Biosystems Engineering
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    • v.43 no.3
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    • pp.173-184
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    • 2018
  • Purpose: This study was conducted to investigate the mechanical and physical properties of a Korean red pepper variety for particle behavior analysis. Methods: Poisson's ratio, modulus of elasticity, shear modulus, density, coefficient of restitution, and coefficient of friction were derived for "AR Legend," which is a domestic pepper variety. The modulus of elasticity and Poisson's ratio were measured through a compression test using a texture analyzer. The shear modulus was calculated from the modulus of elasticity and Poisson's ratio. The density was measured using a water pycnometer method. The coefficient of restitution was measured using a collision test, and the static and dynamic friction coefficients were measured using a inclined plane test. Each test was repeated 3-5 times except for density measurement, and the results were analyzed using mean values. Results: Poisson's ratios for the pepper fruit and pepper stem were 0.295 and 0.291, respectively. Elastic moduli of the pepper fruit and pepper stem were $1.152{\times}10^7Pa$ and $3.295{\times}10^7Pa$, respectively, and the shear moduli of the pepper fruit and pepper stem were $4.624{\times}10^6Pa$ and $1.276{\times}10^7Pa$, respectively. The density of the pepper fruit and the pepper stem were $601.8kg/m^3$ and $980.4kg/m^3$, respectively. The restitution coefficients between pepper fruits, pepper stems, a pepper fruit and a pepper stem, a pepper fruit and plastic, and a pepper stem and plastic were 0.383, 0.218, 0.277, 0.399, and 0.148, respectively. The coefficients of static friction between pepper fruits, pepper stems, a pepper fruit and a pepper stem, a pepper fruit and plastic, and a pepper stem and plastic were 0.455, 0.332, 0.306, 0.364, and 0.404, respectively. The coefficients of dynamic friction between a pepper fruit and plastic and a pepper stem and plastic were 0.043 and 0.034, respectively.

Determination of Development Strategy for a Pepper Harvester (고추수확기의 개발방향 설정)

  • 이종호;박승제;김철수;이중용;김명호;김용현
    • Journal of Biosystems Engineering
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    • v.20 no.1
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    • pp.22-35
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    • 1995
  • Pepper is the most important horticultural plant in Korean farm. Pepper harvesting has been known to be the most difficult process in pepper cultivation so that demand for mechanization is strong. In a research to develop a pepper harvesting machine performance and capacity of the harvester should be determined based on both economical feasibility and machine design concept. In order to accomplish an economical analysis of the pepper harvester, a mathematical model for comparing manual harvesting cost to machine harvest cost was developed. Validity of the model depends on the data used in the model. Economical information for the model variables was acquired from the result of farm survey on pepper cultivation technique and economics of pepper farmer. Technical information on pepper harvester were also collected through literature review and analyzed. Based on the economical analysis and synthesis of the technical information on pepper harvesters, its performance and capacity were determined. The operating performances of the harvester such as cutting, conveying, flipping, pepper removing and post-processing (sorting) were determined. Daisy capacity of the machine was determined to be 0.41 ha. A pepper harvester with the suggested capacity was economically feasible if the price of pepper harvester, pepper recovery ratio and service life of harvester were about 6 million won, 80%, and 4 years, respectively.

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Effects of MA Storage with Fine Holes For Red Chili Pepper and Red Bell Pepper Fruits (홍고추 및 홍피망의 미세공 MA저장 효과)

  • 이귀현;정천순
    • Korean Journal of Food Preservation
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    • v.8 no.2
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    • pp.125-130
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    • 2001
  • The effects of modified atmosphere(MA) storage for fresh red chili pepper and red bell pepper fruits were investigated with storing in polyethylene film with various fine holes. During the storage of the both pepper fruits, the weight loss, color change, mold emergence, and firmness were evaluated. The weight loss of pepper fruits packaged without holes on film was less than 3%, even though it was each 50% and 25% for non packaged red chili pepper and red bell pepper fruits. The rates of mold emergence of red chili pepper and red bell pepper fruits were reached to each 60% and 50% at the end of storage period as stored in film without holes. However, the rate of mold emergence of pepper fruits was lowered when fruits were stored in MA with low relative humidity (70∼80%). The color and firmness of pepper fruits were not much changed when fruits were stored in MA with high humidity.

