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Optimization Test of Plant-Mineral Composites to Control Nuisance Phytoplankton Aggregates in Eutrophic Reservoir (부영양 저수지의 조류제거를 위한 기능성 천연물질혼합제의 최적화 연구)

  • Lee, Ju-Hwan;Kim, Baik-Ho;Moon, Byeong-Cheon;Hwang, Soon-Jin
    • Korean Journal of Ecology and Environment
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    • v.44 no.1
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    • pp.31-41
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    • 2011
  • To optimize the natural chemical agents against nuisance phytoplankton, we examined algal removal activity (ABA) of Plant-Mineral Composite (PMC), which already developed by our teams (Kim et al., 2010), on various conditions. The PMC are consisted of extracted-mixtures with indigenous plants (Camellia sinensis, Quercusacutissima and Castanea crenata) and minerals (Loess, Quartz porphyry, and natural zeolite), and characterized by coagulation and floating of low-density suspended solids. A simple extraction process was adopted, such as drying and grinding of raw material, water-extraction by high temperature-sonication and filtering. All tests were performed in 3 L plastic chambers varying conditions; six different concentrations ($0{\sim}1.0\;mL\;L^{-1}$), six light intensities ($8{\sim}1,400\;{\mu}mol\;m^{-2}s^{-1}$), three temperatures ($10{\sim}30^{\circ}C$), four pHs (7~10), five water depths (10~50 cm), and three different waters dominated by cyanobacteria, diatom, and green algae, respectively. Results indicate that the highest ABA of PMC was seen at $0.05\;mL\;L^{-1}$ in treatment concentrations, where showed a reduction of more than 80% of control phytoplankton biomass, while $1,400\;{\mu}mol\;m^{-2}s^{-1}$ in light intensity (>90%), $20{\sim}30^{\circ}C$ temperature (>60%), 7~9 in pH (>90%), below 50 cm in water depth (>90%), and cyanobacterial dominating waters (>80%), respectively. Over the test, ABA of PMC were more obvious on the algal biomass (chlorophyll-${\alpha}$) than suspended solids, suggesting a selectivity of PMC to particle size or natures. These results suggest that PMC agents can play an important role as natural agents to remove the nuisant algal aggregates or seston of eutrophic lake, where occur cyanobacterial bloom in a shallow shore of lake during warm season.

Antioxidant Compounds and Activities of Foxtail Millet, Proso Millet and Sorghum with Different Pulverizing Methods (분쇄방법에 따른 조, 기장, 수수의 항산화성분 및 항산화활성)

  • Seo, Myung-Chul;Ko, Jee-Yeon;Song, Seuk-Bo;Lee, Jae-Saeng;Kang, Jong-Rae;Kwak, Do-Yeon;Oh, Byeong-Geun;Yoon, Young-Nam;Nam, Min-Hee;Jeong, Heon-Sang;Woo, Koan-Sik
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.40 no.6
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    • pp.790-797
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    • 2011
  • We evaluated the antioxidant compounds and activity of the methanolic extracts of foxtail millet (FM), proso millet (PM), and sorghum (SG) using different pulverizing methods (pin mill and ultra fine). The particle size of the FM, PM, and SG were 102.12, 89.52, and $102.25\;{\mu}m$, respectively, using the pin mill pulverizer. The sizes were 9.43, 9.52, and $10.18\;{\mu}m$, respectively, using the ultra fine pulverizer. There was no difference in moisture, crude fat, ash, or protein content between the two different pulverizing methods. The total ${\gamma}$-oryzanol content of the FM using the pin mill and ultra fine pulverizers was 116.07 and $145.30\;{\mu}g$/g, respectively. The total polyphenol content of the SG using the pin mill and ultra fine pulverizers was 14.58 and 15.03 mg/g extract residue, respectively. There was no difference in total flavonoid or tannin content of the methanol extracts between the two different pulverizing methods. The major phenolic compounds in FM were pyrogallol, gallic acid, (+)-catechin, salicylic acid, ferulic acid, and rutin; in PM, they were pyrogallol, rutin, gallic acid, kaempfrol, and salicylic acid; in SG, they were (+)-catechin, salicylic acid, pyrogallol, myricetin, hesperidin and chlorogenic acid. SG had a higher radical scavenging activity than FM or PM extracts. The DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activities of the SG extracts using the ultra fine pulverizer were 178.10 and 251.56 mg TE/g extract residue, respectively. We noted a significant correlation between free radical scavenging activity and polyphenolic compound.

