• Title, Summary, Keyword: orthotopic xenograft

Search Result 10, Processing Time 0.046 seconds

Establishment of and Comparison between Orthotopic Xenograft and Subcutaneous Xenograft Models of Gallbladder Carcinoma

  • Du, Qiang;Jiang, Lei;Wang, Xiao-Qian;Pan, Wei;She, Fei-Fei;Chen, Yan-Ling
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
    • /
    • v.15 no.8
    • /
    • pp.3747-3752
    • /
    • 2014
  • Background: Gallbladder carcinoma (GBC) is the most common carcinoma of the biliary system. Among its research models, orthotopic xenograft models, important research tools, have been rarely reported in the literature however. Aim: To explore establishment of an orthotopic xenograft model and to evaluate the advantage and disadvantage as compared with other models. Materials and Methods: Subcutaneous xenograft and orthotopic xenograft models of gallbladder carcinoma in nude mice were established and compared with human gallbladder carcinomas. Results: For the orthotopic xenograft model and clinical gallbladder carcinomas, the lymph node metastatic rates were 69.2% and 53.3% (p>0.05); ascites generation rates, 38.5% and 11.7%(p<0.05); liver invasive rates, 100% and 61.7%(p<0.05); and lymphatic vessel densities (LVD), $10.4{\pm}3.02$ and $8.77{\pm}2.92$ (p>0.05), respectively. In the subcutaneous xenograft model, no evidence of ascites generation, lymph node metastasis and liver metastasis were found, and its LVD was lower ($4.56{\pm}1.53$, p<0.05). Conclusions: Compared with the subcutaneous xenograft model, the orthotopic xenograft model better simulates clinical gallbladder carcinoma in terms of metastasis and invasion, which may be attributed to the difference in microenvironment and LVD.

Preclinical Study of Novel Curcumin Analogue SSC-5 Using Orthotopic Tumor Xenograft Model for Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

  • Tung, Lai Nar;Song, Senchuan;Chan, in Tak;Choi, Mei Yuk;Lam, Ho Yu;Chan, Chung Man;Chen, Zhiyong;Wang, Hector K.;Leung, Hoi Ting;Law, Simon;Huang, Yanmin;Song, Huacan;Lee, Nikki P.
    • Cancer Research and Treatment
    • /
    • v.50 no.4
    • /
    • pp.1362-1377
    • /
    • 2018
  • Purpose Tumor xenograft model is an indispensable animal cancer model. In esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) research, orthotopic tumor xenograft model establishes tumor xenograft in the animal esophagus, which allows the study of tumorigenesis in its native microenvironment. Materials and Methods In this study, we described two simple and reproducible methods to develop tumor xenograft at the cervical or the abdominal esophagus in nude mice by direct injection of ESCC cells in the esophageal wall. Results In comparing these two methods, the cervical one presented with more clinically relevant features, i.e., esophageal stricture, body weight loss and poor survival. In addition, the derived tumor xenografts accompanied a rapid growth rate and a high tendency to invade into the surrounding structures. This model was subsequently used to study the anti-tumor effect of curcumin, which is known for its potential therapeutic effects in various diseases including cancers, and its analogue SSC-5. SSC-5 was selected among the eight newly synthesized curcumin analogues based on its superior anti-tumor effect demonstrated in an MTT cell proliferation assay and its effects on apoptosis induction and cell cycle arrest in cultured ESCC cells. Treatment of orthotopic tumor-bearing mice with SSC-5 resulted in an inhibition in tumor growth and invasion. Conclusion Taken together, we have established a clinically relevant orthotopic tumor xenograft model that can serve as a preclinical tool for screening new anti-tumor compounds, e.g., SSC-5, in ESCC.

Human Tumor Xenograft Models for Preclinical Assessment of Anticancer Drug Development

  • Jung, Joohee
    • Toxicological Research
    • /
    • v.30 no.1
    • /
    • pp.1-5
    • /
    • 2014
  • Xenograft models of human cancer play an important role in the screening and evaluation of candidates for new anticancer agents. The models, which are derived from human tumor cell lines and are classified according to the transplant site, such as ectopic xenograft and orthotopic xenograft, are still utilized to evaluate therapeutic efficacy and toxicity. The metastasis model is modified for the evaluation and prediction of cancer progression. Recently, animal models are made from patient-derived tumor tissue. The patient-derived tumor xenograft models with physiological characters similar to those of patients have been established for personalized medicine. In the discovery of anticancer drugs, standard animal models save time and money and provide evidence to support clinical trials. The current strategy for using xenograft models as an informative tool is introduced.

