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Tribological Characteristics of Paraffin Liquid Oil with Nanodiamond and Effects of Surface Hardness on Wear Properties (나노다이아몬드를 첨가한 오일의 트라이볼로지 특성 및 이에 미치는 표면 경도의 영향)

  • Lee, Gyu-Sun;Kim, Hyun-Soo;Lee, Jeong-Hoon;Park, Tae-Hee;Lee, Jung-Suk;Lee, Young-Ze
    • Tribology and Lubricants
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    • v.27 no.6
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    • pp.321-325
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    • 2011
  • Nanodiamond was dispersed in paraffin liquid oil to investigate the effects of nanodiamond at the marginally lubricated condition. Scuffing test and immediate loading sliding wear test were conducted using the fabricated nanodiamond oil. As a result, dispersion of nanodiamond in oil leads to increase in scuffing life, and nanodiamond contents affects the scuffing life. In case of immediate loading sliding wear test, the result was different according to hardness of specimen. If hardness of specimen was low, abrasion of nanodiamond occurred actively. If hardness of specimen was increased, however, nanodiamond can act as a spacer or rolling between contacting surfaces.

A Study on Leaching Characteristics of Paraffin Waste Form Including Boric Acid

  • Kim, Ju-Youl;Chung, Chang-Hyun;Park, Heui-Joo;Kim, Chang-Lak
    • Nuclear Engineering and Technology
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    • v.32 no.1
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    • pp.10-16
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    • 2000
  • Preliminary experiment was peformed to investigate the leaching characteristics of paraffin waste forms that had been recently generated in large quantities at domestic nuclear power plants. At first, waste simulants whose compositions were different in mixing ratio of paraffin to boric acid were prepared. Their compressive strengths were measured and ninety-day leaching test of specimen including cobalt was carried out according to ANSI/ANS-16.1 test procedure. Water immersion test was also conducted keeping pace with leaching test and the weight change and the compressive strength of specimen were observed after ninety days. The compressive strength of waste form exhibited 666 psi (4.53 MPa) in the case where mixing ratio of boric acid to paraffin was 78/22, which was adopted in concentrate waste drying system of domestic nuclear power plants. The leaching test resulted in about 50% of the cumulative fraction leached for boric acid and cobalt, respectively. The specific gravity of waste form was 0.87 [g/g]whose value was less than that of water because the weight loss of about 39% occurred after the water immersion test of ninety days. It was also observed that the waste form which had undergone ninety-day water immersion test exhibited the compressive strength of 203 psi (1.38 MPa).

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Detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis by PCR from Trace Clinical Specimens and Paraffin-embedded Tissues (임상가검물과 파라핀 포매 조직에서 PCR법을 이용한 결핵균의 검출)

  • 김은중;최우순;황석연
    • Biomedical Science Letters
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    • v.6 no.1
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    • pp.55-63
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    • 2000
  • This study has been carried out to investigate the sensitivity of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method over conventional acid-fast bacilli (AFB) staining and/culture methods for the detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from trace body fluid and paraffin-embedded tissues (PET) specimens. A total of 65 cases were employed for the AFB staining and culture test, and a total of 50 cases were subjected to PCR and histopathological analysis. Among the specimen showing negative reaction to AFB staining, 12.1% were positive to PCR and 3.7% of the specimen representing negative result to culture test showed positive reaction to PCR. In addition, 20.0% of the specimen with AFB negative showed positive reaction to PCR. From these results, it could be concluded that PCR method overwhelms AFB staining and culture tests in sensitivity and specificity to M tuberculosis detection.

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The Expression of nNOS in Hirschsprung's Disease (히르쉬스프룽병의 병변부위에서 nNOS 발현)

  • Kim, Ki-Hong;Kim, Han-Seung;Lee, Seong-Cheol
    • Advances in pediatric surgery
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    • v.11 no.1
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    • pp.9-18
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    • 2005
  • Abnormal distribution of enteric nerves such as adrenergic, cholinergic and non-adrenergic non-cholinergic nerves (NANC) may cause the failure of relaxation at the involved bowel segment in Hirschsprung's disease (HD). Nitric oxide (NO) is a major inhibitory NANC neurotransmitter in the gastrointestinal tract. NO is synthesized by activation of nNOS (neuronal nitric oxide synthase) in the intramural ganglion cells and regulates bowel movement. To assess the distribution of nNOS in HD, immunohistochemical staining to nNOS was utilized on paraffin embedded specimens. Ten control colon specimens were tested for feasibility of staining. Immunohistochemisrty was done on ganglionic colon as well as aganglionic segment of 15 patients with HD. nNOS immunoreactivity was observed in the neuronal cells, small cells and nerve fibers in the muscle layer and submucosal neuronal cells of control specimens. This finding was also observed in the ganglionic segments of HD. But, there was no nNOS immunoreactivity in aganglionic segments of HD. In conclusion nNOS immunohistochemical staining of paraffin embedded specimen is feasible and reliable. And the results suggest that the relaxation failure of the aganglionic bowel in HD is related to the absence of nNOS containing cells and nerve fibers.

