• Title, Summary, Keyword: organophosphate pesticides

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Effects of some organophosphate pesticides on the murine immune system following subchronic exposure 1

  • Moon, Chang-Kiu;Yun, Yeo-Pyo;Lee, Soo-Hwan;Lee, Young-Soon
    • Archives of Pharmacal Research
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    • v.9 no.3
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    • pp.175-181
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    • 1986
  • Four technical grade organophosphate pesticides (Fenitrothion, Fenthion, Dizninon and EPN) were investigated for their effects on the murine immune function. Among the immunotoxicological assay parameters of NIEHS, humoral immune parameter and pathotoxicological indicators were examined in this study. Subchronic exposure of rodents to these pesticides resulted in marked suppression of humoral immune function and moderate histological changes of lymphoid organ any significant alterations of clinical status.

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Study on the Development of Analytical Method (Multi-Pesticide Residue Method) for Organophosphate Pesticides (유기인제 농약 분석 방법 (Multi-Pesticide Residue Method) 개발에 관한 연구)

  • 이봉헌;김우성
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.6 no.2
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    • pp.183-187
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    • 1997
  • Organophosphate pesticides were extracted with 70% acetone and then transferred to dichloromethane. Extracts were applied to open-column chromatography with florisil. The florial extract was analyzed by gas chromatography with nitrogen-phosphorus detector(GC/NPD). Recoveries of the 18 organophosphate pesticides were ranged from 88.7% to 100. 0% for the narrow-bore capillary GC(Ultra-21. The minimum detectable level of this analytical method was 0.019 - 0.035 mg/kg. Sample throughput(extraction, open-column chro- matography, and GC analysts) was decreased considerably (8h per sample).

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Effects of some organophosphate pesticides on the murine immune system following subchronic exposure 2

  • Moon, Chang-Kiu;Yun, Yeo-Pyo;Lee, Soo-Hwan
    • Archives of Pharmacal Research
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    • v.9 no.3
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    • pp.183-187
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    • 1986
  • Some of organophosphate pesticides which are the most heavily used in Korea, were examined for their effects on the murine immune system. Immunotoxicological assay parameters adaopted in this study were Arthus reaction for humoral immunity, delayed type hypersensitivity reaction for cell mediate immunity, carbon clearance for macrophage function and susceptiility to tumor challenge. Subchronic exposure of rodents to the pesticides resulted in the marked suppression of immune functions and enhancement of susceptibility to tumor challenge. Among the pesticides tested (fenitrothion, fenthion, diazinon and EPN), fenitrothion was the most suppressive in Arthus and delayed type hypersensitivity reaction.

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Effect of Steram Distillate from Some Medicinal Plants on Acetylcholinesterase Activity Following Intoxication by Organophosphate Pesticides in Animals (수종 생약 수증기 증류물이 유기인제 농약에 의하여 저해된 Acetylcholinesterase 활성에 미치는 효과)

  • Shin, Kuk-Hyun;Lee, Eun-Bang;Song, Young-Jin;Kim, Oon-Ja
    • Korean Journal of Pharmacognosy
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    • v.23 no.2
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    • pp.106-114
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    • 1992
  • The acute toxicity and the effect of steam distillate obtained from several plant mixtures (G-3) on the reactivation of brain, lung, and blood acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity, and recovery from other toxic symptoms following intoxication by organophosphate pesticides were investigated in mice and mudfish. Administration of G-3 $(50{\sim}100\;ml/kg,\;i.p.)$ immediately or 30 min prior to Diazinon or Sumithion treatments, respectively, resulted in a significant reactivation of AChE activity in brain, lung, and blood, their potencies being almost equipotent to those of 2-PAM, one of well-known antidotes. G-3 itself exhibited almost no acute toxicity even at the highest dose employed, and without effect on the inhibition of hepatic drug metabolism function following organophosphate administrations. G-3 showed a significant diminution of the death rate in mudfish as well as in mice intoxicated by Diazinon.

