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The Pap-Smear Test Experience of Women in Turkey: A Qualitative Study

  • Arabaci, Zeynep;Ozsoy, Suheyla
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.13 no.11
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    • pp.5687-5690
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    • 2012
  • Objective: The study was planned with the purpose of examining the attitude of women who have pap-smear test for the early diagnosis of cervical cancer, factors affecting their decisions and their feelings and experiences during this period. Materials and Methods: A phenomenological method was used. Data were collected between March 2012 and April 2012 using standard and purposive samplings from 17 women. A detailed interview with women were held in their houses and recorded. The data collection tool consisted of two parts, one of which is information form with 17 questions identifying sociodemographic and cervical cancer risk factors of women and the second part is made up of semi-structured interview form with 15 alternative questions taking literature and the pap-smear test into consideration. Collected data were put into a written document. Content analysis was held by loading the documents into NVIVO 8 Statistical Programme. Results: The study comprised themes such as cervical risk factor, decision of taking pap-smear test, taking pap-smear test, knowledge about pap-smear test, relieving factors during pap-smear test, obstructive factors during pap-smear test, gynecological examination and feelings of women during and after pap-smear test while waiting for the results. Conclusions: As women perceive gynaecological examinations differently from other examinations, they have different feelings in each process of the Pap smear test. Medical staff should advise women more clearly on the nature and advantages of the Pap-smear test.

Factors Associated with the Use of Pap Test in a Rural Area (일부 농촌 지역 여성의 자궁경부암 조기검진에 영향을 미치는 요인)

  • Koo, Hye-Won;Lee, Won-Jin;Chang, Soung-Hoon;Yoo, Keun-Young;Lee, Kun-Sei
    • Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health
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    • v.32 no.2
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    • pp.147-154
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    • 1999
  • Objectives: To construct basic data to develop strategies for achieving higher Pap test coverage rate by evaluating factors associated with the use of Pap test through population-based survey. Methods: 16.4%(671) of the 4,090 women, who were eligible population for this study, in 3 Myens of Chung-ju City participated in this study voluntarily from July 21 to 26, 1997. After basic physical examination by trained doctors, they were interviewed with structured questionnaire by well-educated interviewers. Results: It shows that only 54.3% of study participants experienced Pap test. The strongest factor which is related with the use of Pap test was the history of having breast screening tests(aOR=8.71, 95% CI=4.25-17.84). Probability of ever having Pap test was also higher in married women(aOR of single=0.46, 95% CI=0.29-0.72), younger(Ptrend<0,051, more educated (Ptrend<0.001), non-smoker (aOR of smoker=0.25, 95% CI=0.12-0.55), women of ever having Hepatitis test(aOR=2.60, 95% CI=1.73-3.88) in multiple lineal logistic analysis. Conclusions : This study suggests that several factors significantly associated with the use of Pap test, and especially, high-risk population for cervical cancer such as women of older ages, less educated, living alone are less likely to have the Pap test. We should concentrate on encouraging high-risk women in the use of Pap test to improve Pap test coverage rate.

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A Prediction of Behavioral Intention on Pap Screening Test in College Women: A Path Model (여대생의 자궁경부암검사(Pap test) 행위의도 예측 경로모형)

  • Kang, Kyung-Ah;Kim, Shing-Jeong;Noriyo, Kaneko;Cho, Haeryun;Lim, Young-Sook
    • Journal of Korean Public Health Nursing
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    • v.31 no.1
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    • pp.135-148
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    • 2017
  • Purpose: This study was conducted to predict the effects of behavioral intention on pap screening tests in unmarried college women using a path model. Methods: The study subjects were 216 university students and data were collected through self-report questionnaires including knowledge, attitude, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control, behavioral intentions to take the Pap test, and health responsibility. Results: Knowledge regarding the Pap test was moderate. The factors of knowledge, attitude, and perceived behavioral control negatively influenced the behavioral intention of the Pap test. However, the factors of subjective norms and health responsibility positively influenced behavioral intention. Conclusion: Subjective norms are the most importance factor to increase the intentions of the Pap test among unmarried college women. It is also necessary to eliminate barriers to undergoing pap testing, as well as to provide nursing intervention to obtain correct knowledge and a positive attitude regarding the Pap screening test.

Perception and Practices on Screening and Vaccination for Carcinoma Cervix among Female Healthcare Professional in Tertiary Care Hospitals in Bangalore, India

