• Title, Summary, Keyword: partition coefficient

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Process Development for Alcohol Production by Extractive Fermentation( I ) - Effect of Phase Forming Polymer - (추출발효에 의한 알콜제조 공정개발(I) - 수성이상계 구성 고분자의 영향 -)

  • 김진한;허병기목영일
    • KSBB Journal
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    • v.5 no.2
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    • pp.95-100
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    • 1990
  • Ethanol fermentations of inulin by K.fraglis in aqueous two-phase system of PEG/Dextran were performed not only to investigate the characteristics of partition of ethanol, sugar, and cell in the upper phase and the bottom phase but also to compare the fermentation properties with those of single phase system. In the range of 1 to 3 wt% of Dextran, ethanol fermentability and ethanol productivity reduced according to the increase of the molecular weight of PEG. But the cell yield and the cell productivity showed the opposite trend. In the region of 6 to 10 wt% of PEG, the increase of the concentration of PEG, caused the minute decrease of ethanol productivity but the remarkable augmentation of cell productivity. According to the increase of the molecular weight of PEG, the partition coefficient of inulin slightly decreased. But with the increment of the concentration of Dextran, the partition coefficient and the partition yield of inulin in the bottom Phase represented the trends of increase.

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Pharmaceutical Study on Clonixin Argininate (Clonixin Argininate의 약제학적 연구)

  • Jee, Ung-Kil;La, Sung-Bum
    • Journal of Pharmaceutical Investigation
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    • v.16 no.2
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    • pp.43-54
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    • 1986
  • To increase the bioavailability of clonixin, clonixin argininate was prepared and compared with clonixin by determining solubility, pKa, lipid-water partition coefficient, dissolution rate and in vivo tests. The results are summerized as followings; 1) The solubility of clonixin argininate was increased by 20 times in water, about 1.2 times in pH 1.2 and pH 8.0 buffer solution, and about 1.8 times in pH 6.8 buffer solution compared with that of clonixin. 2) pKa values of clonixin, clonixin lysinate and clonixin argininate were 6.32, 7.20 and 7.45, respectively. 3) The lipid-water partition coefficient of clonixin argininate was increased more than that of the clonixin in n-hexane, carbon tetrachloride, chloroform, methylene chloride, and n-butanol, but the partition coefficient of clonixin was increased more than that of clonixin argininate in benzene/pH 1.2 buffer solution, ether/pH 8.0 buffer solution, and 3-methylbutyl acetate/pH 1.2, pH 8.0 buffer solution. 4) The time required to dissolve 60% $(T_{60%},\;min.)$ of clonixin argininate was about 1.5 min. in water and pH 1.2 buffer solution, and about 5 min. in pH 6.8 buffer solution. $T_{60%}$ of clonixin lysinate was about 1.5 min. in water, about 1.8 min. in pH 6.8 buffer solution, and about 8 min. in pH 1.2 buffer solution. But $T_{60%}$ of clonixin was about 96 min. in pH 6.8 buffer solution, over 2 hours in water and pH 1.2 buffer solution. 5) Anti-inflammatory effect of clonixin argininate was increased more than that of clonixin over 6 hours, and that of clonixin lysinate was followed by lapse of time. 6) Analgesic effect of clonixin argininate was increased by 1.5 times more than that of clonixin and the effect of clonixin argininate was nearly identical with that of clonixin lysinate. 7) The absorption rates (Ka) of clonixin, clonixin lysinate and clonixin argininate were $0.169\;hr^{-1},\;0.652\;hr^{-1}$ and $0.723\;hr^{-1}$ in situ, respectively.

