• Title, Summary, Keyword: paraffin wax

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Preparation and Properties of Bio-inspired Waterborne Polyurethanes Containing Different Amount of Paraffin Wax

  • Kim, Hye-Lin;Kim, Ae-Li;Lee, Young-Hee;Kim, Sung Yeol;Park, Cha-Cheol;Rahman, Mohammad Mizanur;Kim, Han-Do
    • Textile Coloration and Finishing
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    • v.30 no.1
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    • pp.9-19
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    • 2018
  • To prepare bio-inspired antifouling coating materials having similar structure with lotus, self-crosslinkable waterborne polyurethanes emulsions containing paraffin wax (CWPU/P0, 0.25, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, the number indicated the wt% of wax) were prepared by an emulsifier-free/solvent free prepolymer mixing process. The as-polymerized CWPU/P emulsions containing 0 - 1.00wt% of paraffin wax were found to be stable after 4 months, however, CWPU/P emulsions containing 1.50 and 2.00wt% of paraffin wax were unstable within 1 month storage. Considering the stability of emulsions, the optimum paraffin wax content was found to be about 1wt% to obtain stable antifouling coating emulsion material. The surface topology of CWPU/P film samples was characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM). This study examined the effect of paraffin wax content on the surface roughness, water contact angle/surface energy, water swelling, light transmittance and tensile properties of CWPU/P film samples.

Removal of Paraffin Wax from Ceramic Injection Mold Using Supercritical Carbon Dioxide (세라믹 사출성형체로부터 초임계이산화탄소를 이용한 파라핀왁스의 제거)

  • Kim, Dong-Hyun;Hong, Seung-Tae;Yoo, Ki-Pung;Lim, Jong-Sung
    • Clean Technology
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    • v.14 no.1
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    • pp.1-6
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    • 2008
  • Removal of paraffin wax from a ceramic injection mold using supercritical $CO_2$ has been studied. The paraffin wax is used as a binder in the ceramic injection molding process. The effects of pressure, temperature and flow rate of supercritical $CO_2$ on the removal of the paraffin wax were investigated. The removal rates were measured with various flow rates of $CO_2$ in the range of 328.15 - 348.15 K and 15 - 30 MPa. The removal rate of paraffin wax increased as the pressure increased. In the effect of temperature, the paraffin wax was effectively removed over 329.15K (melting point of paraffin wax), however, the efffct of temperature was not significant when the temperature was further increased. The increase of $CO_2$ flow rate also affected the removal of paraffin wax. However, the effect of flow rate was not observed when the flow rate reached a certain value. Propane was used as a co solvent in order to remove the paraffin wax effectively. When the propane was added to the $CO_2$, the removal efficiency was improved. The paraffin wax was completely removed from the ceramic injection mold without any change in their shape and the structure.

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Solidify Properties of Radioactive Waste using Paraffin Wax (파라핀 왁스를 이용한 방사성 폐기물의 고화 특성)

  • Lee, Han Chul;Chang, Yoon Ho
    • Applied Chemistry for Engineering
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    • v.17 no.4
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    • pp.391-396
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    • 2006
  • When radioactive wastewater was solidified treatment by cement, the drying rate of cement and the volume reduction ratio was decreased because of boric acid component in the wastewater. In order to supplement the demerit, effects of paraffin wax investigated in this study. Paraffin wax has a hydrophobic properties and a low affinity with inorganic materials. When the radioactive wastewater was tested by a small of wax, the compressive strength of solidified waste are decreased Therefore boric acid in radioactive wastewater are first treated by alkali salt and coated by the stearic acid. During the solidification step, The amount of paraffin wax addition get the result that the compressive strength of solidification with cement was the same as that with paraffin wax. The leaching properties of radioactive waste solidified was the same CFL (cumulative fraction leached), PR (penetration rate), effective diffusivity if paraffin wax content in solidified waste was 20% or 25%.

Effect of Paraffin Wax Mask Pack on Skin Improvement (파라핀왁스 마스크 팩의 피부 개선 효과)

  • Yi, Ji-Eun;Lee, Sang-Bong
    • Journal of the Korea Convergence Society
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    • v.10 no.3
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    • pp.237-242
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    • 2019
  • This study examined the effect of paraffin wax mask pack on skin improvement. The subjects were 13 males and females in 20s. Subjects applied the paraffin wax mask pack eight times for four weeks. To determine the effects of paraffin wax mask pack on the skin, we measured oil, moisture, skin surface temperature, softness of skin and satisfaction in subjective skin condition. After using the paraffin wax mask pack, the moisture, oil content of the facial skin, skin surface temperature and softness of skin increased. In addition, the subjects were highly satisfied with the improvement in subjective skin conditons such as dryness, oil and skin tone. Therefore, these results suggest that paraffin wax mask pack has beneficial effects on skin improvement and it will have high utility and value as development of skin care devices for skin care.