  • Swapnajaswanth, M.;Suman, G.;Suryanarayana, S.P.;Murthy, N.S.
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.15
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    • pp.6095-6098
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    • 2014
  • Background:Cervical cancer is potentially the most preventable and treatable cancer. Despite the known efficacy of cervical screening, a significant number of women do not avail themselves of the procedure due to lack of awareness. Objectives: This study was conducted to elicit information on the knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) regarding screening (Pap test) and vaccination for carcinoma cervix among female doctors and nurses in a tertiary care hospital in Bangalore and to assess barriers to acceptance of the Pap test. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional, descriptive study was conducted with semi-structured, self-administered questionnaire among female health professionals. The study subjects were interviewed for KAP regarding risk factors for cancer cervix, Pap test and HPV vaccination for protection against carcinoma cervix. Results: Higher proportion of doctors 45 (78.9%) had very good knowledge as compared to only 13 (13.3%) of the nurses, about risk factors for cancer cervix and Pap test (p=0.001). As many as 138(89.6%) of the study subjects had favorable attitude towards Pap test and vaccination, but 114 (73.6%) of the study subjects never had a Pap test and the most common reason 35 (31%) for not practicing was absence of disease symptoms. Conclusions: In spite of good knowledge and attitudes towards cancer cervix and Pap test being good, practice remained low among the study subjects and most common reasons for not undergoing Pap test was absence of disease symptoms. The independent predictors of ever having a Pap test done was found to be the occupation and duration of married life above 9yrs. Hence there is a strong need to improve uptake of Pap test by health professionals by demystifying the barriers.

Association of Knowledge, Attitude and Demographic Variables with Cervical Pap Smear Practice in Nepal

  • Ranabhat, Sabin;Tiwari, Mamta;Dhungana, Govinda;Shrestha, Reshmi
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.20
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    • pp.8905-8910
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    • 2014
  • Background: Coverage of cervical pap smear test in Nepal is below general global values. One of the reasons may be that cervical cancer prevention policy of Nepal has 'Visual Inspection of Cervix with Acetic Acid' as the only screening tool. The focus of present study was to find out association of demographic factors, knowledge and attitude regarding cervical Pap smear test with its practice by women in Nepal. Materials and Methods: This cross sectional analytical observational study was conducted between February 1, 2013 and April 30, 2013. Participants were interviewed with the help of a structured questionnaire. Chi square and multivariate logistic regression tests were used to detect associations of variables with pap smear practice. Results: Chi square test showed that practice was significantly associated with knowledge about pap smear test and cervical cancer, having favourable attitude towards the test, urban residency and 36-50 years age-group. Pap smear utilization was not associated with age-at-marriage, parity and age-at-first-child-birth. Multivariate logistic regression showed favorable attitude towards pap smear test as the only variable which significantly influenced pap smear practice (p= 0.006, OR: 2.4). Conclusions: Pap smear coverage has been found to be 15.7% which is lower than global average and that for developing countries. Health education programs which are effective not only in increasing knowledge about cervical cancer and pap smear test but also effective in positively changing attitude towards the test should be organized to increase pap smear coverage.

Influencing Factors of Intention of Undergoing Pap Testing among Unmarried Nurses (미혼 간호사의 Pap 검진의도 영향요인)

  • Kim, Hae Won
    • Korean Journal of Women Health Nursing
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    • v.20 no.3
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    • pp.225-233
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    • 2014
  • Purpose: This study was to assess the intention of undergoing Pap testing and to identify influencing factors of HPV knowledge and their attitude related to Pap test by sexual activity among unmarried nurses. Methods: A cross sectional survey design was employed, utilizing a self-administered questionnaire amongst 343 unmarried nurses. Descriptive statistics was utilized to analyze data and inferential statistics used an independent-t test and ${\chi}^2$ test for the differences in measurement variables, and odds ratios for factors on intention of Pap testing by sexual activity. Results: Nurses not sexually active were significantly higher in intention of Pap testing (${\chi}^2$=40.15, p<.001) and influencing factors of HPV knowledge (t=3.93, p=.048) than did nurses who were sexually active. Factors influencing intention were regularity of the breast self-examination (Adjusted Odds Ratio [AOR]=4.20, 95% Confidence Interval [CI]=1.93~9.17), HPV knowledge (AOR=2.49, 95% CI=1.36~4.56), and attitudes toward the Pap test(AOR=2.33, 95% CI=1.25~4.34) amongst nurses who never had sexual experience. Conclusion: It is necessary to minimize negative attitudes of Pap testing and to increase HPV knowledge in order to improve intention of Pap testing for women who were not sexually active. More focus would be given to sexually active women to get Pap tested as a preventive measure for cervical cancer.

Promoting Attendance at Cervical Cancer Screening: Understanding the Relationship with Turkish Womens' Health Beliefs