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Tensile and Compressive Strength Characteristics of Aluminized Paraffin Wax Fuel for Various Particle Size and Contents (파라핀/알루미늄 연료의 알루미늄 입자크기 및 함유비 변화에 따른 인장 및 압축강도 특성 연구)

  • Ryu, Sunghoon;Han, Seongjoo;Kim, Jinkon;Moon, Heejang;Kim, Junhyung;Ko, Seung Won
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Propulsion Engineers
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    • v.20 no.5
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    • pp.70-76
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    • 2016
  • Tensile and compressive strength tests were conducted to investigate the mechanical characteristics of aluminized paraffin wax fuel for hybrid gas generator applications. Mixtures of 0 wt%, 10 wt% and 30 wt% nano aluminum paraffin coupons as well as 5 wt%, 10 wt% and 15 wt% micro aluminum paraffin coupons were used. The average particle size of 100nm and of $8{\mu}m$ mixed each with microcrystalline paraffin wax(Sasol 0907) were chosen for the base specimens where the tensile strength test followed the ASTM-D638 specimen standard while the compressive strength test followed the ASTM D575-91. It was found that nano based specimens increased both the tensile and compressive strength enhancing the mechanical behavior of paraffin wax whereas the micro based specimens gave still less influential effect.

Possible Epithelial Ovarian Cancer Association with HPV18 or HPV33 Infection

  • Zhang, Pei-Pei;Zhou, Lei;Cao, Jia-Shi;Li, Yi-Ping;Zeng, Zhi;Sun, Ni;Shen, Li;Zhu, Hao-Yue;Ruan, Yang;Zha, Wen-Ting;Wang, Xin-Yu;Zhang, Ke-Qiang;Zhang, Ran
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.17 no.6
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    • pp.2959-2964
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    • 2016
  • The present study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of HPV infection in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) in Hunan province. DNA samples were collected from paraffin embedded ovarian tissue from 322 patients with EOC, 99 with ovarian benign tumors and 199 normal persons. The polymerase chain reaction and direct sequencing were used to identify the HPV types in the samples. The relationship between the infection of human papillomavirus (HPV) and the epithelial ovarian carcinoma (EOC) was investigated combined with clinical data. The prevalence of HPV18 and HPV33 in EOC group and benign group was higher than in the normal group. HPV18 and HPV33 may play a role in the development of both EOC and ovarian benign tumor and may participate in the development of EOC with traditional risk factors, family history and abortion, possibly exerting synergistic effects.

p53 Protein Expression in Imprint Cytology of Breast Carcinoma (유방암의 Imprint 표본에서 p53 단백 발현)

  • Kim, Dong-Sug;Lee, Eun-Hi;Kim, Ki-Kwon;Kim, Mi-Jin;Lee, Soo-Jung
    • The Korean Journal of Cytopathology
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    • v.6 no.1
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    • pp.1-9
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    • 1995
  • This study was carried out to determine the usefulness of imprint cytology for detecting p53 protein in breast carcinoma. NCL-DO7 (Novocastra, U.K.) was used to detect p53 protein immunocytochemically. A total of 33 cases was studied, Immunostaining of imprint cytology with NCL-DO7 was positive in 64% (21/33) and showed relatively high coincident rate (80%) with immunostaining of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded specimen p53 protein was related to negative estrogen receptor status, but not to the nuclear grade, lymph node metastasis, or tumor size. The fact that p53 protein expression was not related to nuclear grade might be due to predominance of nuclear grade 3. It was easier to determine the nuclear grade is one of the most important prognostic factors, in imprint cytology than in tissue specimen. p53 protein tended to be stained more strongly in imprint cytology than in tissue. It is concluded that the application of imprint cytology in p53 protein detection can be performed easily, and that it may contribute to the evaluation of prognostic factors in breast carcinoma.