CXCR4-STAT3 Axis Plays a Role in Tumor Cell Infiltration in an Orthotopic Mouse Glioblastoma Model

  • Han, Ji-hun;Yoon, Jeong Seon;Chang, Da-Young;Cho, Kyung Gi;Lim, Jaejoon;Kim, Sung-Soo;Suh-Kim, Haeyoung
    • Molecules and Cells
    • /
    • v.43 no.6
    • /
    • pp.539-550
    • /
    • 2020
  • Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a fatal malignant tumor that is characterized by diffusive growth of tumor cells into the surrounding brain parenchyma. However, the diffusive nature of GBM and its relationship with the tumor microenvironment (TME) is still unknown. Here, we investigated the interactions of GBM with the surrounding microenvironment in orthotopic xenograft animal models using two human glioma cell lines, U87 and LN229. The GBM cells in our model showed different features on the aspects of cell growth rate during their development, dispersive nature of glioma tumor cells along blood vessels, and invasion into the brain parenchyma. Our results indicated that these differences in the two models are in part due to differences in the expression of CXCR4 and STAT3, both of which play an important role in tumor progression. In addition, the GBM shows considerable accumulation of resident microglia and peripheral macrophages, but polarizes differently into tumor-supporting cells. These results suggest that the intrinsic factors of GBM and their interaction with the TME determine the diffusive nature and probably the responsiveness to non-cancer cells in the TME.

Targeting Orthotopic Glioma in Mice with Genetically Engineered Salmonella typhimurium

  • Wen, Min;Jung, Shin;Moon, Kyung-Sub;Jiang, Shen Nan;Li, Song-Yuan;Min, Jung-Joon
    • Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society
    • /
    • v.55 no.3
    • /
    • pp.131-135
    • /
    • 2014
  • Objective : With the growing interests of bacteria as a targeting vector for cancer treatment, diverse genetically engineered Salmonella has been reported to be capable of targeting primary or metastatic tumor regions after intravenous injection into mouse tumor models. The purpose of this study was to investigate the capability of the genetically engineered Salmonella typhimurium (S. typhimurium) to access the glioma xenograft, which was monitored in mouse brain tumor models using optical bioluminescence imaging technique. Methods : U87 malignant glioma cells (U87-MG) stably transfected with firefly luciferase (Fluc) were implanted into BALB/cAnN nude mice by stereotactic injection into the striatum. After tumor formation, attenuated S. typhimurium expressing bacterial luciferase (Lux) was injected into the tail vein. Bioluminescence signals from transfected cells or bacteria were monitored using a cooled charge-coupled device camera to identify the tumor location or to trace the bacterial migration. Immunofluorescence staining was also performed in frozen sections of mouse glioma xenograft. Results : The injected S. typhimurium exclusively localized in the glioma xenograft region of U87-MG-bearing mouse. Immunofluorescence staining also demonstrated the accumulation of S. typhimurium in the brain tumors. Conclusion : The present study demonstrated that S. typhimurium can target glioma xenograft, and may provide a potentially therapeutic probe for glioma.

Establishment of a [18F]-FDG-PET/MRI Imaging Protocol for Gastric Cancer PDX as a Preclinical Research Tool

  • Bae, Seong-Woo;Berlth, Felix;Jeong, Kyoung-Yun;Suh, Yun-Suhk;Kong, Seong-Ho;Lee, Hyuk-Joon;Kim, Woo Ho;Chung, June-Key;Yang, Han-Kwang
    • Journal of Gastric Cancer
    • /
    • v.20 no.1
    • /
    • pp.60-71
    • /
    • 2020
  • Purpose: The utility of 18-fluordesoxyglucose positron emission tomography ([18F]-FDG-PET) combined with computer tomography or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in gastric cancer remains controversial and a rationale for patient selection is desired. This study aims to establish a preclinical patient-derived xenograft (PDX) based [18F]-FDG-PET/MRI protocol for gastric cancer and compare different PDX models regarding tumor growth and FDG uptake. Materials and Methods: Female BALB/c nu/nu mice were implanted orthotopically and subcutaneously with gastric cancer PDX. [18F]-FDG-PET/MRI scanning protocol evaluation included different tumor sizes, FDG doses, scanning intervals, and organ-specific uptake. FDG avidity of similar PDX cases were compared between ortho- and heterotopic tumor implantation methods. Microscopic and immunohistochemical investigations were performed to confirm tumor growth and correlate the glycolysis markers glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1) and hexokinase 2 (HK2) with FDG uptake. Results: Organ-specific uptake analysis showed specific FDG avidity of the tumor tissue. Standard scanning protocol was determined to include 150 μCi FDG injection dose and scanning after one hour. Comparison of heterotopic and orthotopic implanted mice revealed a long growth interval for orthotopic models with a high uptake in similar PDX tissues. The H-score of GLUT1 and HK2 expression in tumor cells correlated with the measured maximal standardized uptake value values (GLUT1: Pearson r=0.743, P=0.009; HK2: Pearson r=0.605, P=0.049). Conclusions: This preclinical gastric cancer PDX based [18F]-FDG-PET/MRI protocol reveals tumor specific FDG uptake and shows correlation to glucose metabolic proteins. Our findings provide a PET/MRI PDX model that can be applicable for translational gastric cancer research.