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Transport Characteristics of Alcohol Solutes through Copolymer Hydrogel Membranes Containing Poly(2-Hydroxyethylmethacrylate) (Poly(2-Hydroxyethylmethacrylate)를 포함한 공중합체 수화겔막에 대한 알콜용질의 투과특성)

  • Park, Yu Mi;Kim, Eun Sik;Seong, Yong Gil
    • Journal of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.34 no.4
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    • pp.377-383
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    • 1990
  • Three kinds of hydrogel membranes were prepared by the copolymerization of 2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate (HEMA) with acrylamide, N, N-dimethylamide and methylmethacrylate in the presence of solvent and crosslinker respectively. The equilibrium water content, relative permeability and partition coefficient of the membranes for alcohol solutes were measured. It has been found that the permeation of organic solute occurs through the water-filled regions in the hydrogel membrane, and that the gpermeability coefficient of organic solute depends on the molecular size. But the permeability of organic solute was controlled by the interaction of solute-membrane at the low water content. By the partition data, it has been shown that the partition of solute is only controlled by hydrophobic interaction between solute and membrane. The diffusion coefficient data were interpreted on the basis of water-solute interaction. It has been found that the diffusion of organic solute is determined by the free volume of water in the membrane, and that hardly depends on polarity-polarizability and hydrogen bonding ability between water and solute.

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Remediation of Groundwater Contaminated with Zinc Using Permeable Reactive Barriers Containing Foundry Sands (주물사가 포함된 투수반응벽체(PRB)를 이용한 아연으로 오염된 지하수 처리기법 연구)

  • ;Benson, Craig H
    • Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society
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    • v.18 no.5
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    • pp.159-167
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    • 2002
  • Partition coefficients for zinc vary on a broad range depending on properties of the foundry sands (TOC, clay content, total iron content) and solution pH. Among these properties, solution pH was found to be the most important factor. Empirical equations were developed from batch tests to predict partition coefscients and rate constants as a function of foundry sand properties and solution pH. Rate constants obtained from batch (kinetic) tests and batch sorption tests were found to be comparable when the solution pHs were comparable.

Thermodynamic Model for Partition Coefficients in the Two Protein Systems

  • Jung, Chang-Min;Bae, Young-Chan;Kim, Jae-Jun
    • Macromolecular research
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    • v.15 no.7
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    • pp.682-687
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    • 2007
  • The equation of state developed herein is predicated on a hard-sphere reference with perturbations introduced via a potential function to account for electrostatic forces and for attraction between protein particles. During this process, the generalized Lennard-Jones (GLJ) pair potential function is employed. The GLJ pair potential function is employed to represent the protein-protein interaction in two-protein systems. Via the use of the relation between the equation of state and the chemical potential, the phase behavior in the aqueous two-protein system can be estimated. The partition coefficients can be obtained via these processes. The calculated values of the coefficients agree fairly well with the experimental data in the given pH and ionic strength range, with no additional adjustable model parameters.

Pharmaceutical Studies on Chitosan Matrix: Controlled release of aspirin from chitosan device

  • Lee, Chi-Young;Kim, Sung-Ho
    • Archives of Pharmacal Research
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    • v.10 no.2
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    • pp.88-93
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    • 1987
  • Chitosan ($\beta$-D-glucosaminan) is chemically prepared from chitin (N-acetyl-$\beta$- D-glucosaminan) which is an unutilized natural resource. We now report on the suitability of the chitosan matrix for use as vehicles for the controlled release of drugs. Salicylic acid and aspirin were used as model drugs in this study. The permeation of salicylic acid in the chitosan membranes was determined in a glass diffusion cell with two compartments of equal volume. Drug release studies on the devices were conducted in a beaker containing 5% sodium hydroxide solution. Partition coefficient (Kd) value for acetate membrane (472) is much greater than that for fluoro-perchlorate chitosan membrane (282). Higher Kd value for acetate chitosan membrane appears to be inconsisstent with the bulk salicylic acid concentration. The permeability constants of fluoro-perchlorate and acetate chisotan membranes for salicylic acid were 3.139 ${\times}10^{-7}cm^2$ min up to 60 min and that of 30% aspirin in the devices was 4.739${\times}10^{-7}cm^2$sec upto 60 min. As the loading dose of aspirin in a chitosan device increased, water up-take of chitosan device increased, but in case of salicylic acid it decreased. The release rate increased with increase in the molecular volume of the drugs. Thses result suggest that the release mechanism may be controlled mainly by diffusion through pores.

