• Title, Summary, Keyword: pattern recognition

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Reconsideration of Prunus sargentii complex in Korea - with respect to P. sargentii and P. takesimensis - (형태형질을 근간으로 한 Prunus sargentii complex의 재고 - 산벚나무와 섬벚나무의 실체 -)

  • Chang, Chin-Sung;Choi, Ho;Chang, Kae-Sun
    • Korean Journal of Plant Taxonomy
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    • v.34 no.3
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    • pp.221-244
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    • 2004
  • Prunus sargentii complex of subgenus Cerasus is an Eastem Asiatic plant group that exhibits a broad range of morphological variation and includes P. takesimensis, P. yedosensis, P. verecunda, and P. sargentii. In this study, a morphological analysis was undertaken to determine whether the observed morphological variation was primarily attributable to morphological discontinuities among the taxa. P. sargentii, which distributed eastem area in Korea, northern area in Japan and far east Russia had umbel like inflorescence and additionally was characterized by sticky bud and leaf twigs, compared with P. serrulata complex. Also, P. verecunda in Korea and Japan was characterized by umbel like inflorescence and presence of hair in leaf, petiole and pedicel, and was treated as a variety of P. sargentii. Evidence obtained from multivariate morphometric analyses indicated that the entity of P. takesimensis formed a cohesive group somewhat distinct from P. sargenti.. Especially, P. takesimensis was characterized by relatively small flowers (26-32mm in diameter) and many flowers [(2)3-5] per umbel inflorescence, compared with P. sargentii (34-48mm and 2(3) per inflorescence) and should be recognized as an independent and endeImic taxon in Korea. Additionally, P. yedosensis, which was known to have umbel inflorescence (short peduncle type) with pubescent style based on the type specimen, was comprised of corymb inflorescence (long peduncle type) as well. The morphological differentiation between these two types of P. yedosensis was not considered sufficient to warrant recognition of specific status because of the putative hybrid origin, no distinctive geographical distribution pattern, and existence of various peduncle length on Island Jeju-do of Korea.

College-bound Curriculum Developement for Training of Atomic Industry Technician (원자력산업 중견전문인력 양성을 위한 전문대학 교육과정 개발)

  • Lyu, Kwang-Yeul;Kim, Sung-Soo;Ahn, Sung-Min
    • Journal of radiological science and technology
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    • v.28 no.1
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    • pp.33-44
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    • 2005
  • The objective of this study is to supply the good quality of experts the radiation industries in Korea and develop the major subject matter needed in the radiation industries and the curriculum in order to execute it for the variation of fields of employment at the department of radiation in the junior college and the development of the percentage of employment. In addition, this study is to improve the level of radiation experts engaged in the industries in quality, and it is to improve the social recognition of radiation rather negative now because of the development of radiation industry. As for the core results of this research, it was to suggest the detailed choice method curriculum proper to the service fields of radiation industries, but it may be subject to change due to each college's property and the educational objectives. From the result of this research above, it may be summed up as follows. First, as for the detailed curriculum by the service field, this study was to organize two subject matters: 1. the subject matter proper to the field of using the radiation, and 2. the subject matters proper to the safety control field of radiation. Second, as for the detailed curriculum by the pattern of industries, this study was to organize the four subject matters: 1. the subject matter needed in the manufactures, 2. the subject matter needed in the nondestructive testing industries, 3. the subject matter needed in the sales agencies, and 4. the subject matter needed in the laboratories. This study was to suggest the operational model about the curriculum in order to execute these subject matters. It could be executed as two methods below. First, one method is to execute the major systems by the medical field and industrial field in the third course at the department of radiation in the junior college now. Second, the other method is to make them specialize the industrial radiation in the Advanced Course(one year course) after the graduation of junior college. To operate these curricula successively it needs to assume the deeper research and the development of materials about the subject matters related to the nuclear radiation industries hereafter. In addition, it needs to solve the security of finance like the manpower of professor, space for practice, and the educational appliances, etc. needed in the operation of subject matters. Finally, the effect and result from the development or revision of college curriculum did not come out in a short time. It will require considerable time until the undergraduates at the department in the junior college finish a set of curriculum newly developed, and graduate the university, and can get the results while they engage in their works in the industrial sites. Accordingly, all the interested parties have to anticipate the results of this research with the patience in long-standing point of view. Also, this researcher considers it as it is willing to give them the continuous interest and support.

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Analysis by Bat Symbol of Paintings and Crafts in late-Joseon Period: Focused on museum collections (조선후기 박쥐상징 회화와 공예품의 분석-박물관 소장품을 중심으로)

  • Eom, So-Yeon
    • KOMUNHWA
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    • no.69
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    • pp.41-62
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    • 2007
  • This thesis is focused on the bat symbol, especially prevalent crafts’ pattern in late Joseon period on museum collections. For the use and reperception of them, I am aimed for appropriate analysis of bat symbol by co connotation which reflects the characteristics on number.plastic.color symbol. This point of view, bat idea and bat paintings in Joseon period will be the source of meanings to the denotation of bat patterns. In the museum collections, bat paintings and patterns are calculated 324 objects. By functional classification, the bat patterns on dwelling-crafts for the royal and for the people will be discussed. In result, the bat paintings were only a few, however, usually connoted Taoist hermit with super-natural powers.longevity.protector of Lightning-God.praying for long life, which were based on Taoism. Meanwhile the bat symbol of dwelling-crafts for the royal projected the longevity and prosperity of king and queen. By he Five Blessings and good auspices in Ching dynasty, number of '5.4' implied 'Five Blessings', Through the correct recognition of homo-phone, "a bat(蝠, fu)=happiness(福, fu)$\rArr$five bats(五蝠)$\rArr$Five Blessings(五福 )." In the case of bat symbol on the dwelling-crafts for the people, especially its for women, it expressed on the metal-decoration of furniture and paper-crafts. In the metal-decoration, the signified of bat symbol were expellant-evil('guard') that of characteristic signifier, white-silver color, number '1' and 'flying-type'. The bat symbol on paper-crafts for the people signified 'double happiness'.harmony.sons with number of '2', 'Five Colors' and the transformation of 'flying-type'. Accordingly, the bat symbol on the dwelling-crafts for the people marked 'happiness and guard', because the people had concrete cognition the bat symbol as a denotation of 'happiness and 'guard' by itself