The Synergistic Anticancer Effect of Artesunate Combined with Allicin in Osteosarcoma Cell Line in Vitro and in Vivo

  • Jiang, Wei;Huang, Yong;Wang, Jing-Peng;Yu, Xiao-Yun;Zhang, Lin-Yi
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
    • /
    • v.14 no.8
    • /
    • pp.4615-4619
    • /
    • 2013
  • Background: Artesunate, extracted from Artemisia annua, has been proven to have anti-cancer potential. Allicin, diallyl thiosulfinate, the main biologically active compound derived from garlic, is also of interest in cancer treatment research. This object of this report was to document synergistic effects of artesunate combined with allicin on osteosarcoma cell lines in vitro and in vivo. Methods: After treatment with artesunate and allicin at various concentrations, the viability of osteosarcoma cells was analyzed by MTT method, with assessment of invasion and motility, colony formation and apoptosis. Western Blotting was performed to determine the expression of caspase-3/9, and activity was also detected after drug treatment. Moreover, in a nude mouse model established with orthotopic xenograft tumors, tumor weight and volume were monitored after drug administration via the intraperitoneal (i.p.) route. Results: The viability of osteosarcoma cells in the combination group was significantly decreased in a concentration and time dependent manner; moreover, invasion, motility and colony formation ability were significantly suppressed and the apoptotic rate was significantly increased through caspase-3/9 expression and activity enhancement in the combination group. Furthermore, suppression of tumor growth was evident in vivo. Conclusion: Our results indicated that artesunate and allicin in combination exert synergistic effects on osteosarcoma cell proliferation and apoptosis.

Inhibition of Lymphatic Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor in a Murine Model of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma (구강 편평상피세포암 마우스 모델에서 림프관내피 성장인자 수용체의 억제)

  • Kye, Jun-Young;Park, Young-Wook
    • Maxillofacial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
    • /
    • v.33 no.1
    • /
    • pp.1-9
    • /
    • 2011
  • Purpose: Tumor associated angiogenesis and/or lymphangiogenesis are known to be linked by VEGFR signaling pathways. These processes are regulated by several growth factors including VEGFR-2, VEGFR-3. E7080 is an orally active inhibitor of multiple tyrosine kinases including VEGFR-2, 3. Therefore, it was proposed that E7080 may inhibit angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of E7080 in a nude mouse model of OSCC. Methods: KB cells were xenografted into the submucosal tissue of the mouth floor of athymic mice. Seven days after the xenograft, the mice were randomized into 2 groups. E7080 were administered orally to the experimental group once per day. The mice were sacrificed 3 weeks after the treatment. The tumors were examined histopathologically. Immunohistochemical assays with anti- VEGF-C, VEGFR-2, VEGFR-3, phosphorylated VEGFR-2/3 (pVEGFR-2/3), and D2-40 antibodies were then performed. Results: The transplantation of human OSCC tumor cells into the mouth floor resulted in the formation of orthotopic tumors. The experimental (E7080 treatment) group showed a slowly increased tumor volume. Moreover, immunohistochemical staining demonstrated higher levels of VEGF-C, VEGFR-2, VEGFR-3, pVEGFR-2/3 and D2-40 expression in the control group than in the experimental group. Conclusion: These results suggest that E7080 may provide therapeutic benefits in OSCC.