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Use of the Stratum Corneum Reservoir for the Prediction of Skin Penetration

  • Cholee, Ae-Ri;Tojo, Kakuji
    • Journal of Pharmaceutical Investigation
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    • v.23 no.3
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    • pp.1-8
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    • 1993
  • A simple and quick method based on the transient diffusion theory for predicting the steady state rate of penetration of a drug after transdermal drug administration was proposed. The amount of drug entering the stratum corneum was determined by 20 strippings with an adhesive tape. From the profile of the amount of drug as a function of the number of strippings, the quantity of drug on the surface of stratum corneum was extrapolated. Based on the amounts of drug entering the stratum corneum during two time intervals $(t_1\;and\;t_2)$ within 1 hour after the application, the diffusion and partition coefficient were determined. Once the diffusion coefficient of the drug in the stratum corneum and the partition coefficient (stratum corneum/vehicle) were determined from the present approach, the steady-state flux of penetration across the stratum corneum was calculated. The steady-state rates of penetration of ascorbic acid and estradiol across hairless mouse skin were evaluated from this approach and compared with those obtained from ill vitro penetration experiment using excised hairless mouse skin. The data confirmed that the proposed method can predict the steady-state rate of penetration of these drugs across the stratum corneum.

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Ecological modeling for toxic substances - I . Numerical simulation of transport and fate of Nonylphenol in Tokyo Bay- (유해화학물질의 생태계 모델링 - I. 동경만 Nonylphenol의 환경동태 해석 -)

  • Kim Dong-Myung;Shiraishi Hiroaki
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.14 no.9
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    • pp.827-835
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    • 2005
  • A three-dimensional ecological model (EMT -3D) was applied to Nonylphenol in Tokyo Bay. EMT -3D was calibrated with data obtained in the study area. The simulated results of dissolved Nonylphenol were in good agreement with the observed values, with a correlation coefficient(R) of 0.7707 and a coefficient of determination (R2) of 0.5940. The results of sensitivity analysis showed that biodegradation rate and bioconcentration factor are most important factors for dissolved Nonylphenol and Nonylphenol in phytoplankton, respectively. In the case of Nonylphenol in particulate organic carbon, biodegradation rate and partition coefficient were important factors. Therefore, the parameters must be carefully considered in the modeling. The mass balance results showed that standing stocks of Nonylphenol in water, in particulate organic carbon and in phytoplankton are $8.60\times 10^5\;g,\;2.19\times 10^2\;g\;and\;3.78\times 10^0\;g$ respectively. With respect to the flux of dissolved Nonylphenol, biodegradation in the water column, effluent to the open sea and partition to particulate organic carbon were $6.02\times10^3\;g/day,\;6.02\times10^2\;g/day\;and\;1.02\times10^1\;g/day$, respectively.

The Determination of Diffusion and Partition Coefficients of Indoor Bottom Finishing Materials (바닥재의 확산계수 및 분배계수 산정)

  • Park, Jin-Soo;Little, John C.;Kim, Shin-Do;Yun, Joong-Seop
    • Journal of Environmental Health Sciences
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    • v.34 no.3
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    • pp.219-225
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    • 2008
  • Many building materials may contain high concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and other hazardous pollutants(HAPs). Specifically, VOCs discharged by indoor building material may cause "new house" syndrome, atopic dermatitis etc. The diffusion coefficient and initially contained total VOC quantity were determined using microbalance experiments and small chamber tests. Interactions between volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and vinyl flooring (VF), a relatively homogenous, diffusion-controlled building material, were characterized. Rapid determination of the material/air partition coefficient (K) and the material-phase diffusion coefficient (D) for each VOC was achieved by placing thin VF slabs in a dynamic microbalance and subjecting them to controlled sorption/desorption cycles. K and D are shown to be independent of concentration for all of the VOCs and water vapor. This approach can be applied to other diffusion-controlled materials and should facilitate the prediction of their source/sink behavior using physically-based models.