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An Analysis of the Change of Secondary Earth Science Teachers' Knowledge about the East Sea's Currents through Drawing Schematic Current Maps (해류도 그리기를 통한 중등학교 지구과학 교사들의 동해 해류에 대한 지식의 변화 분석)

  • Park, Kyung-Ae;Park, Ji-Eun;Lee, Ki-Young;Choi, Byoung-Ju;Lee, Sang-Ho;Kim, Young-Taeg;Lee, Eun-Il
    • Journal of the Korean earth science society
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    • v.36 no.3
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    • pp.258-279
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    • 2015
  • The purpose of this study was to analyze the change of secondary earth science teachers' knowledge about the currents of the East Sea through drawing of a schematic map of oceanic currents. For this purpose, thirty two earth science teachers participated in the six-hour long training of learning and practice related to ocean current schematic map. The teacher participants performed drawing of the ocean current schematic map of the East Sea in three different phases, i.e.; pre-, post-, and delayed-post phase. In addition, all the maps conducted by participants were converted to digitalized image data. Detailed analysis were performed to investigate participating teachers' knowledge about the currents of the East Sea. Findings are as follows: First, the teacher participants have background knowledge about the ocean current map, but it reveals an incorrect knowledge about some concepts. Second, after teacher training, teachers' knowledge increased about the East Sea's currents, while a decrease was found in the differences between individual teachers' knowledge. This pattern was more evident in the delayed-post phase of drawing than in the post-phase occurred immediately after training. Third, the teacher participants were strongly aware of the need to improve the ocean current schematic map of the East Sea in science textbook in terms of scientific knowledge. In addition, they showed a high level of satisfaction about teacher training because they perceived that it was meaningful in various aspects; recognizing the importance of content knowledge and conjunction with instructional strategies, the needs of secondary science curriculum, and recognition of the nature of scientific knowledge. The results imply that teachers' subject matter knowledge plays a significant role to make science teaching effective.

Molecular Cloning and Sequence Analysis of Coelomic Cytolytic Factor-like Gene from the Midgut of the Earthworm, Eisenia Andrei (줄지렁이 중장에서 분리한 Coelomic cytolytic factor-유사 유전자의 클로닝 및 염기서열 분석에 관한 연구)

  • Baek, Nam Sook;Lee, Myung-Sik;Park, Sang-Kil;Kim, Dae-hwan;Tak, Eun-Sik;Ahn, Chi-Hyun;Sun, Zhenjun;Park, Soon Cheol
    • Journal of the Korea Organic Resources Recycling Association
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    • v.16 no.4
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    • pp.64-73
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    • 2008
  • The cDNA of CCF (coelomic cytolytic factor)-like gene (EC 3.2.1.16), a kind of glycosyl hydorlase, was isolated and cloned from the midgut of the earthworm Eisenia anderi. The size of nucleotide sequence appeared to be 1,152 bp and its predicted coding region was composed of 384 amino acid residues including the initiation methionine. The 17 residues at N-terminal end in the deduced amino acid sequence were regarded to be a signal peptide. Based on the amino acid sequence analysis, it appeared that this CCF-like protein could belong to glycosyl hydrolase family 16 (GHF16) and showed a high sequence homology of about 79~99% with CCF and CCF-like proteins from other earthworm species. The CCFs and CCF-like proteins from various earthworm species exhibited a 100% homology in the polysacchride-binding motif and glucanase motif. It has been reported that the CCFs isolated from E. fedita appeared to show a broader pattern recognition specificity than those from other earthworm species because this species resides in decaying organic matter showing very high microbial activity, implying that CCF-like protein isolated in this study from E. andrei might exhibit a broad substrate specificity that is a useful characteristic for industrial application. A phylogenetic analysis using the deduced amino acid sequences of CCF-related proteins through the BLASTX revealed that GHF16 families could be divided into three groups of metazoa, viriplantae and eubacteria subfamily. Subsequently the CCF-related proteins of metazoa subfamily could clearly be subgroup into lophotrochozoan and edysozoan type including a deuterostome origin. Further understanding of the biological properties of E. andrei CCF-like protein should be addressed to regulate the ${\beta}$-D-glucan hydrolysis and production for the industrial uses.

