Background: This pooled analysis was conducted to evaluate the efficacy and safety of pemetrexed based chemotherapy in treating patients with metastatic bladder cancer as salvage chemotherapy. Methods: Clinical studies evaluating the efficacy and safety of pemetrexed based regimens on response and safety for patients with bladder cancer were identified by using a predefined search strategy. Pooled response rate (RR) of treatment were calculated. Results: In pemetrexed based regimens, 3 clinical studies which including 105 patients with advanced transitional cell cancer of the urothelium were considered eligible for inclusion. Pooled analysis suggested that, in all patients, pooled RR was 26.7% (28/105) for pemetrexed based regimens. Major adverse effects were neutropenia, anorexia, fatigue, and anemia in pemetrexed based treatment. Two treatment related deaths occurred with pemetrexed based treatment. Conclusion: This pooled analysis suggests that pemetrexed based regimens are associated with mild activity and good tolerability in treating patients with metastatic bladder cancer.
Background: This systemic analysis was conducted to evaluate the efficacy and safety of pemetrexed based chemotherapy in treating patients with metastatic gastric cancer (MGC) as a salvage chemotherapy. Methods: Clinical studies evaluating the efficacy and safety of pemetrexed based regimens on response and safety for patients with gastric cancer were identified by using a predefined search strategy. Pooled response rates (RRs) of treatment were calculated. Results: In pemetrexed based regimens, 4 clinical studies including 171 patients with advanced gastric cancer were considered eligible for inclusion. Systemic analysis suggested that, in all patients, pooled RR was 25.1% (43/171) in pemetrexed based regimens. Major adverse effects were neutropenia, anorexia, fatigue, and anemia. No treatment related death occurred in pemetrexed based treatment. Conclusion: This systemic analysis suggests that pemetrexed based regimens are associated with mild activity with good tolerability in treating patients with MGC.
Background: This systemic analysis was conducted to evaluate the efficacy and safety of pemetrexed based chemotherapy in treating patients with metastatic breast cancer as first or second line chemotherapy. Methods: Clinical studies evaluating the efficacy and safety of pemetrexed based regimens on response and safety for patients with breast cancer were identified using a predefined search strategy. Pooled response rate (RR) of treatment were calculated. Results: In first line pemetrexed based regimens, 10 clinical studies which including 513 patients with advanced breast cancer were considered eligible for inclusion. For second line pemetrexed based chemotherapy, 5 clinical studies which including 281 patients with advanced breast cancer were considered eligible. Systemic analysis suggested that, in all patients, pooled RR was 32.6% (167/513) in pemetrexed based first line regimens, and 13.9 % (39/281) in pemetrexed based second line regimens. Major adverse effects were neutropenia, leukopenia, fatigue, and anemia in pemetrexed based first line treatment; and lymphopenia, neutropenia, leukopenia, as well as anemia in second line chemotherapy. One treatment related death occurred with pemetrexed based second line treatment. Conclusion: This systemic analysis suggests that pemetrexed based first line regimens are associated with a reasonable response rate and acceptable toxicity, however with low response rate for treating patients with metastatic breast cancer when is used in the second line.
Pemetrexed has demonstrated clinical activity in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) as well as other solid tumors. It transports into the cells via reduced folate carrier (RFC) and is polyglutamated by folypolyglutamate synthetase (FPGS). Pemetrexed directly inhibits several folate-dependent enzymes such as thymidylate synthase (TS), dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR), and glycinamide ribonucleotide formyltransferase (GARFT). We investigated the effects of genetic variations and the expression of RFC, FPGS, TS and DHFR enzymes on drug sensitivity to pemetrexed in NSCLC cells. Polymorphisms in RFC, FPGS, and DHFR were genotyped in four NSCLC cells - A549, PC14, HCC-1588, and H226. Real-time RT-PCR and Western blot was performed to evaluate mRNA transcripts and protein of these genes. The cytotoxicity of pemetrexed was measured by SRB assay. In PC14 and H226 cells, increased mRNA expressions of RFC and FPGS were associated with higher cytotoxicity to pemetrexed. 2R/2R genotype of TS and its increased mRNA expression were associated with drug resistance to pemetrexed in A549 cells, whereas 3R/3R genotype in TS with decreased mRNA expression was associated with higher sensitivity in H226 cells. After pemetrexed treatment, an inverse change of DHFR mRNA and protein expression was found. The strongest linkage disequilibrium (LD) was discovered between-1726C>T and -1188A>C SNP of DHFR gene. Our findings suggest the cytotoxic effect of pemetrexed may be associated with genetic polymorphisms and the expression level of genes involved in pemetrexed metabolisms in NSCLC cells.