Taxonomical Classification and Genesis of Jeju Series in Jeju Island (제주도 토양인 제주통의 분류 및 생성)

  • Song, Kwan-Cheol;Hyun, Byung-Geun;Moon, Kyung-Hwan;Jeon, Seung-Jong;Lim, Han-Cheol;Lee, Shin-Chan
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.43 no.2
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    • pp.230-236
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    • 2010
  • Jeju Island is a volanic island which is located about 96 km south of Korean Peninsula. Volcanic ejecta, and volcaniclastic materials are widespread as soil parent materials throughout the island. Soils on the island have the characteristics of typical volcanic ash soils. This study was conducted to reclassify Jeju series based on the second edition of Soil Taxonomy and to discuss the formation of Jeju series in Jeju Island. Morphological properties of typifying pedon of Jeju series were investigated, and physico-chemical properties were analyzed according to Soil survey laboratory methods manual. The typifying pedon has dark brown (10YR 3/3) silt clay loam A horizon (0~22 cm), strong brown (7.5YR 4/6) silty clay BAt horizon (22~43 cm), brown (7.5YR 4/4) silty clay Bt1 horizon (43~80 cm), brown (7.5YR 4/6) silty clay loamBt2 horizon (80~105 cm), and brown (10YR 5/4) silty clay loam Bt3 horizon (105~150 cm). It is developed in elevated lava plain, and are derived from basalt, and pyroclastic materials. The typifying pedon contains 1.3~2.1% oxalate extractable (Al + 1/2 Fe), less than 85%phosphate retention, and higher bulk density than 0.90 Mg $m^{-3}$. That can not be classified as Andisol. But it has an argillic horizon from a depth of 22 to 150 cm, and a base saturation (sum of cations) of less than 35% at 125 cm below the upper boundary of the argillic horizon. That can be classified as Ultisol, not as Andisol. Its has 0.9% or more organic carbon in the upper 15 cm of the argillic horizon, and can be classified as Humult. It dose not have fragipan, kandic horizon, sombric horizon, plinthite, etc. in the given depths, and key out as Haplohumult. A hoizon (0~22 cm) has a fine-earth fraction with both a bulk density of 1.0 Mg $cm^{-3}$ or less, and Al plus 1/2 Fe percentages (by ammonium oxalate) totaling more than 1.0. Thus, it keys out as Andic Haplohumult. It has 35% or more clay at the particle-size control section, and has thermic soil temperature regime. Jeju series can be classified as fine, mixed, themic family of Andic Haplohumults, not as ashy, thermic family of Typic Hapludands. In the western, and northern coastal areas which have a relatively dry climate in Jeju Island, non Andisols are widely distributed. Mean annual precipitation increase 110 mm, and mean annual temperature decrease $0.8^{\circ}C$ with increasing elevation of 100m. In the western, and northern mid-mountaineous areas Andisols, and non Andisols are distributed simultaneously. Jeju series distributed mainly in the western and northern mid-mountaineous areas are developed as Ultisols with Andic subgroup.

Taxonomical Classification and Genesis of Cheongpung Series Distributed on Diluvial Terrace (홍적대지 토양인 청풍통의 분류 및 생성)

  • Song, Kwan-Cheol;Hyun, Byung-Geun;Sonn, Yeon-Kyu;Zhang, Yong-Seon;Park, Chan-Won;Jang, Byoung-Choon
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.43 no.2
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    • pp.224-229
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    • 2010
  • This study was conducted to reclassify Cheongpung series based on the second edition of Soil Taxonomy, and to dicuss the formation of Cheongpung series distributed on the diluvial terrace. Morphological properties of typifying pedon of Cheongpung series were investigated, and physico-chemical properties were analyzed according to Soil survey laboratory methods manual. The typifying pedon of Cheongpung series has red (2.5YR 4/6) silty clay loam Ap horizon (0-18 cm), red (2.5YR 4/8) clay BAt horizon (18-35 cm), red (2.5YR 4/2) cobbly clay Bt1 horizon (35-65 cm), and red (2.5YR4/6) cobbly clay Bt2 horizon (more than 65 cm). The typifying pedon has an argillic horizon from adepth of 18 to more than 65 cm, and a base saturation (sum of cations) of less than 35% at 125 cm below the upper boundary of the argillic horizon. It can be classified as Ultisol, not as Alfisol. It has udic soil moisture regime, and can be classified as Udult. Also that meets the requirements of Typic Hapludults. It has 35% or more clay at the particle-size control section, and have mesic soil temperature regime. Therefore Cheongpung series can be classified as fine, mesic family of Typic Hapludults, not as fine, mesic family of Ultic Hapludalfs. Cheongpung series occur on moderately elevated diluvial terrace which have relatively stable geomorphic surface. They are developed as Ultisols with clay mineral weathering, translocation of clays to accumulate in an argillic horizon, and leaching of base-forming cations from the profile for relatively long periods under humid, and temperate climates in Korea.