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Evolutionary Explanation for Beauveria bassiana Being a Potent Biological Control Agent Against Agricultural Pests

  • Han, Jae-Gu
    • 한국균학회소식:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.27-28
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    • 2014
  • Beauveria bassiana (Cordycipitaceae, Hypocreales, Ascomycota) is an anamorphic fungus having a potential to be used as a biological control agent because it parasitizes a wide range of arthropod hosts including termites, aphids, beetles and many other insects. A number of bioactive secondary metabolites (SMs) have been isolated from B. bassiana and functionally verified. Among them, beauvericin and bassianolide are cyclic depsipeptides with antibiotic and insecticidal effects belonging to the enniatin family. Non-ribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs) play a crucial role in the synthesis of these secondary metabolites. NRPSs are modularly organized multienzyme complexes in which each module is responsible for the elongation of proteinogenic and non-protein amino acids, as well as carboxyl and hydroxyacids. A minimum of three domains are necessary for one NRPS elongation module: an adenylation (A) domain for substrate recognition and activation; a tholation (T) domain that tethers the growing peptide chain and the incoming aminoacyl unit; and a condensation (C) domain to catalyze peptide bond formation. Some of the optional domains include epimerization (E), heterocyclization (Cy) and oxidation (Ox) domains, which may modify the enzyme-bound precursors or intermediates. In the present study, we analyzed genomes of B. bassiana and its allied species in Hypocreales to verify the distribution of NRPS-encoding genes involving biosynthesis of beauvericin and bassianolide, and to unveil the evolutionary processes of the gene clusters. Initially, we retrieved completely or partially assembled genomic sequences of fungal species belonging to Hypocreales from public databases. SM biosynthesizing genes were predicted from the selected genomes using antiSMASH program. Adenylation (A) domains were extracted from the predicted NRPS, NRPS-like and NRPS-PKS hybrid genes, and used them to construct a phylogenetic tree. Based on the preliminary results of SM biosynthetic gene prediction in B. bassiana, we analyzed the conserved gene orders of beauvericin and bassianolide biosynthetic gene clusters among the hypocrealean fungi. Reciprocal best blast hit (RBH) approach was performed to identify the regions orthologous to the biosynthetic gene cluster in the selected fungal genomes. A clear recombination pattern was recognized in the inferred A-domain tree in which A-domains in the 1st and 2nd modules of beauvericin and bassianolide synthetases were grouped in CYCLO and EAS clades, respectively, suggesting that two modules of each synthetase have evolved independently. In addition, inferred topologies were congruent with the species phylogeny of Cordycipitaceae, indicating that the gene fusion event have occurred before the species divergence. Beauvericin and bassianolide synthetases turned out to possess identical domain organization as C-A-T-C-A-NM-T-T-C. We also predicted precursors of beauvericin and bassianolide synthetases based on the extracted signature residues in A-domain core motifs. The result showed that the A-domains in the 1st module of both synthetases select D-2-hydroxyisovalerate (D-Hiv), while A-domains in the 2nd modules specifically activate L-phenylalanine (Phe) in beauvericin synthetase and leucine (Leu) in bassianolide synthetase. antiSMASH ver. 2.0 predicted 15 genes in the beauvericin biosynthetic gene cluster of the B. bassiana genome dispersed across a total length of approximately 50kb. The beauvericin biosynthetic gene cluster contains beauvericin synthetase as well as kivr gene encoding NADPH-dependent ketoisovalerate reductase which is necessary to convert 2-ketoisovalarate to D-Hiv and a gene encoding a putative Gal4-like transcriptional regulator. Our syntenic comparison showed that species in Cordycipitaceae have almost conserved beauvericin biosynthetic gene cluster although the gene order and direction were sometimes variable. It is intriguing that there is no region orthologous to beauvericin synthetase gene in Cordyceps militaris genome. It is likely that beauvericin synthetase was present in common ancestor of Cordycipitaceae but selective gene loss has occurred in several species including C. militaris. Putative bassianolide biosynthetic gene cluster consisted of 16 genes including bassianolide synthetase, cytochrome P450 monooxygenase, and putative Gal4-like transcriptional regulator genes. Our synteny analysis found that only B. bassiana possessed a bassianolide synthetase gene among the studied fungi. This result is consistent with the groupings in A-domain tree in which bassianolide synthetase gene found in B. bassiana was not grouped with NRPS genes predicted in other species. We hypothesized that bassianolide biosynthesizing cluster genes in B. bassiana are possibly acquired by horizontal gene transfer (HGT) from distantly related fungi. The present study showed that B. bassiana is the only species capable of producing both beauvericin and bassianolide. This property led to B. bassiana infect multiple hosts and to be a potential biological control agent against agricultural pests.

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Sensory Information Processing