Mechanism of Resistance and Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition of BRAF(V600E) Mutation Thyroid Anaplastic Cancer to BRAF(V600E) Inhibition Through Feedback Activation of EGFR (BRAF(V600E) 돌연변이 갑상선 역형성암에서 BRAF(V600E) 억제에 의한 EGFR 발현 증가가 표적치료에 대한 저항성발현과 상피-간질세포이행과정에 미치는 영향분석)

  • Byeon, Hyung Kwon;Na, Hwi Jung;Yang, Yeon Ju;Park, Jae Hong;Kwon, Hyeong Ju;Chang, Jae Won;Ban, Myung Jin;Kim, Won Shik;Shin, Dong Yeob;Lee, Eun Jig;Koh, Yoon Woo;Choi, Eun Chang
    • Korean Journal of Head & Neck Oncology
    • /
    • v.30 no.2
    • /
    • pp.53-61
    • /
    • 2014
  • Background and Objectives : Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma(ATC) is a rare but highly aggressive thyroid malignancy that is associated with an extremely poor survival despite the best multidisciplinary care. BRAF(V600E) mutation is detected in about a quarter of ATC, but unlike its high treatment response to selective BRAF inhibitor (PLX4032) in metastatic melanoma, the treatment response of ATC is reported to be low. The purpose of this study is to investigate the innate resistance mechanism responsible for this low treatment response to BRAF inhibitor and its effect on epithelial-mesenchymal transition(EMT). Materials and Methods : Two ATP cell lines, 8505C and FRO were selected and treated with PLX4032 and its drug sensitivity and effects on cell migration and EMT were examined and compared. Further investigation on the changes in signals responsible for the different treatment response to PLX4032 was carried out and the same experiment was performed on both orthotopic and ectopic xenograft mouse models. Results : FRO cell line was more sensitive to PLX4032 treatment compared to 8505C cell line. The resistance to BRAF inhibition in 8505C was due to increased expression of EGFR. Effective inhibition of both EGFR and p-AKT was achieved after dual treatment with BRAF inhibitor(PLX4032) and EGFR inhibitor(Erlotinib). Similar results were confirmed on in vivo study. Conclusion : EGFR-mediated reactivation of the PI3K/AKT pathway and MAPK pathway contributes to the relative insensitivity of BRAF(V600E) mutant ATC cells to PLX4032. Dual inhibition of BRAF and EGFR leads to sustained treatment response including cell invasiveness.

Synergistic antitumor activity of a DLL4/VEGF bispecific therapeutic antibody in combination with irinotecan in gastric cancer

  • Kim, Da-Hyun;Lee, Seul;Kang, Hyeok Gu;Park, Hyun-Woo;Lee, Han-Woong;Kim, Dongin;Yoem, Dong-Hoon;Ahn, Jin-Hyung;Ha, Eunsin;You, Weon-Kyoo;Lee, Sang Hoon;Kim, Seok-Jun;Chun, Kyung-Hee
    • BMB Reports
    • /
    • v.53 no.10
    • /
    • pp.533-538
    • /
    • 2020
  • Notch signaling has been identified as a critical pathway in gastric cancer (GC) progression and metastasis, and inhibition of Delta-like ligand 4 (DLL4), a Notch ligand, is suggested as a potent therapeutic approach for GC. Expression of both DLL4 and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2) was similar in the malignant tissues of GC patients. We focused on vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), a known angiogenesis regulator and activator of DLL4. Here, we used ABL001, a DLL4/VEGF bispecific therapeutic antibody, and investigated its therapeutic effect in GC. Treatment with human DLL4 therapeutic antibody (anti-hDLL4) or ABL001 slightly reduced GC cell growth in monolayer culture; however, they significantly inhibited cell growth in 3D-culture, suggesting a reduction in the cancer stem cell population. Treatment with anti-hDLL4 or ABL001 also decreased GC cell migration and invasion. Moreover, the combined treatment of irinotecan with anti-hDLL4 or ABL001 showed synergistic antitumor activity. Both combination treatments further reduced cell growth in 3D-culture as well as cell invasion. Interestingly, the combination treatment of ABL001 with irinotecan synergistically reduced the GC burden in both xenograft and orthotopic mouse models. Collectively, DLL4 inhibition significantly decreased cell motility and stem-like phenotype and the combination treatment of DLL4/VEGF bispecific therapeutic antibody with irinotecan synergistically reduced the GC burden in mouse models. Our data suggest that ABL001 potentially represents a potent agent in GC therapy. Further biochemical and pre-clinical studies are needed for its application in the clinic.