Purpose: This study was conducted to observe the efficacy and safety of pemetrexed based chemotherapy in treating patients with locally advanced or metastatic cancers as first-line, second-line or third-line therapy. Materials and Methods: From May 2011 to January 2015, we recruited 29 patients with advanced breast cancer, 19 patients with advanced ovary cancer, 17 patients with advanced esophageal cancer,5 patients with advanced gallbladder cancer,5 patients with advanced cervical cancer and 1 patient with advanced tongue cancer in Jiangsu Cancer Hospital and Research Institute.All of them were pathologically confirmed and treated with pemetrexed based chemotherapy. After two cycles of treatment,efficacy and safety can be evaluated. Results: For pemetrexed based regimens,including 76 patients with 6 kinds of advanced cancer were considered eligible for inclusion. Complete remission represents CR, partial remission represents PR, stable disease represents SD, progressive disease represents PD. Among 29 patients with advanced breast cancer, 4 patients chose pemetrexed based regimens as second-line treatment,1 of them was PR,the other 3 got SD. The last 25 patients made use of this chemotherapy as third-line treatment, except one patient could not be assessed, 2 of them got PR,6 of them got SD,the remaining 16 of them finally were PD.19 patients with advanced ovary cancer,5 patients used this regimens as second-line treatment, 3 of them got PD,the remaining patients got SD, respectively. The last 14 patients made use of pemetrexed based regimens as third-line treatment,. RR (CR+PR) was 28.5%. Among 17 patients with advanced esophageal cancer, 2 patients made use of pemetrexed based regimens as first-line treatment,both of them got PR.4 of them used this chemotherapy as second-line regimen, except 2 patients could not be assessed,the remaining 2 was PD at last. The last 11 patients was third-line users, RR (CR+PR) was 18.2%. Among 5 patients with advanced gallbladder cancer, pemetrexed based regimens was used in 1 patient as first-line treatment and 1 patient as second-line treatment. The curative effect was SD and PD, respectively. 3 patients accepted pemetrexed based regimens as third-line treatment, 2 of them got PD as results and another was SD. Among 5 patients with advanced cervical cancer, just 1 patient adopted pemetrexed based regimens as first-line treatment, whose curative effect was PR.2 patients chose this chemotherapy regimens as second-line treatment. Both of them got PD as their consequence. The last 2 patients made use of the regimens as third-line treatment, the effect of them was PD and SD, respectively. The one who with advanced tongue cancer, pemetrexed based regimens was used as second-line treatment, and the consequence was PD. About 71.1% patients experienced bone marrow suppression. Among them, 5 patients reached 4 grade. Other toxicity of pemetrexed were neurotoxicity, fatigue, diarrhea, dysphagia and vomiting. No treatment related death occurred with pemetrexed-based treatment. Conclusions: Pemetrexed based chemotherapy has considerable effect in patients with advanced cancers such as breast cancer,esophageal cancer and ovary cancer. More randomly clinical trials are needed to verify the results.
Paik, Seung Sook;Hwang, In Kyoung;Park, Myung Jae;Lee, Seung Hyeun
Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
Background: Although targeted therapy and immuno-oncology have shifted the treatment paradigm for lung cancer, platinum-based combination is still the standard of care for advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Pemetrexed continuation maintenance therapy has been approved and increasingly used for patients with nonsquamous NSCLC. However, the efficacy of this strategy has not been proven in patients without driving mutations. The objective of this study was to compare the clinical benefit of pemetrexed continuation maintenance to conventional platinum-based doublet in epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-negative lung adenocarcinoma. Methods: A total of 114 patients with EGFR-negative lung adenocarcinoma who were treated with platinum doublet were retrospectively enrolled. We compared the survival rates between patients received pemetrexed maintenance after four-cycled pemetrexed/cisplatin and those received at least four-cycled platinum doublet without maintenance chemotherapy as a first-line treatment. Results: Forty-one patients received pemetrexed maintenance and 73 received conventional platinum doublet. Median progression-free survival (PFS), which was defined as the time from the day of response evaluation after four cycles of chemotherapy to disease progression or death, was significantly higher in the pemetrexed maintenance group compared to conventional group (5.8 months vs. 2.2 months, p<0.001). Median overall survival showed an increasing trend in the pemetrexed maintenance group (22.3 months vs. 16.1 months, p=0.098). Multivariate analyses showed that pemetrexed maintenance chemotherapy was associated with better PFS (hazard ratio, 0.73; 95% confidence interval, 0.15-0.87). Conclusion: Compared to conventional platinum-based chemotherapy, premetrexed continuation maintenance treatment is associated with better clinical outcome for the patients with EGFR wild-type lung adenocarcinoma.