  • Yoshimoto, Chiyoshi
    • Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research
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    • v.6 no.2
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    • pp.1-8
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    • 1985
  • The wall shear stress in the vicinity of end-to end anastomoses under steady flow conditions was measured using a flush-mounted hot-film anemometer(FMHFA) probe. The experimental measurements were in good agreement with numerical results except in flow with low Reynolds numbers. The wall shear stress increased proximal to the anastomosis in flow from the Penrose tubing (simulating an artery) to the PTFE: graft. In flow from the PTFE graft to the Penrose tubing, low wall shear stress was observed distal to the anastomosis. Abnormal distributions of wall shear stress in the vicinity of the anastomosis, resulting from the compliance mismatch between the graft and the host artery, might be an important factor of ANFH formation and the graft failure. The present study suggests a correlation between regions of the low wall shear stress and the development of anastomotic neointimal fibrous hyperplasia(ANPH) in end-to-end anastomoses. 30523 T00401030523 ^x Air pressure decay(APD) rate and ultrafiltration rate(UFR) tests were performed on new and saline rinsed dialyzers as well as those roused in patients several times. C-DAK 4000 (Cordis Dow) and CF IS-11 (Baxter Travenol) reused dialyzers obtained from the dialysis clinic were used in the present study. The new dialyzers exhibited a relatively flat APD, whereas saline rinsed and reused dialyzers showed considerable amount of decay. C-DAH dialyzers had a larger APD(11.70$\pm$1.32mmHg/min)compared to CF dialyzers(4.32$\pm$0.55mmHg/min)(p<0.05). However, there was no observable difference in the UFR between the two dialyzers. Neither APD nor UFR showed any significant increase with an increasing number of reuses for up to more than 20reuses. A substantial number of failures observed in APD(larger than 20mmHe/min)on the reused dialyzers(2 out of 40 CP and S out 26 C-DAK) were attributed to the Possible damage on the fibers. The CF 15-11 HFDs which failed APD test did not show changes in the UFR compared to normal dialyzers indicating that APD is a more sensitive test than UFR test to evaluate the integrity of the fibers. 30527 T00401030527 ^x For quantitative measurement of reflected light from a clinical diagnostic strip, a prototype old reflectance photometer was designed. The strip loader and cassette were made to obtain more accurate reflectance parameters. The strip was illuminated at 45˚c through optical fiber and the intensity of reflected light was determined at rectanguLat angle using a photodiode. The kubelka-munk coefficient and reflection optical density were determined ar four different wavelengths(500, 550, 570 and 610nm) for blood glucose strip. For higher concentration than 300mg/41 about glucose, a saturation state of abforbance was observed at 500, 550 and 570nm. The correlation between glucose concentration and parameters was the best at 610nm. 30535 T00401030535 ^x Radiation-induced fibrosarcoma tumors were grown on the flanks of C3H mice. The mice were divided into two groups. One group was injected with Photofrin II, intravenously (2.5mg/kg body weight). The other group received no Photofrin II. Mice from both groups were irradialed for approximately 15 minutes at 100, 300, or 500 mW/cm2 with the argon (488nm/514.5 nm), dye(628nm) and gold vapor (pulsed 628 nm) laser light. A photosensitizer behaved as an added absorber. Under our experimental conditions, the presence of Photolfrin II increased surface temperature by at least 40% and the temperature rise due to 300 mW/cm2 irradiation exceeded values for hyperthermia. Light and temperature distributions with depth were estimated by a computer model. The model demonstrated the influence of wavelength on the thermal process and proved to be a valuable tool to investigate internal temperature rise. 30536 T00401030536 ^x We investigated the structural geometry of thirty-eight Korean femurs. The purpose of this study is to identify major geometrical differences between Korean femurs 3nd others that we believe belong to Caucasians so that we would be able to get insights into the femoral component design that fits Asians including Koreans. We utilized computerized tomography (CT) images of femurs extracted from cadavers. The CT images were transformed into bitmap data by using a film scanner, and then analyzed by using a commercially available software called Image v.1.0 and a Macintosh IIci computer.The resulting data were compared with already published data. The major results show that the geometry of the Korean femurs is significantly different from that of Caucasians: (1) the anteversion angle and the canal flare index are greater by the amount of approximately 8˚ and 0.5, respectively, (2) the shape of the isthmus cross section is more round, and (3) the distance between the teaser trochanter and the proximal border of the isthmus is shelter by about 15 mm. The results suggested that the femoral component suitable for Asians should be different from the currently-used components designed and manufactured mostly by European or American companies. 30537 T00401030537 ^x It is well known that nonlinear propagation characteristics of the wave in the tissue may give very useful information for the medical diagnoisis. In this paper, a new method to detect nonlinear propagation characteristics of the internal vibration in the tissue for the low frequency mechanical vibration by using bispectral analysis is proposed. In the method, low frequency vibration of f0( = 100Hz) is applied on the surface of the object, and the waveform of the internal vibration x (t) is measured from Doppler frequency modulation of silmultaneously transmitted probing ultrasonic waves. Then, the bispectra of the signal x (t) at the frequencies (f0, f0) and (f0, 2f0) are calculated to estimate the nonlinear propagation characteristics as their magnitude ratio, w here since bispectrum is free from the gaussian additive noise we can get the value with high S/N. Basic experimental system is constructed by using 3.0 MHz probing ultrasonic waves and the several experiments are carried out for some phantoms. Results show the superiority of the proposed method to the conventional method using power spectrum and also its usefulness for the tissue characterization. 30541 T00401030541 ^x This paper describes the implementation of a computerized radial pulse diagnosis by aids of a clinical expert. On this base, we composed of the radial pulse diagnosis system in korean traditional medicine. The system composed of a radial pulse wave detection system and a radial pulse diagnosis system. With a detection system, we detected Inyoung and Cheongu radial pulse wave and processed it. Then, we have got the characteristic parameters of radial pulse wave and also quantified that according to the method of Inyoung-Cheongu Comparison Radial Pulse Diagnosis. We defined the jugement standard of radial pulse diagnosis system and then we confirmed the possibility for realization of automatic radial pulse diagnosis in korean traditional medicine. 30545 T00401030545 ^x Microspheres are expected to be applied to biomedical areas such as solid-phase immunoassays, drug delivery systems, immunomagnetic cell separation. To synthesize microspheres for biomedical application, "two stage shot growth method" was developed. The uniformity ratio of synthesized microspheres was always smaller than 1.05. And the surface charge density (or the number of ionizable functional groups) of the microspheres synthesized by "two stage shot growth method" was 6~13 times higher than that of the microspheres synthesized by conventional seeded batch copolymerization. As a previous step for biomedical application, adsorption experiments of bovine albumin on microspheres were carried out under various conditions. The maximum adsorbed amount was obtained in the neighborhood of pH 4.5. Isoelectric point of bovine albumin is pH 5.0, so experimental result shows that it shifted to acid area. The adsorption isotherm was obtained, the plateau region was always reached at 2.Og/L (bulk concentration of bovine albumin).The effect of the kind and the amount of surface functional group was also examined. 