Taxonomical Classification and Genesis of Dongsong Series Distributed on the Lava Plain in Cheolweon (철원 용암류대지 토양인 동송통의 분류 및 생성)

  • Song, Kwan-Cheol;Hyun, Byung-Geun;Sonn, Yeon-Kyu;Zhang, Yong-Seon;Park, Chan-Won;Jang, Byoung-Choon
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.43 no.2
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    • pp.217-223
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    • 2010
  • This study was conducted to reclassify Dongsong series based on the second edition of Soil Taxonomy and to discuss the formation of Dongsong series distributed on the lava plain at Cheolweon in Korea. Morphological properties of typifying pedon of Dongsong series were investigated, and physico-chemical properties were analyzed according to Soil Survey Laboratory Methods Manual. The typifying pedon of Dongsong series has brown (7.5YR 4/2) silty clay loam Ap horizon (0-16 cm), brown (7.5YR 4/2) silty clay loam BA horizon (16-22 cm), brown (7.5YR 4/2) silty clay Bt1 horizon (22-50 cm), reddish brown (5YR 5/4) silty clay Bt2 horizon (50-92 cm), and brown (7.5YR 4/3) silty clay loam Bt3 horizon (92-120 cm). It occurs on lava plain derived from baslt materials. The typifying pedon has higher bulk density than 0.90 Mg $m^{-3}$. That can not be classified as Andisol. But it has an argillic horizon from a depth of 22 to more than 120 cm, and a base saturation (sum of cations) of less than 35% at 125 cm below the upper boundary of the argillic horizon. It can be classified as Ultisol, not as Andisol or Alfisol. It has aquic conditions for some time in normal years in one or more horizons within 50 cm of the mineral soil surface, redoximorphic features between a depth of 25 cm, and a depth of 40 cm from the mineral soil surface, and redox concentrations, and 50%or more redox depletions with chroma of 2 or less in the matrix within the upper 12.5 cm of the argillic horizon. Therefore it can be classified as Aquult. It has episaturation, and keys out as Epiaquult. It has 50% or more chroma of 3 or more in one or more horizons between a depth of 25 cm from the mineral soil surface, and a depth of 75 cm. It can be classified as Aeric Aquult. Dongsong series have 35%or more clay at the particle-size control section, and have mesic soil temperature regime. Therefore they can be classified as fine, mesic family of Aeric Epiaquults, not as fine, mesic family of Typic Epiaqualfs. The Quarternary volcanic activities occurred in Jeju Island, Ulrung Island, Baekryeong Island, Cheolweon area, and Mt. Paekdu et al. in the Korean Penninsula. Most of them belong to the central eruption type, but Cheolweon area may be of the fissure eruption type. Dongsong series occur on Cheolweon lava plains derived from basaltic materials. Most soils distributed in Jeju Island, and derived from mainly pyroclastics are developed as Andisols. But Dongsong series distributed in Cheolweon lava plains which have a relatively dry climate and derived from basaltic materials are developed as Ultisols.

Taxonomical Classification and Genesis of Anryong Series Distributed on Mountain Foot Slope (산록경사지 토양인 안룡통의 분류 및 생성)