Tensile and Compressive Strength Characteristics of Aluminized Paraffin Wax Fuel for Various Particle Size and Contents (파라핀/알루미늄 연료의 알루미늄 입자크기 및 함유비 변화에 따른 인장 및 압축강도 특성 연구)

  • Ryu, Sunghoon;Han, Seongjoo;Kim, Jinkon;Moon, Heejang;Kim, Junhyung;Ko, Seung Won
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Propulsion Engineers
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    • v.20 no.5
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    • pp.70-76
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    • 2016
  • Tensile and compressive strength tests were conducted to investigate the mechanical characteristics of aluminized paraffin wax fuel for hybrid gas generator applications. Mixtures of 0 wt%, 10 wt% and 30 wt% nano aluminum paraffin coupons as well as 5 wt%, 10 wt% and 15 wt% micro aluminum paraffin coupons were used. The average particle size of 100nm and of $8{\mu}m$ mixed each with microcrystalline paraffin wax(Sasol 0907) were chosen for the base specimens where the tensile strength test followed the ASTM-D638 specimen standard while the compressive strength test followed the ASTM D575-91. It was found that nano based specimens increased both the tensile and compressive strength enhancing the mechanical behavior of paraffin wax whereas the micro based specimens gave still less influential effect.

Radiotherapic Valuation of Paraffin Wax for Patients with Oral Cancer (구강암 환자 치료시 치과용 기초상 왁스(Paraffin Wax)의 유용성 평가)

  • Na, Kyoung-Su;Seo, Seuk-Jin;Lee, Je-Hee;Yoo, Sook-Heun
    • The Journal of Korean Society for Radiation Therapy
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    • v.23 no.1
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    • pp.41-49
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    • 2011
  • Purpose: This study is designed to investigate radiotherapic valuation of Paraffin Wax, which is newly formed for this study and generally utilized in dentistry, and Mouth Piece and Putty impression, which are commonly used in radiotherapy, for oral cavity as a compensator. Materials and Methods: Each compensator was formed by $10{\times}10{\times}1cm$ and measured radiation dose attenuation ratio with reference of water phantom which is made of tissue-equivalent materials. Two patients with oral cancer underwent DRR (Digitally Reconstructed Radiogrph) of Offline Review Program of Aria System and Portal vision for 5 times for each material to evaluate reproducibility by each filling materials. Moreover, MU (monitor unit) changes by dose absorption were considered in the case of inevitable implication of an filling materials in the range for radiotherapy. Results: Radiation dose attenuation ratios were shown -0.7~+3.7% for Mouth Piece, +0.21~+0.39% for Paraffin Wax and -2.71~-1.76% for Putty impression. Error ranges of reproducibility of positions were measured ${\pm}3mm$ for Mouth Piece, ${\pm}2mm$ for Paraffin Wax and ${\pm}2mm$ mm for Putty impression. Difference of prescription MU from dose absorption with an filling material increased +7.8% (250 MU) in Putty impression and -0.9% (230 MU) in Paraffin Wax as converted into a percentage from the standard phantom, Water 232 MU. Conclusion: Dose reduction of boundary between cavity and tissue was observed for Mouth Piece. Mouth Piece also had low reproducibility of positions as it had no reflection of anatomy of oral cavity even though it was a proper material to separate Maxilla and Mandible during therapy. On the other hand, Putty impression was a suitable material to correctly re-position oral cavity as before. However, it risked normal tissues getting unnecessary over irradiation and it caused radiation dose decrease by -2.5% for 1cm volume in comparison of it of water phantom. Dose reduction in Paraffin Wax, Fat Tissue-Equivalent Material, was smaller than other impressions and position reproducibility of it was remarkable as it was possible to make an anatomy reflected impression. It was also well fitted to oral cavity to transfer radiation dose planned in radiotherapy. Thus, Paraffin Wax will be an ideal material in radiotherapy for patients with oral cancer.