30575 T00401030575 ^x A medical image workstation was developed using multimedia technique. The system based on PC-486DX was designed to acquire medical images produced by medical imaging instruments and related audio information, that is, doctors' reporting results. Input information was processed and analyzed, then the results were presented in the form of graph and animation. All the informations of the system were hierarchically related with the image as the apex. Processing and analysis algorithms were implemented so that the diagnostic accuracy could be improved. The diagnosed information can be transferred for patient diagnosis through LAN(local area network). 30592 T00401030592 ^x In the conventional infrared imaging system, complex infrared lens systems are usually used for directing collimated narrow infrared beams into the high speed 2-dimensional optic scanner. In this paper, a simple reflective infrared optic system with a 2-dimensional optic scanner is proposed for the realization of medical infrared thermography system. It has been experimentally proven that the intfrared thermography system composed of the proposed optic system has the temperature resolution of 0.1˚c under the spatial resolution of lmrad, the image matrix size of 256 X 240, and tile imaging time of 4 seconds. 30593 T00401030593 ^x In this paper, MIIS (Medical Image Information System) has been designed and implemented using INGRES RDBMS, which is based on a client/server architecture. The implemented system allows users to register and retrieve patient information, medical images and diagnostic reports. It also provides the function to display these information on workstation windows simultaneously by using the designed menu-driven graphic user interface. The medical image compression/decompression techniques are implemented and integrated into the medical image database system for the efficient data storage and the fast access through the network. 30594 T00401030594 ^x In this paper, computerized BEAM was implemented for the space domain analysis of EEG. Trans-formation from temporal summation to two-dimensional mappings is formed by 4 nearest point inter-polaton method. Methods of representation of BEAM are two. One is dot density method which classify brain electrical potential 9 levels by dot density of gray levels and the other is colour method which classify brain electrical 12 levels by red-green colours. In this BEAM, instantaneous change and average energy distribution over any arbitrary time interval of brain electrical activity could be observed and analyzed easily. In the frequency domain, the distribution of energy spectrum of a special band can easily be distinguished normality and abnormality. 30608 T00401030608 ^x Laboratory information system (LIS) is a key tool to manage laboratory data in clinical pathology. Our department has developed an information system for routine hematology using down-sized computer system. We have used an IBM 486 compatible PC with 16MB main memory, 210 MB hard disk drive, 9 RS-232C port and 24 pin dot printer. The operating system and database management system were SCO UNIX and SCO foxbase, respectively. For program development, we used Xbase language provided by SCO foxbase. The C language was used for interface purpose. To make the system use friendly, pull-down menu was used. The system connected to our hospital information system via application program interface (API), so the information related to patient and request details is automatically transmitted to our computer. Our system interfaced with fwd complete blood count analyzers(Sysmex NE-8000 and Coulter STKS) for unidirectional data tansmission from analyzer to computer. The authors suggests that this system based on down-sized computer could provide a progressive approach to total LIS based on local area network, and the implemented system could serve as a model for other hospital's LIS for routine hematology. 30609 T00401030609 ^x To develop an artificial bone substitute that is gradually degraded and replaced by the regenerated natural bone, the authors designed a composite that is consisted of calcium phosphate and collagen. To use as the structural matrix of the composite, collagen was purified from human umbilical cord. The obtained collagen was treated by pepsin to remove telopeptides, and finally, the immune-free atelocollagen was produced: The cross linked atelocollagen was highly resistant to the collagenase induced collagenolysis. The cross linked collagen demonstrated an improved tensile strength. 30618 T00401030618 ^x This paper is a study on the design of adptive filter for QRS complex detection. We propose a simple adaptive algorithm to increase capability of noise cancelation in QRS complex detection with two stage adaptive filter. At the first stage, background noise is removed and at the next stage, only spectrum of QRS complex components is passed. Two adaptive filters can afford to keep track of the changes of both noise and QRS complex. Each adaptive filter consists of prediction error filter and FIR filter The impulse response of FIR filter uses coefficients of prediction error filter. The detection rates for 105 and 108 of MIT/BIH data base were 99.3% and 97.4% respectively. 30619 T00401030619 ^x To develop an artificial bone substitute that is gradually degraded and replaced by the regenerated natural bone, the authors designed and produced a composite that is consisted of calcium phosphate and collagen. Human umbilical cord origin pepsin treated type I atelocollagen was used as the structural matrix, by which sintered or non-sintered carbonate apatite was encapsulated to form an inorganic-organic composite. With cross linking atelocollagen by UV ray irradiation, the resistance to both compressive and tensile strength was increased. Collagen degradation by the collagenase induced collagenolysis was also decreased. 30620 T00401030620 ^x We have developed a monoleaflet polymer valve as an inexpensive and viable alternative, especially for short-term use in the ventricular assist device or total artificial heart. The frame and leaflet of the polymer valve were made from polyurethane, To evaluate the hemodynamic performance of the polymer valve a comparative study of flow dynamics past a polymer valve and a St. Jude Medical prosthetic valve under physiological pulsatile flow conditions in vitro was made. Comparisons between the valves were made on the transvalvular pressure drop, regurgitation volume and maximum valve opening area. The polymer valve showed smaller regurgitation volume and transvalvular pressure drop compared to the mechanical valve at higher heart rate. The results showed that the functional characteristics of the polymer valve compared favorably with those of the mechanical valve at higher heart rate. 30621 T00401030621 ^x Explosive evaporative removal process of biological tissue by absorption of a CW laser has been simulated by using gelatin and a multimode Nd:YAG laser. Because the point of maximun temperature of laser-irradiated gelatin exists below the surface due to surface cooling, evaporation at the boiling temperature is made explosively from below the surface. The important parameters of this process are the conduction loss to laser power absorption (defined as the conduction-to-laser power parameter, Nk), the convection heat transfer at the surface to conduction loss (defined as Bi), dimensionless extinction coefficient (defined as Br.), and dimensionless irradiation time (defined as Fo). Dependence of Fo on Nk and Bi has been observed by experiment, and the results have been compared with the numerical results obtained by solving a 2-dimensional conduction equation. Fo and explosion depth (from the surface to the point of maximun temperature) are increased when Nk and Bi are increased.To find out the minimum laser power for explosive evaporative removal process, steady state analysis has been also made. The limit of Nk to induce evaporative removal, which is proportional to the inverse of the laser power, has been obtained. 