  • Song, Kwan-Cheol;Hyun, Byung-Keun;Sonn, Yeon-Kyu;Zhang, Yong-Seon;Park, Chan-Won;Jang, Byoung-Choon
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
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    • v.29 no.1
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    • pp.27-32
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    • 2010
  • This study was conducted to reclassify Anryong series based on the second edition of Soil Taxonomy and to discuss the formation of Anryong series distributed on the mountain foot slope. Morphological properties of typifying pedon of Anryong series were investigated and physico-chemical properties were analyzed according to Soil survey laboratory methods manual. The typifying pedon of Anryong series has brown (7.5YR 4/4) loam Ap horizon (0-22 cm), strong brown (7.5YR 4/6) cobbly clay loam BAt horizon (22-35 cm), strong brown (7.5YR 4/6) cobbly clay loam Bt1 horizon (35-55 cm), reddish brown (5YR 5/4) cobbly clay loam Bt2 horizon (55-82 cm), and brown (7.5YR 5/4) cobbly clay loam Bt3 horizon (82-120 cm). The typifying pedon has an argillic horizon from a depth of 22 to 120 cm and a base saturation (sum of cations) of less than 35% at 125 cm below the upper boundary of the argillic horizon. It can be classified as Ultisol, not as Alfisol. It has udic soil moisture regime, and can be classified as Udult. Also that meets the requirements of Typic Hapludults. It has 18-35% clay at the particle-size control section, and have mesic soil temperature regime. Therefore Anryong series can be classified as fine loamy, mesic family of Typic Hapludults, not as fine loamy, mesic family of Ultic Hapludalfs. Anryong series occur on mountain foot slope positions in colluvial materials derived from acid and intermediate crystalline rocks. They are developed as Ultisols with clay mineral weathering, translocation of clays to accumulate in an argillic horizon, and leaching of base-forming cations from the profile for relatively long periods under humid and temperate climates in Korea.

Taxonomical Classification and Genesis of Donggui Series in Jeju Island (제주도 토양인 동귀통의 분류 및 생성)

  • Song, Kwan-Cheol;Hyun, Byung-Keun;Moon, Kyung-Hwan;Jeon, Seung-Jong;Lim, Han-Cheol;Kang, Ho-Jun
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
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    • v.29 no.1
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    • pp.20-26
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    • 2010
  • This study was conducted to reclassify Donggui series based on the second edition of Soil Taxonomy and to discuss the formation of Donggui series in Jeju Island. Morphological properties of typifying pedon of Donggui series were investigated and physico-chemical properties were analyzed according to Soil survey laboratory methods manual. The typifying pedon has very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2) silt loam A horizon (0~17 cm), gravelly very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2) silt loam BA horizon (17~42 cm), gravelly very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2) silty clay loam Bt1 horizon (43~80 cm), brown (7.5YR 4/6) silty clay Bt2 horizon (80~105 cm), and brown (10YR 5/4) silty clay Bt3 horizon (105~150 cm). It is developed in lava plain and are derived from basalt and pyroclastic materials. The typifying pedon contains 1.3~2.1% oxalate extractable (Al + 1/2 Fe), less than 85% phosphate retention, and higher bulk density than 0.90 $Mg/m^3$. That can not be classified as Andisol. But it has an argillic horizon from a depth of 22 to 150 cm and a base saturation (sum of cations) of less than 35% at 125 cm below the upper boundary of the argillic horizon. That can be classified as Ultisol, not as Andisol and Inceptisol. It has udic soil moisture regime, and can be classified as Udalf. Also that meets the requirements of Typic Hapludalf. It has 18-35% clay at the particle-size control section, and have thermic soil temperature regime. Therefore Donggui series can be classified as fine loamy, mixed, thermic family of Typic Hapludalfs, not as fine silty, mixed, thermic family of Dystric Eutrudepts.

Geophysical Implications for Configurational Entropy and Cube Counting Fractal Dimension of Porous Networks of Geological Medium: Insights from Random Packing Simulations (지질매체 공극 구조에 대한 구성 엔트로피와 상자집계 프랙탈 차원의 지구물리학적 의미 및 응용: 무작위 패킹 시뮬레이션 연구)

  • Lee, Bum-Han;Lee, Sung-Keun
    • Journal of the Mineralogical Society of Korea
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    • v.23 no.4
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    • pp.367-375
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    • 2010
  • Understanding the interactions between earth materials and fluids is essential for studying the diverse geological processes in the Earth's surface and interior. In order to better understand the interactions between earth materials and fluids, we explore the effect of specific surface area and porosity on structural parameters of pore structures. We obtained 3D pore structures, using random packing simulations of porous media composed of single sized spheres with varying the particle size and porosity, and then we analyzed configurational entropy for 2D cross sections of porous media and cube counting fractal dimension for 3D porous networks. The results of the configurational entropy analysis show that the entropy length decreases from 0.8 to 0.2 with increasing specific surface area from 2.4 to $8.3mm^2/mm^3$, and the maximum configurational entropy increases from 0.94 to 0.99 with increasing porosity from 0.33 to 0.46. On the basis of the strong correlation between the liquid volume fraction (i.e., porosity) and configurational entropy, we suggest that elastic properties and viscosity of mantle melts can be expressed using configurational entropy. The results of the cube counting fractal dimension analysis show that cube counting fractal dimension increases with increasing porosity at constant specific surface area, and increases from 2.65 to 2.98 with increasing specific surface area from 2.4 to $8.3mm^2/mm^3$. On the basis of the strong correlation among cube counting fractal dimension, specific surface area, and porosity, we suggest that seismic wave attenuation and structural disorder in fluid-rock-melt composites can be described using cube counting fractal dimension.

