• Title, Summary, Keyword: partitioning behavior

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Interactive Effect of Food Compositions on the Migration Behavior of Printing Ink Solvent

  • An, Duek-Jun
    • Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
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    • v.14 no.4
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    • pp.310-315
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    • 2009
  • The partitioning behavior of the five printing ink solvents in nine lab-made cookies with various sugar and water content at 25${^{\circ}C}$ was studied to find out the presence and effects of interaction between the two ingredients on partitioning behavior in cookies. Solvents were ethyl acetate, hexane, isopropanol, methyl ethyl ketone and hexane. It was observed that the partition coefficient (the solvent concentration in food compared to that in air, Kp) decreased as sugar increased in all case and increased as water content increased for all compounds except toluene. Statistical analysis by the F-test method was used to determine the significance of sugar-water interactions, as well as other single factors on partitioning behavior of each solvent. Sugar content alone had no significant effects, but the crystallinity of sugar, as changed by water content, affected the partitioning behavior of the five solvents significantly. Parameter estimation for each significant factor by SAS program yielded a regression equation, which was used to predict the partitioning behavior in the finished cookie. Kp values from the regression equation could be determined more precisely by applying a correction term for the interaction between sugar and water to the Kp values of each ingredient after baking.

Effect of chemical and physical structure on partitioning behavior of representative printing ink solvents and various food ingredients (식품 성분과 식품 포장용 인쇄 잉크 용매의 화학적 구조가 분배작용에 미치는 영향)

  • An, Duek-Jun
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF PACKAGING SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY
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    • v.10 no.1
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    • pp.7-14
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    • 2004
  • Migration behavior of selected solvents and food samples showed differences of the chemical structures and polarities, the food samples which have similar polar expresses more higher affinity than different polar degrees. Water which is polar has a highest partitioning coefficient values on polar isopropanol, and oil which is nonpolar has highest partitioning value on non-polar toluene. The increasing order of partitioning values was accord with increasing water contents in food samples. It is showed that the wheat flour with 13.2% moisture content has the highest partitioning coefficient values on the isopropanol with -OH. Kp value of sugar showed remarkable lower partitioning coefficient values than other food samples due to high degree crystallinity. This phenomenon can be predictable with ${\delta}$ values, because order of partitioning coefficient values which comes out through the experiment and the sequence of Hildebrand solubility parameter value difference between food sample and printing ink solvent correspond almost. This Hildebrand solubility parameter value can be easily applied to the food package industry because the effect of food-safety can be considered without passing through complicated steps by using this method.

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An Improved Algorithm of Searching Neighbor Agents in a Large Flocking Behavior (대규모 무리 짓기에서 이웃 에이전트 탐색의 개선된 알고리즘)

  • Lee, Jae-Moon;Jung, In-Hwan
    • Journal of Korea Multimedia Society
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    • v.13 no.5
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    • pp.763-770
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    • 2010
  • This paper proposes an algorithm to enhance the performance of the spatial partitioning method for a flocking behavior. One of the characteristics in a flocking behavior is that two agents may share many common neighbors if they are spatially close to each other. This paper improves the spatial partitioning method by applying this characteristic. While the conventional spatial partitioning method computes the k-nearest neighbors of an agent one by one, the proposed method computes simultaneously the k-nearest neighbors of agents if they are spatially close to each other. The proposed algorithm was implemented and its performance was experimentally compared with the original spatial partitioning method. The results of the comparison showed that the proposed algorithm outperformed the original method by about 33% in average.

Effect of Water Content on Partitioning Behavior of Printing Ink Solvent on Food Ingredients Before and After Baking (수분이 식품성분과 인쇄 용제와의 분배계수에 미치는 영향)

  • An, Duek-Jun;Kim, Youn-Uck;Park, Hoon
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF PACKAGING SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY
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    • v.9 no.1
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    • pp.1-6
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    • 2003
  • The partitioning behavior of five printing ink solvents was studied in various cookie ingredients before and after baking which had different water content and different structure. Solvents were ethyl acetate, hexane, isopropanol, methyl ethyl ketone, and toluene which represent different characteristic functional groups. Gas chromatography (G.C.) was used to measure partitioning values at $25^{\circ}C$ on each raw and baked cookie ingredients. Baking condition of cookie ingredients was $260^{\circ}C$ for 10 min. In cookie ingredients, decreases in water content generally affected Kp of polar solvents, but did not affect that of the non-polar solvents. However, as water content decreased in the cookie ingredient, the Kp of the non-polar and polar solvents showed mixed results.