30622 T00401030622 ^x N1 and N2 gross neural action potentials were measured from the round window of the guinea pig cochlea at the onset of the acoustic stimuli. N1-N2 audiograms were made by means of regulating stimulant intensities in order to produce constant N1-N2 potentials as criteria for different input tone pip frequencies. The lowest threshold was measured with an input tone pip I5 dB SPL in intensity and 12 KHz in frequency when the animal was in normal physiological condition. The procedure of experimental measurements is explained in detail. This experimental approach is very useful for the investigation of the Cochlear function. Both noN1inear and active functions of the Cochlea can be monitored by N1-N2 audiograms. 30623 T00401030623 ^x In electrical impedance tomography(EIT), we use boundary current and voltage measurements toprovide the information about the cross-sectional distribution of electrical impedance or resistivity. One of the major problems in EIT has been the inaccessibility of internal voltage or current data in finding the internal impedance values. We propose a new image reconstruction method using internal current density data measured by NMR. We obtained a two-dimensional current density distribution within a phantom by processing the real and imaginary MR images from a 4.77 NMR machine. We implemented a resistivity mage reconstruction algorithm using the finite element method and sensitivity matrix. We presented computer simulation results of the mage reconstruction algorithm and furture direction of the research. 30624 T00401030624 ^x A new method of digital image analysis technique for discrimination of cancer cell was presented in this paper. The object image was the Thyroid eland cells image that was diagnosed as normal and abnormal (two types of abnormal: follicular neoplastic cell, and papillary neoplastic cell), respectively. By using the proposed region segmentation algorithm, the cells were segmented into nucleus. The 16 feature parameters were used to calculate the features of each nucleus. A9 a consequence of using dominant feature parameters method proposed in this paper, discrimination rate of 91.11% was obtained for Thyroid Gland cells. 30625 T00401030625 ^x An electrical stimulator was designed to induce locomotion for paraplegic patients caused by central nervous system injury. Optimal stimulus parameters, which can minimize muscle fatigue and can achieve effective muscle contraction were determined in slow and fast muscles in Sprague-Dawley rats. Stimulus patterns of our stimulator were designed to simulate electromyographic activity monitored during locomotion of normal subjects. Muscle types of the lower extremity were classified according to their mechanical property of contraction, which are slow muscle (msoleus m.) and fast muscle (medial gastrocneminus m., rectus femoris m., vastus lateralis m.). Optimal parameters of electrical stimulation for slow muscles were 20 Hz, 0.2 ms square pulse. For fast muscle, 40 Hz, 0.3 ms square pulse was optimal to produce repeated contraction. Higher stimulus intensity was required when synergistic muscles were stimulated simultaneously than when they were stimulated individually. Electrical stimulation for each muscle was designed to generate bipedal locomotion, so that individual muscles alternate contraction and relaxation to simulate stance and swing phases. Portable electrical stimulator with 16 channels built in microprocessor was constructed and applied to paraplegic patients due to lumbar cord injury. The electrical stimulator restored partially gait function in paraplegic patients. 30626 T00401030626 ^x Two-Dimensional modelling of the Cochlear biomechanics is presented in this paper. The Laplace partial differential equation which represents the fluid mechanics of the Cochlea has been transformed into two-dimensional electrical transmission line. The procedure of this transformation is explained in detail. The comparison between one and two dimensional models is also presented. This electrical modelling of the basilar membrane (BM) is clearly useful for the next approach to the further. Development of active elements which are essential in the producing of the sharp tuning of the BM. This paper shows that two-dimension model is qualitatively better than one-dimensional model both in amplitude and phase responses of the BM displacement. The present model is only for frequency response. However because the model is electrical, the two-dimensional transmission line model can be extended to time response without any difficult. 30627 T00401030627 ^x A method has been proposed for the fully automatic detection of left ventricular endocardial boundary in 2D short axis echocardiogram using geometric model. The procedure has the following three distinct stages. First, the initial center is estimated by the initial center estimation algorithm which is applied to decimated image. Second, the center estimation algorithm is applied to original image and then best-fit elliptic model estimation is processed. Third, best-fit boundary is detected by the cost function which is based on the best-fit elliptic model. The proposed method shows effective result without manual intervention by a human operator. 30628 T00401030628 ^x The intelligent trajectory control method that controls moving direction and average velocity for a prosthetic arm is proposed by pattern recognition and force estimations using EMG signals. Also, we propose the real time trajectory planning method which generates continuous accelleration paths using 3 stage linear filters to minimize the impact to human body induced by arm motions and to reduce the muscle fatigue. We use combination of MLP and fuzzy filter for pattern recognition to estimate the direction of a muscle and Hogan's method for the force estimation. EMG signals are acquired by using a amputation simulator and 2 dimensional joystick motion. The simulation results of proposed prosthetic arm control system using the EMf signals show that the arm is effectively followed the desired trajectory depended on estimated force and direction of muscle movements. 30638 T00401030638 ^x A new neural network architecture for the recognition of patterns from images is proposed, which is partially based on the results of physiological studies. The proposed network is composed of multi-layers and the nerve cells in each layer are connected by spatial filters which approximate receptive fields in optic nerve fields. In the proposed method, patterns recognition for complicated images is carried out using global features as well as local features such as lines and end-points. A new generating method of matched filers representing global features is proposed in this network. 30659 T00401030659 ^x An implementation scheme of the magnetic nerve stimulator using a switching mode power supply is proposed. By using a switching mode power supply rather than a conventional linear power supply for charging high voltage capacitors, the weight and size of the magnetic nerve stimulator can be considerably reduced. Maximum output voltage of the developed magnetic nerve stimulator using the switching mode power supply is 3, 000 volts and switching time is about 100 msec. Experimental results or human nerve stimulations using the developed stimulator are presented. 30768 T00401030768 ^x In this paper, we describe the design methodology and specifications of the developed module-based bedside monitors for patient monitoring. The bedside monitor consists of a main unit and module cases with various parameter modules. The main unit includes a 12.1" TFT color LCD, a main CPU board, and peripherals such as a module controller, Ethernet LAN card, video card, rotate/push button controller, etc. The main unit can connect at maximum three module cases each of which can accommodate up to 7 parameter modules. They include the modules for electrocardiograph, respiration, invasive blood pressure, noninvasive blood pressure, temperature, and SpO2 with Plethysmograph.SpO2 with Plethysmograph.