Classification of Hydrologic Soil Groups of Soil Originated from Limestone by Assessing the Rates of Infiltration and Percolation (석회암 유래 토양의 침투 및 투수속도 평가에 따른 수문유형 분류)

  • Hur, Seung-Oh;Jung, Kang-Ho;Sonn, Yeon-Kyu;Ha, Sang-Keun;Kim, Jeong-Gyu;Kim, Nam-Won
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.42 no.2
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    • pp.103-109
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    • 2009
  • Soils originated from limestone, located at the southern part of Kangwon province and Jecheon, Danyang of Chungbuk province are mainly composed of fine texture, and have different properties from soils originated from granite and granite gneiss, especially for water movement. This study was conducted for classification of hydrologic soil group (HSG) of soils originated from limestone by measuring the infiltration rate of surface soils and percolation rate of sub soils. Soils used for the experiment were 6 soils in total : Gwarim, Mosan, Jangseong, Maji, Anmi and Pyongan series. Infiltration and percolation rate were measured by a disc tension infiltrometer and a Guelph permeameter, respectively. Particle size distribution and organic matter content of the soils were analyzed. HSG, which was made by USDA NRCS(National Resources Conservation Service) for hydrology, of Gwarim series with O horizon of accumulated organic matter was classified as type A which show the properties of low runoff potential, rapid infiltration and percolation rate. HSG of Mosan series, which has high gravel content and very rapid permeability, was classified as type B/D because of the impermaeble base rock layer under 50cm from surface. HSG of Jangseong series with shallow soil depth was classified as type C/D owing to the impermaeble base rock layer under 50cm from surface. HSG of Maji series was type B, and HSG of Anmi series used as paddy land was type D because of slow infiltration and percolation rate caused by the disturbance of surface soil by puddling. HSG of Pyeongan series having a sudden change of layer in soil texture was type D because of the slow percolation rate caused a the layer.

Taxonomical Classification of Bugog Series (부곡통의 분류)

  • Song, Kwan-Cheol;Hyun, Byung-Geun;Sonn, Yeon-Kyu;Hong, Suk-Young;Kim, Yi-Hyun;Choe, Eun-Young
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.42 no.6
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    • pp.472-477
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    • 2009
  • This study was conducted to reclassify Bugog series based on the second edition of Soil Taxonomy : A Basic System of Soil Classification for Making and Interpreting Soil Surveys. Morphological properties of typifying pedon of Bugog series were investigated and physico-chemical properties were analyzed according to Soil Survey Laboratory Methods Manual. The typifying pedon of Bugog series has strong brown (7.5YR 4/6) loam Ap horizon (0~22 cm), brown (7.5YR 4/4) clay loam BAt horizon (22~41 cm), strong brown (7.5YR 4/6) silty clay loam Bt1 horizon (41~59 cm), strong brown (7.5YR 4/6) silty clay loam Bt2 horizon (59~78 cm), brown (7.5YR 4/4) silty clay loam Btx1 horizon(78~90 cm), and brown (7.5YR 4/4) Btx2 horizon(90~160 cm). That occurs on swale foot slope in area of mainly granite gneiss, granite, and schist rock materials. The typifying pedon has an argillic horizon from a depth of 22 to more than 160 cm and a base saturation (sum of cations) of less than 35% at 75 cm below the upper boundary of the fragipan. That can be classified as Ultisol, not as Alfisol. The pedon has udic soil moisture regime, and can be classified as Udult. That has a fragipan with an upper boundary within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface, and keys out as Fragiudult. Also that meets the requirements of Typic Fragiudult. That has 18% to 35% clay at the particle-size control section, and has mesic soil temperature regime. Bugog series can be classified as fine silty, mixed, mesic family of Typic Fragiudults, not as fine loamy, mixed, mesic family of Typic Fragiudalfs.