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Partitioning Behavior of Selected Printing Ink Solvents between Headspace and Chocolate Cookie Samples

  • An, Duek-Jun
    • Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
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    • v.16 no.3
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    • pp.267-271
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    • 2011
  • Static Headspace Gas Chromatographic analysis was used to study the partitioning behavior of five organic printing ink solvents between chocolate cookie/air systems. Three cookie sample formulations varied with respect to chocolate type and overall percentage of constituents. Major considerations involved differences in fat content and type and resulting variability in chemical and physical structure. Each of the solvents studied (ethyl acetate, hexane, isopropanol, methyl ethyl ketone, toluene) represents a general class of printing ink solvents based on predominate functional group. Values of the partitioning coefficient (Kp) were determined at equilibrium using measured quantities of both solvent and cookie sample in closed systems at temperature of 25, 35, and $45^{\circ}C$. In each of the three cookies at the three test temperatures, toluene always exhibited the greatest value of partitioning to cookie and hexane always exhibited the least. Results also showed that the partitioning behavior of solvents is generally inversely related to temperature and that solvent affinity, though constant for a particular cookie type over all test temperatures, varies significantly among the three cookie types. The preference of each of the five solvents for each cookie sample was also found to vary with temperature. No correlation was found between the extent of partitioning and cookie formulation or physical characteristic of solvent. The Hildebrand parameter, related to ${\Delta}Hmix$ (heat of mixing), may be used to describe differences in partitioning based on the overall potential of a solvent/cookie interaction to occur. The potential for interaction is dependent upon the chemical structure of the cookie sample and thus the availability of 'active-sites' required for a given solvent.

Reviews About food Safety on Packaging Materials and Printing Ink Solvent (식품용 포장제와 인쇄 용제의 안정성에 관한 연구)

  • An, Duek-Jun;Kim, Youn-Uck;Park, Hoon
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF PACKAGING SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY
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    • v.12 no.2
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    • pp.91-96
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    • 2006
  • The widespread use of packaging materials on food packages sometimes causes off-flavor and deterioration in the food by migration of packaging materials which consist of mainly plastic materials and printing ink solvents. Even though migration of the residual packaging materials does not generally cause safety problems in the contained food, it certainly can generate off-flavor and finally deteriorate quality of the finished product. In highly consumer-oriented markets, quality of the finished product is gaining more importance economically, so profound and thorough study about migration into food to maintain the fine quality of the end product becomes an importance issue. Studies have been conducted about migration of various packaging materials and the chemical reactions between the food components and the materials used for food packaging (Brody, 1989; Mcneal and Breder, 1987; Lawson, G and Lawson, C, 1996). Several of these studies have measured partition coefficient values (Kp) between packaging materials and various food samples and involved finding factors that affected the partitioning behavior of packaging materials into the contained food. However, to enable prediction of partitioning, data are still needed on the relation of packaging material chemical structure and properties to partitioning behavior, and on the partitioning behavior of various food ingredients and the total food compositions.

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A Study on the Improvement of Numeric Integration Algorithm for the Dynamic Behavior Analysis of Flexible Machine Systems (탄성기계 시스템의 동적 거동 해석을 위한 수치 적분 알고리즘 개선에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Oe-Jo;Kim, Hyun-chul
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Industry Convergence
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    • v.4 no.1
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    • pp.87-94
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    • 2001
  • In multibody dynamics, differential and algebraic equations which can satisfy both equation of motion and kinematic constraint equation should be solved. To solve this equation, coordinate partitioning method and constraint stabilization method are commonly used. The coordinate partitioning method divides the coordinate into independent and dependent coordinates. The most typical coordinate partitioning method arc LU decomposition, QR decomposition, projection method and SVD(sigular value decomposition).The objective of this research is to find a efficient coordinate partitioning method in flexible multibody systems and a hybrid decomposition algorithm which employs both LU and projection methods is proposed. The accuracy of the solution algorithm is checked with a slider-crank mechanism.