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Query-based Answer Extraction using Korean Dependency Parsing (의존 구문 분석을 이용한 질의 기반 정답 추출)

  • Lee, Dokyoung;Kim, Mintae;Kim, Wooju
    • Journal of Intelligence and Information Systems
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    • v.25 no.3
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    • pp.161-177
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    • 2019
  • In this paper, we study the performance improvement of the answer extraction in Question-Answering system by using sentence dependency parsing result. The Question-Answering (QA) system consists of query analysis, which is a method of analyzing the user's query, and answer extraction, which is a method to extract appropriate answers in the document. And various studies have been conducted on two methods. In order to improve the performance of answer extraction, it is necessary to accurately reflect the grammatical information of sentences. In Korean, because word order structure is free and omission of sentence components is frequent, dependency parsing is a good way to analyze Korean syntax. Therefore, in this study, we improved the performance of the answer extraction by adding the features generated by dependency parsing analysis to the inputs of the answer extraction model (Bidirectional LSTM-CRF). The process of generating the dependency graph embedding consists of the steps of generating the dependency graph from the dependency parsing result and learning the embedding of the graph. In this study, we compared the performance of the answer extraction model when inputting basic word features generated without the dependency parsing and the performance of the model when inputting the addition of the Eojeol tag feature and dependency graph embedding feature. Since dependency parsing is performed on a basic unit of an Eojeol, which is a component of sentences separated by a space, the tag information of the Eojeol can be obtained as a result of the dependency parsing. The Eojeol tag feature means the tag information of the Eojeol. The process of generating the dependency graph embedding consists of the steps of generating the dependency graph from the dependency parsing result and learning the embedding of the graph. From the dependency parsing result, a graph is generated from the Eojeol to the node, the dependency between the Eojeol to the edge, and the Eojeol tag to the node label. In this process, an undirected graph is generated or a directed graph is generated according to whether or not the dependency relation direction is considered. To obtain the embedding of the graph, we used Graph2Vec, which is a method of finding the embedding of the graph by the subgraphs constituting a graph. We can specify the maximum path length between nodes in the process of finding subgraphs of a graph. If the maximum path length between nodes is 1, graph embedding is generated only by direct dependency between Eojeol, and graph embedding is generated including indirect dependencies as the maximum path length between nodes becomes larger. In the experiment, the maximum path length between nodes is adjusted differently from 1 to 3 depending on whether direction of dependency is considered or not, and the performance of answer extraction is measured. Experimental results show that both Eojeol tag feature and dependency graph embedding feature improve the performance of answer extraction. In particular, considering the direction of the dependency relation and extracting the dependency graph generated with the maximum path length of 1 in the subgraph extraction process in Graph2Vec as the input of the model, the highest answer extraction performance was shown. As a result of these experiments, we concluded that it is better to take into account the direction of dependence and to consider only the direct connection rather than the indirect dependence between the words. The significance of this study is as follows. First, we improved the performance of answer extraction by adding features using dependency parsing results, taking into account the characteristics of Korean, which is free of word order structure and omission of sentence components. Second, we generated feature of dependency parsing result by learning - based graph embedding method without defining the pattern of dependency between Eojeol. Future research directions are as follows. In this study, the features generated as a result of the dependency parsing are applied only to the answer extraction model in order to grasp the meaning. However, in the future, if the performance is confirmed by applying the features to various natural language processing models such as sentiment analysis or name entity recognition, the validity of the features can be verified more accurately.