Pemetrexed is an antifolate agent which has been used for treating malignant pleural mesothelioma and non small lung cancer in the clinic as a chemotherapeutic agent. In this study, pemetrexed inhibited cell growth and induced G1 phase arrest in the A549 cell line. To explore the molecular mechanisms of pemetrexed involved in cell growth, we used a two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2-DE) proteomics approach to analyze proteins changed in A549 cells treated with pemetrexed. As a result, twenty differentially expressed proteins were identified by ESI-Q-TOF MS/MS analysis in A549 cells incubated with pemetrexed compared with non-treated A549 cells. Three key proteins (GAPDH, HSPB1 and EIF4E) changed in pemetrexed treated A549 cells were validated by Western blotting. Accumulation of GAPDH and decrease of HSPB1 and EIF4E which induce apoptosis through inhibiting phosphorylation of Akt were noted. Expression of p-Akt in A549 cells treated with pemetrexed was reduced. Thus, pemetrexed induced apoptosis in A549 cells through inhibiting the Akt pathway.
Objective: To observe the clinical efficacy of bevacizumab concomitant with pemetrexed in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Materials and Methods: A total of 72 patients were randomly divided into a combination group (pemetrexed+bevacizumab, n=36) and a pemetrexed group (n=36) and assessed for disease control (CR+PR+SD) after 4-cycles of first-line GP chemotherapy (gemcitabine+cisplatin). Clinical efficacy, progression-free survival time (PFS), overall survival time (OS), overall response rate (ORR), disease control rate (DCR) and rate of adverse responses between two groups were observed and compared. Results: ORR and DCR were 27.8% and 83.4% in combination group, and 16.7% and 69.5% in the pemetrexed group, respectively, but there were no significant differences (P>0.05). PFS in combination group and pemetrexed group were 4.6 months and 3.9 months respectively (P=0.09), whereas OS in the combination group was 14 months, evidently higher than in the pemetrexed group (11 months, P=0.004). Adverse responses in both groups included high blood pressure, bleeding, thrombocytopenia, anemia, elevated transaminase, diarrhea, vomiting and proteinuria, but there were no significant differences (P>0.05). Conclusions: Bevacizumab concomitant with pemetrexed has better clinical efficacy and safety, giving rise to prolonged survival time in patients with advanced NSCLC.
Objective: To further observe the efficacy and safety of pemetrexed, combined with Irinotecan or oxaliplatin or cisplatin in treating patients with advanced gastric cancer as second-line or third-line chemotherapy. Methods: From September 2013 to February 2014 we recruited 50 patients with advanced gastric cancer, with stage IV disease or postoperative recurrence, or unresectable. Then treated with pemetrexed based chemotherapy. After two cycles of treatment, efficacy and toxicity were evaluated. Results: Pemetrexed based chemotherapy was used as second-line in 33 patients, RR(CR+PR) is 41.2%. And achieved 36.4% when used as third-line. Overall response rate of 50 patients treated with Pemetrexed based treatment was 38% (CR+PR). Treatment related side effects were bone marrow suppression, vomiting, hepatic dysfunction and malaise.No treatment related death occurred. Conclusions: Treatment with pemetrexed based chemotherapy is active and is well tolerated in patients with advanced gastric cancer.
Purpose: This systematic analysis was conducted to evaluate the efficacy and safety of pemetrexed-based chemoradiotherapy in treating patients with locally advanced or metastatic esophageal cancer. Methods: Clinical studies evaluating the efficacy and safety of pemetrexed based regimens on response and safety for relevant patients were identified using a predefined search strategy. Pooled response rates (RRs) were calculated. Results: For pemetrexed-based regimens, 4 clinical studies including 47 patients with locally advanced or metastatic esophageal cancer were considered eligible for inclusion. Systematic analysis showed that, in all patients, the pooled RR was 51% (24/47). Major adverse effects of grade III/IV were esophagitis, neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, anemia anorexia, fatigue, diarrhea, dysphagia and vomiting. No treatment related death occurred with pemetrexed-based treatment. Conclusion: This systematic analysis suggests that pemetrexed based radiotherapy is associated with reasonable activity and good tolerability in treating patients with locally advanced or metastatic esophageal cancer.
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