  • Demirtas, Basak;Acikgoz, Inci
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.14 no.1
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    • pp.333-340
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    • 2013
  • Background: The aim of the study was to identify the relationship between 'Health Belief Model Scale for Cervical Cancer and the Pap Smear Test' subscale scores and demographic/gyneco-obstetric characteristics. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted with 256 women. Data were obtained using the 'Demographic and Gyneco-Obstetric Identification Form' and the 'Health Belief Model Scale for Cervical Cancer and the Pap Smear Test. Results: The percentage of women who had heard about the Pap test was 77.7 whereas only 32.4% had actually undergone the test. Some 45.7% of the women stated that they did not know the reason for having a Pap test. Women who had obtained a Pap smear test had statistically significantly fewer perceived barriers than those who had never had (p<0.05). Scores with regard to the subscales including 'Benefits of Pap Smear Tests and Health Motivation', 'Perceived Seriousness of Cervical Cancer', 'Susceptibility to Cervical Cancer' and 'Cervical Cancer Health Motivation' did not differ with demographic/gyneco-obstetric characteristics such as womens' educational level, whether or not young age at first marriage, whether or not having family history of female cancer, and whether or not having had a Pap test (p>0.05). Conclusions: Increasing knowledge about benefits of Pap smear tests, increasing motivation to obtain Pap Smear Test and increasing perceived seriousness of cervical cancer could promote attendance at cervical cancer screening. Different strategies are needed for behavioural change. Implementation of educational programmes by nurses in a busy environment could result in a major clinical change, based on the findings of this study.

Knowledge, Attitudes and Behaviors of Women Over 20 Years Old on Cervix Cancer in Istanbul, Turkey

  • Onsuz, Muhammed Fatih;Hidiroglu, Seyhan;Sarioz, Abdullah;Metintas, Selma;Karavus, Melda
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.20
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    • pp.8801-8807
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    • 2014
  • Purpose: The aim of the study was to evaluate knowledge, attitudes and behaviors of Turkish women over 20 years old on cervix cancer. Materials and Methods: This descriptive study was performed at a primary care center covering 246 women using a questionnaire composed of 3 sections and 38 questions. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, chi-square test in univariate analysis and multivariate hierarchical logistic regression analysis. Results: Of the 93.7% women who knew about cervical cancer, 68.0% of them had heard pap smear test and 46.1% had actually undergone a Pap smear once or more throughout their lives. According to the results of the hierarchical logistic regression analysis about factors affecting the Pap smear test; in Model 1, increase in age and education levels, in Model 2 and Model 3 increase in age and cervical cancer information points were determined. The most important information source for cervical cancer was TV-radio/media (59.9%) and health care workers (62.8%) for pap smear test. Conclusions: Although most women have heard of cervical cancer, knowledge about cervical cancer and also Pap smear screening rate are significantly lower. Having Pap smear test for women was affected by age and knowledge level about cervical cancer. Informing women about cervical cancer would be an important intervention.

Evaluation of the Pap Smear Test Status of Turkish Women and Related Factors

  • Karabulutlu, Ozlem
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.14 no.2
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    • pp.981-986
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    • 2013
  • Background: The Pap smear has an important value in the early diagnosis of cervical cancer, a serious problem in womens health. This study aimed to determine the status of Turkish women regarding participation in Pap smear testing and affecting factors. Materials and Methods: This descriptive study was conducted on married women between 18-61 years of age selected from those who applied to the Obstetrics and Gynaecology Polyclinic of Atat$\ddot{u}$rk University in Erzurum between June-August 2010 for any reason. Data were collected using a questionnaire determining socio-demographic features and analyzed by descriptive statistics (mean, Sd, range, frequency, percentage) and Chi-square test. A level of p<0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Sixty six of the 301 women (21.9%) indicated that they heard a Pap smear test and 16.6% of women had experienced a test. The number of women participating increased with age, duration of marriage, number of births, knowledge about the Pap smear and perception of risk for cervical cancer. Conclusions: The importance of the Pap smear test needs to be explained to Turkish women by health staff, to increase awareness and participation in regular screening.

Efficacy of Pap Test in Combination with ThinPrep Cytological Test in Screening for Cervical Cancer

  • Chen, Hua;Shu, Hui-Min;Chang, Zhou-Lin;Wang, Zhi-Feng;Yao, Hai-Hong;Zhu, Hong-Mei;Lu, Tian-Mei;Ma, Qiang-Yan;Yang, Bin-Lie
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.13 no.4
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    • pp.1651-1655
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    • 2012
  • Background: Our aim was to investigate the efficacy of the Pap test in combination with the ThinPrep cytological test (TCT) in screening for cervical cancer in China. Design: From March 2006 to October 2008, 988 women with the mean age $46.4{\pm}10.5$ years (range, 23-80 years) were recruited to receive cervical cancer screening. Pap test results ${\geq}$ grade III and TCT findings ${\geq}$ ASCUS/AGUS were considered abnormal. Subjects with a Pap test result ${\geq}$ grade IIb received TCT. Colposcopy and biopsies were performed in all participants, and final diagnosis was based on pathological findings. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV) and Youden index for predicting CIN I or above were determined. Results: The sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV and Youden index of the Pap test were 43.1%, 97.2%, 70.0%, 91.9%, and 40.3%, respectively. The same values for TCT in predicting CIN were 80.0%, 63.2%, 16.0%, 97.3%, and 43.2%, respectively. The two tests in combination gave values for predicting CIN of 64.8%, 87.6%, 43.6%, 94.4%, and 53.5%, respectively. Combined testing exhibited the highest Youden index (53.4%). Conclusion: The Pap test with a reduced threshold in combination with the TCT has high sensitivity and high specificity in screening for cervical cancer.