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Curing and Surface Properties of UV-curable Coating Containing Wax (왁스를 함유한 자외선 경화형 코팅제의 경화 및 표면 물성)

  • Han, A-Ram;Kim, Jong-Gu;Hong, Jin-Who;Kim, Hyun-Kyoung
    • Journal of Adhesion and Interface
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    • v.13 no.1
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    • pp.38-44
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    • 2012
  • Surface properties and curing behavior of UV-initiated photopolymerization with and without wax have been investigated by pendulum hardness, pencil hardness, gloss, photo-differential scanning calorimetry (photo-DSC) and SEM. In addition, the influence of wax type (paraffin wax, PE wax) on the various properties of UV cured films was studied. The results showed that the wax type was the significant factor affecting gloss and surface hardness of UV cured films. Specially, the photo-DSC results showed that ${\Delta}H$ for the UV cured films containing paraffin wax was higher than the corresponding values for the formulation without wax and with PE wax. The observed results clearly demonstrate that the photopolymerization of UV curing with paraffin wax in an air atmosphere is less inhibited by the oxygen compared to UV curing without wax and with PE wax.

A Study on the Combustion Characteristics of Paraffin wax/LDPE Blended fuel (Paraffin wax/LDPE 혼합 연료의 연소 특성에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Soo-Jong;Cho, Jung-Tae;Lee, Jung-Pyo;Moon, Hee-Jang;Sung, Hong-Gye;Kim, Jin-Kon
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Propulsion Engineers
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    • v.14 no.2
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    • pp.29-38
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    • 2010
  • The experimental study on paraffin wax/LDPE blended fuel for hybrid rocket was performed. Various combustion characteristics of blended fuel were compared with pure paraffin, HTPB, HDPE and SP-1a fuel in order to evaluate the performance of blended fuel. The regression rate of lab-scale and large-scale motor using pure paraffin fuel was increased by 10.2 and 9.8 factor when respectively compared to that of HDPE. The regression rate factor of blended fuel was 3.4 in which the regression rate of blended fuel was higher than that of HTPB and HDPE, but lower than that of pure paraffin, SP-1a fuel. The values of characteristic velocity and specific impulse of blended fuel was higher than those of pure paraffin, HTPB and HDPE, and almost the same as SP-1a fuel. As these results, it was confirmed that blended fuel can be an effective solid fuel for hybrid rocket.

Combustion Characteristics of the Paraffin-Based Hybrid Rocket Fuel (파라핀계 하이브리드 로켓 연료의 연소 특성)

  • Kim, Soo-Jong;Cho, Jung-Tae;Kim, Gi-Hun;Kim, Hak-Chul;Woo, Kyong-Jin;Lee, Jung-Pyo;Moon, Hee-Jang;Sung, Hong-Gye;Kim, Jin-Kon
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Propulsion Engineers Conference
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    • pp.225-228
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    • 2009
  • Combustion characteristics of the paraffin-based hybrid rocket fuel were compared with HDPE fuel. Regression rate of the pure paraffin wax was increased 12.1 times, but characteristic velocity was lower than HDPE. In case of paraffin fuel with 10%wt LDPE, regression rate was lower than pure paraffin wax, but regression rate compare with HDPE was increased 3.5 times and characteristic velocity was increased. According to these results, it was confirmed that blending of polymeric fuel improves combustion efficiency.

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Decay of Populus cathay Treated with Paraffin Wax Emulsion and Copper Azole Compound

  • Liu, Jie;Liu, Min;Hou, Bingyi;Ma, Erni
    • Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology
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    • v.47 no.1
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    • pp.21-32
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    • 2019
  • In order to investigate the decay process of wood treated with preservative, waterproofing agent and their compound systems, a full-cell process was applied to impregnate the sapwood of poplar (Populus cathay) at paraffin wax emulsion concentrations of 0.5% and 2.0%, Copper Azole (CA) concentrations of 0.3% and 0.5%, and their four compound systems, respectively. Leaching tests and laboratory decay resistance against the white-rot fungus Corious versicolor (L.) Murrill for treated wood were carried out according to the America Standard E11-06 and China Standard GB/T 13942.1-2009. At certain time intervals during the decay test, samples were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray diffraction technique (XRD) to investigate the time-dependent changes of chemical components and crystalline structure, thus clarifying the decay mechanisms. The results suggested that white-rot fungi degrade hemicellulose and lignin in the wood cell wall first, followed by a simultaneous degradation of polysaccharides and lignin. Besides, CA could not only slower the decomposition of both hemicellulose and lignin, but also reduce the degradation amount of hemicellulose. However, paraffin wax emulsion at high concentration had a negative effect on the impregnation of CA for the compound system treated wood.