A Comparative Study of Food Habits and Body Satisfaction of Middle School Students According to Clinical Symptoms (일부 남녀 중학생의 건강 관련 임상증상에 따른 식습관과 체헝관심도에 관한 연구)

  • Sung, Chung-Ja
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.34 no.2
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    • pp.202-208
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    • 2005
  • This study was conducted to examine the food habits, knowledge of nutrition and actual conditions of food ingestion of adolescent middle school students according to questionnaire answers. Questionnaires were completed by 524 students, divided into a healthy group (n=289) and an unhealthy group (n=235) according to clinical signs. Further questions were asked of the two groups in the areas of food habits, knowledge of nutrition and nutritional attitude. The results were as follows: Mean age of all subjects was 14, heights for male and female students were 162.0 em, and 157.2 cm, weights were 53.4 kg, and 49.4, respectively. Heights and weights of male students were greater than those of female students. The body mass index (BMI) for male and female students was 20.3 kg/$m^2$ and 20.0 kg/$m^2$, respectively, and all data were within normal ranges. There were no significant differences in mean age, height, weight, and BMI between the healthy and unhealthy groups. There was no significant difference in body image recognition between the two groups, although the ratio of dissatisfaction with their own body shape was significantly higher in the female unhealthy group (46.1%), than in the female healthy group (33.0%) (p<0.05). In the area of the struggle to control body weight during the previous year, the female unhealthy group (59.4%) was higher than the female healthy group (38.4%) (p<0.01). There was no significant difference in the scores between the two groups in the areas of knowledge of nutrition and the nutritional attitude. Meal frequency and meal patterns were showed that having breakfast less than 4x/week was significantly higher in the female unhealthy group (44.0%), than in the female healthy group (30.7%) (p<0.01). Meal frequency for suppers<4x/week showed that the female unhealthy group (18.8%) was also higher than the female healthy group (10.7%). Therefore, the unhealthy group exhibited a higher pattern of missing both breakfast and supper. The male unhealthy group (16.7%) dined out more frequently than the male healthy group (12.3%) (p<0.01), and female unhealthy group also indulged in snacking significantly more frequently than the female healthy group. The unhealthy group also ate only 1 item for meals more frequently than the healthy group and no significant difference. The conclusion of this study is that adolescent Korean middle school students, who showed a higher incidence of clinical symptoms, representing an unhealthy status, missed breakfast and supper, and dined out and indulged in snacking more frequently. Their quality of breakfast and satisfaction of body image were also lower than the healthy group. These results indicated that there is a high correlation between a Korean adolescent's health status, food habits and body image satisfaction. It is recommended that a more intense program of nutritional education and monitoring be introduce into the current Korean middle-school system in order to optimally support and maximize the health potential of the current population of Korean student.

Change of Green Space Arrangement and Planting Structure of Apartment Complexes in Seoul (서울시 아파트단지의 녹지배치 및 식재구조 변화 연구)

  • Lee, Dong-Wook;Lee, Kyong-Jae;Han, Bong-Ho;Jang, Jae-Hoon;Kim, Jong-Yup
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture
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    • v.40 no.4
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    • pp.1-17
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    • 2012
  • This study was carried out to propose the improved method by analyzing the change of green space arrangement and planting structure of apartment complexes in Seoul. 12 survey sites, which have obvious differences, were selected by reflecting the change of floor area ratio, underground parking place, and green space ratio. We divided the survey sites into four types that high green ratio(over 40%) apartment on natural ground, low green ratio(under 40%) apartment on natural ground, low green ratio(under 40%) apartment on artificial ground, and high green ratio(over 40%) apartment on artificial ground each period based on green space ratio and ground structure, plant crown volume, planting density, and planting pattern. The main factors of change of green space arrangement were green space ratio and ground structure. The Green space ratio was changed by the floor area ratio with constructing underground parking place and floor area ratio was adjusted by government policy and economic status. Average width of front green area has been changed from 10.0m in high green ratio apartment on natural ground for 3.5m, 2.7m, and 4.5m each period. The average width of the buffer green area has been changed from 15.0m in high green ratio apartment on natural ground of 7.7m, and 2.7m by extending parking place in the low green ratio apartment of artificial ground, so buffer green areas have been reduced and disconnected. So buffer green area in apartment complexes has been extended that the average width of the buffer green area was 3.8m caused by growing recognition of green since 2001. The ratio of native plant in canopy layer was increased from 45.1 % in the case of the high green ratio apartment of natural ground in 1980~1983 to 55.6%. Average plant crown volume increased from $1.27m^3/m^2$ in high green ratio apartment on natural ground for $3.47m^3/m^2$ in a low green ratio apartment on natural ground. But average plant crown volume is $0.27m^3/m^2$ in the high green ratio apartment of the artificial ground plant density of canopy layer was changed from 5 individuals per $100m^2$ to 14.5 individuals per $100m^2$. We should construct the buffer green area with natural ground and get the function of ecological and beautiful environment regarding to garden concept in case of front green area, width 4.5m. We should get the function of increasing green volume by multi-layer planting with shade woody species and flower woody species in case of back-side green area, width over 5.0m. We should get the function of covering the wall and increasing green landscape by planting with high woody species in case of side green area. We should apply the ecological planting technique to buffer green area and connect buffer green area to inner green area in apartment complexes.