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Quality Characteristics of Instant Gochujang added with Red Pepper Seeds Powder (고추씨를 첨가한 즉석 고추장의 품질특성)

  • Lee, Keum-Ok;Kim, Ki-Bbeum
    • Culinary science and hospitality research
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    • v.24 no.3
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    • pp.15-24
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    • 2018
  • This study produced instant Gochujang(red pepper paste) with enhanced convenience by increasing nutritional value and palatability, and by reducing production period, adding in the red pepper seed in the red pepper paste production in order to increase the use of the red pepper seed that is not used often as a food ingredient even though its nutrition value when producing red pepper paste was proven. Moisture content, pH, L-value, a-value, b-value, sugar contents, and salinity of instant Gochujang tended to increase as the amount of red pepper seed increased, while viscosity manifested the opposite trend. Sensory evaluations were conducted on instant Gochujang to assess differences in characteristics, which demonstrated that as the amount of red pepper seeds powder increased, the intensity of redness for the red pepper paste's external appearance, luster, spicy flavor and taste, and savory taste were evaluated strong. Meanwhile, fermentation value, which is red pepper paste's foremost weakness was evaluated as weak. Moreover, there was no difference in the size of the grain when compared to the contrast group consisting of regular red pepper paste. The results of preference test demonstrated that the RG3 with 30% of red pepper seed is optimal in terms of the external appearance, taste, texture and overall preference.

The Antimutagenic and Antioxidant Effects of Red Pepper Seed and Red Pepper Pericarp (Capsicum annuum L.)

  • Sim, Ki-Hyeon;Han, Young-Sil
    • Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
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    • v.12 no.4
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    • pp.273-278
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    • 2007
  • In this study, we examined the antimutagenicity of red pepper seed and red pepper pericarp ethanol extracts using the standard Ames test in the presence and absence of S9 mix. The extracts showed inhibitory effects on both the TA98 and TA100 Salmenella Typhimurium strains against the mutagenic activity of promutagen 2-aminoanthracene, and were also protective against the directly acting mutagens sodium azide and 2-nitrofluorene. The red pepper seed elicited stronger antimutagenicity than the red pepper pericarp. Both the red pepper seed and red pepper pericarp directly quenched nitric oxide to different degrees and the scavenging activities increased with increasing concentrations. Nitric oxide scavenging activity ranged from $22{\sim}77%$ in the red pepper seed, and from $36{\sim}49%$ in the red pepper pericarp. The TEAC values for red pepper seed extract were $47.89{\pm}1.64mg\;g^{-1}$ in the ABTS radical scavenging assays, while those of red pepper pericarp extract were $94.18{\pm}1.61mg\;g^{-1}$. Therefore, we conclude that red pepper seed and red pepper pericarp have antimutagenic activities as well as antioxidant activity.

Microbiological Contamination of Fresh-Red Pepper and Packaged-Red Pepper Powder in South Korea

  • Jeong, A-Ram;Jo, Mi-Jin;Koo, Min-Seon;Oh, Se-Wook;Ku, Kyung-Hyung;Park, Jae-Bok;Kim, Hyun-Jung
    • Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
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    • v.15 no.3
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    • pp.233-238
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    • 2010
  • The aim of this study was to determine microbiological contamination of fresh-red pepper and packaged-red pepper powder commercially available in South Korea. Thirty-seven fresh-red peppers were collected from 5 farms and 31 packaged-red pepper powders were purchased from retail markets in South Korea. Foodborne pathogens (Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus), total viable counts, Enterobacteriaceae, coliforms, yeast and mold, and Aspergillus flavus were determined. Detection percentage of contamination of Bacillus cereus in fresh-red pepper was 8.1%, which was lower than the 39% of detection rate in packaged-red pepper powder. The contamination level of Bacillus cereus was 1~3 log CFU/g in packaged-red pepper powder. Escherichia coli was detected in 5.4% of fresh-red pepper samples and was not detected in packaged-red pepper powder. Enterobacteriaceae and coliforms were detected in both of fresh-red pepper and packaged-red pepper powders. Foodborne pathogens, except Bacillus cereus and Escherichia coli, were not detected.