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A Study on Behavior of Heavy Metals during Waste Incineration (폐기물 소각시 중금속 성분의 거동에 관한 연구)

  • 박용이;허철구
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.5 no.6
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    • pp.785-799
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    • 1996
  • The incineration tests of mixed industrial wastes using the stoker type incinerator are carried out to investigate the partitioning characteristics of heavy metals during incineration. The results obtained from this study are as follow. The partitioning characteristics of heavy metals throughout this incinerator are found that, at given condition of $700^{\circ}C$, the elements with the relatively high boiling point such as Cr, Cu and Pb are partitioned into a bottom ash, a fry ash captured tv cyclone, and a flue gas stream, 67~88%, 2~19% and 6~16% of initial amount entering the incinerator, respectively, but the Cd and Hg of 75~81% is vaporized into the flue gas. It appears that the partitioning characteristics according to the particle size of ash is different between the bottom ash and the fly ash. For bottom ash, the fraction of partitioning into 75${\mu}{\textrm}{m}$ oversized particles is reatively high. For fly ash, the characteristics of distributions with the particle size can not be clearly shown.

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Phosphoprotein Partitioning in Metal-Affinity Aqueous Two-Phase Systems and Prediction of Partitioning Behavior (금속 친화성 액 이상분계 시스템에서 Phsphoprotein분배 및 분배예측)

  • 정봉현
    • KSBB Journal
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    • v.9 no.3
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    • pp.279-286
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    • 1994
  • A mathematical model has been derived and used to describe phosphoprotein partitioning in Fe(III) IDA-PEG/dextran two-phase systems. This model includes the inhibitory effects of hydrogen and hydroxyl ion concentrations on protein partitioning. For aqueous two-phase partitioning experiments, the Al and A2 subcomponents of ovalbumin carrying two and one surface phosphoryl group(s) were purified using an immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography (IMAC). The ratio of partition coefficients in the presence and absence of Fe(III)IDA-PEG, K/Ko, increased in the pH range of 3.0 to 5.0 due to deprotonation of the second oxygen of the phosphoryl group, and above pH 5.0 declined steeply by the inhibitory binding of hydroxyl ions to the metal ion. This partitioning behavior was well described by the mathematical model. The binding constants for formation of the complex between the phosphoryl group and the Fe(III)IDA-PEG were found to be $6.1{\times}10^3M^{-1} and 2.3{\times}10^4M^{-1}$ in the top and bottom phases, respectively. These values are 3-5 times those for interaction of Cu(II)IDA-PEG with a single surface-accessible histidine.

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Thermal-mechanical Fatigue Life Prediction of 12Cr Forged Steel Using Strain Range Partitioning method (변형률분할법에 의한 12Cr 단조강의 열피로 수명예측)

  • 하정수;옹장우;고승기
    • Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers
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    • v.18 no.5
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    • pp.1192-1202
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    • 1994
  • Fatigue behavior and life prediction were presented for thermal-mechanical and isothermal low cycle fatigue of 12Cr forged steel used for high temperature applications. In-phase and out-of-phase thermal-mechanical fatigue test at 350 to 600.deg. C and isothermal low cycle fatigue test at 600.deg. C were conducted using smooth cylindrical hollow specimen under strain-control with total strain ranges from 0.006 to 0.015. Cyclic softening behavior was observed regardless of thermal-mechanical and isothermal fatigue tests. The phase difference between temperature and strain in thermal-mechanical fatigue resulted in significantly shorter fatigue life for out-of-phase than for in-phase. The difference in fatigue lives was dependent upon the magnitudes of inelastic strain ranges and mean stresses. Increase in inelastic strain range showed a tendency of intergranular cracking and decrease in fatigue life, especially for out-of-phase thermal-mechanical fatigue. Thermal-mechanical fatigue life prediction was made by partitioning the strain ranges of the hysteresis loops and the results of isothermal low cycle fatigue tests which were performed under the combination of slow and fast strain rates. Predicted fatigue lives for out-of-phase using the strain range partitioning method showed an excellent agreement with the actual out-of-phase thermal-mechanical fatigue lives within a factor of 1.5. Conventional strain range partitioning method exhibited a poor accuracy in the prediction of in-phase thermal-mechanical fatigue lives, which was quite improved conservatively by a proposed strain range partitioning method.