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High-Temperature Drying Characteristics of Wood during Boiling-In-Oil Process

  • Lee, Hyoung Woo;Choi, Nak Ju
    • Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology
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    • v.35 no.5
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    • pp.1-6
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    • 2007
  • Boiling-in-oil process was performed to investigate the high-temperature drying characteristics of 25, 50, and 70 mm-thick flat-sawn Douglas-fir lumber. Drying rates, moisture profiles and temperature profiles were monitored. Fully refined paraffin wax was used as drying agent and heated to $130^{\circ}C$. Average drying rates of 25, 50, and 70 mm-thick specimen were 11.6, 6.7, 5.0%/h, respectively. The moisture content differences between cores and ends were 1~2% in 25 mm-thick and 200 mm-long sample and over 10% in 50 mm-thick and 600 mm-long sample.

AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF THE EFFECTS ON THE BONE TISSUE BY IMPLANT OF ROOT CANAL FILLING MATERIALS (근관충전재(根管充塡材)의 매식(埋植)이 골조직(骨組織)에 미치는 영향(影響)에 관(關)한 실험적(實驗的) 연구(硏究))

  • Chung, Jae-Kyoo;Min, Byung-Soon;Chi, Ho-Young;Park, Sang-Jin
    • Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics
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    • v.9 no.1
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    • pp.25-35
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    • 1983
  • The purpose of this study was the observe the toxic effects of root canal sealers in 108 white rats. Experimental animals were divided into control and experimental groups. Theree representative types of materials, such as AH26, Z.O.E. and F.R. were used in this study. Cavities were prepared on the left mandibular area of 108 white rats. Three different sealers were placed in as experiment and bone cavities were left without filling as control. The experimental animals were sacrificed by cervical dislocation at the intervals of 1, 3, 7, 14, 28 and 49 days after filling. Each specimen was fixed with 10% neutral formalin solution, decalcified with 5% nitric acid, embedded in paraffin and sectioned 5-7${\mu}$. in thickness. The paraffin sections stained with Hematoxylin - Eosin were observed through the ordinary light microscope. The results were as follows; 1. Slight toxic effect to surrounding tissue were found in every experimental specimen. 2. AH26 showed the highest inflammatory response, and F.R. showed the lowest inflammatory response which subsided and replaced by fibrosis at 4 weeks after filling. 3. The cavity filled materials, such as implanted root canal sealers, blood clots and necrotic tissue, showed a tendency to be absorbed gradually proportioned to the experimental periods. A small amount of cavity filled materials were observed in the bone cavities after 4 weeks. 4. Fibroblastic proliferation began to produce fibrous capsule around the bone cavity in 2 weeks after filling. Fibrosis was prominent at 4 weeks after filling. 5. Osteoblastic activity of surrounding bone was observed at first in 2 weeks after filling and prominent in 4 weeks after filling. Osteoblastic activity showed an increasing effect as the time prolonged. 6. Surrounding tissue of the bone cavities showed the features of tissue destruction and had very severe inflammatory response at an initial stage. Above-mentioned appeared to be recovered gradually proportioned to the experimental periods.

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A study of Tumor Angiogenesis in Human Lung Cancer by Immunohistochemical Stain (Human Lung Cancer에서 면역세포화학적 방법을 이용한 Tumor Angiogenesis에 관한 연구)

  • Cheon, Seon Hee;Kim, Sung Sook;Rha, Sun Young;Chung, Hyun Cheol
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.43 no.6
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    • pp.894-902
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    • 1996
  • Background : Tumor angiogenesis is the growth of new vessels toward and within tumor. It has been demonstrated that the growth of tumor beyond a certain size requires angiogenesis and it is closely involved in tumor progression and metastasis. The finding that intensity of neovascularization correlates independently with metastasis may lead to identification of patients in whom radical surgery should be supplemented by systemic treatment. Method : We have collected paraffin blocks of bronchoscopic biopsy of patients with non-small cell lung cancer. We highlighted the vessel by staining endothelial cell with JC70 monoclonal antibody(to CD31) immunohistochemically and counted microvessels under 200 X field using light microscopy. Results : 1) The mean microvessel count was $32.7{\pm}20.8$ (9-96) in total 29 cases. 2) There were no correlations between microvessel counts and pathologic cell type, T staging, node melastasis(N) and hematogenous metastasis(M) (p>0.05). 3) The median follow-up duration was 15 months(2-46) and there was no correlation between the microvessel counts and survival rate of lung cancer patients (p>0.05). Conclusion : Tumor angiogenesis seems to be an important prognostic factor suggesting the probability of metastasis. But the microvessel count in the bronchoscopic biopsy specimen was inadequate and very limited. There has been no data about angiogenesis of lung cancer in korea yet So the study of tumor angiogenesis using resected lung tumor specimen would be demanded.

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