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Effect of the Application of an Organophosphate Pesticide(Fenitrothion) on Foraging Behavior of Ants

  • Kwon, Tae-Sung
    • Journal of Korean Society of Forest Science
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    • v.99 no.2
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    • pp.179-185
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    • 2010
  • Organophosphate pesticides inhibit cholinesterase. It is likely that application of organophosphate pesticides affect behavior of arthropods. This study aimed to find changes in foraging behavior of ants due to application of fenitrothion, one of the widely used organophosphate pesticides. Foraging activity (FA) of ants was observed using bait cards in a pesticide sprayed pine stand and in an unsprayed stand before and after aerial application of fenitrothion in 2003 and 2004. Ant abundance and species richness of ants were also monitored using pitfall traps during the activity season in 2003 and 2004. There was not a significant decrease in abundance and species richness after the application of fenitrothion. However, FA of an ant, Paratrechina flavipes (Smith), which was abundant enough to be statistically compared, was depressed from 2 hours to 10 days after application of the pesticide. FA was fully recovered at day 14 in 2003, and was partially recovered at day 18 and fully at day 31 in 2004. FA of other ant species also decreased significantly during the FA depression period of P. flavipes. On the bait cards, workers of the species responded dully to baits during the FA depression period. Despite the decline in activity, alertness of P. flavipes to other species did not decrease even during the FA depression period.

A Clinical Study on the Protective Effects of Gamdu-tang on Intoxication of Organophosphate Insecticides (감두탕(甘豆湯)의 농약중독 예방효과에 대한 임상적 연구 (I) - 살충제(유기인제)를 중심으로 -)

  • Jang In-Soo;Kim Gil-Jung;Kim Kweon-Hee;Yu Sung-Ki;An Chul-Ho;Han Il-Soo
    • Journal of Society of Preventive Korean Medicine
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    • v.4 no.2
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    • pp.285-293
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    • 2000
  • Objectives: We have accomplished a clinical research about counteracting the pesticides intoxication using oriental medical method and treatment. And we observed the preventive effect of Gamdu-tang(甘豆湯) to intoxication of Organophosphorus Insecticides. Material and Methods: The subjects were 8 volunteers who were healthy and not taking medications. we observed change of cholinesterase(ChE) activity in serum of them after exposed to pesticides Results and Conclusions : In this study of the preventive effects of Gamdu-tang(甘豆湯) on the intoxication of Organophosphate Insecticides, we evaluated that the decreasing value of ChE activity after spraying insecticides of Gamdu-tang medication group was smaller than non-medication group, but it was less significant(P>0.05 P<0.1). We had a difficult to gather participant in this study, so it's necessary for us to get together more larger group in the next study.

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Biodegradation of Organophosphate Pesticide Using Recombinant Cyanobacteria with Surface- and Intracellular-Expressed Organophosphorus Hydrolase

  • Chungjatupornchai, Wipa;Fa-Aroonsawat, Sirirat
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.18 no.5
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    • pp.946-951
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    • 2008
  • The opd gene, encoding organophosphorus hydrolase (OPH) from Flavobacterium sp. capable of degrading a wide range of organophosphate pesticides, was surface- and intracellular-expressed in Synechococcus PCC7942, a prime example of photoautotrophic cyanobacteria. OPH was displayed on the cyanobacterial cell surface using the truncated ice nucleation protein as an anchoring motif. A minor fraction of OPH was displayed onto the outermost surface of cyanobacterial cells, as verified by immunostaining visualized under confocal laser scanning microscopy and OPH activity analysis; however, a substantial fraction of OPH was buried in the cell wall, as demonstrated by proteinase K and lysozyme treatments. The cyanobacterial outer membrane acts as a substrate (paraoxon) diffusion barrier affecting whole-cell biodegradation efficiency. After freeze-thaw treatment, permeabilized whole cells with intracellular-expressed OPH exhibited 14-fold higher bioconversion efficiency ($V_{max}/K_m$) than that of cells with surface-expressed OPH. As cyanobacteria have simple growth requirements and are inexpensive to maintain, expression of OPH in cyanobacteria may lead to the development of a low-cost and low-maintenance biocatalyst that is useful for detoxification of organophosphate pesticides.

Exposure Level to Organophosphate and Pyrethroid Pesticides and Related Agricultural Factors in Chili and Cucumber Cultivation among Greenhouse and Orchard Farmers (시설 고추와 오이, 과수 재배 농업인의 유기인계 및 피레스로이드 살충제 노출 수준과 관련 농작업 특성)

  • Kim, Shinah;Roh, Sangchul
    • Journal of Environmental Health Sciences
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    • v.43 no.4
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    • pp.280-297
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    • 2017
  • Objectives: We assessed pesticide exposure levels according to cultivation and crop type and investigated agricultural factors related to exposure. Methods: The participants, 341 male and 127 female farmers, were divided into three groups by cultivation crop type: chili greenhouse, cucumber greenhouse, and orchard. We collected questionnaires, socioeconomic characteristics and agricultural factors, and spot urine. Pesticide exposure was examined using four organophosphate and four pyrethroids urinary metabolites: dimethylphosphate, dimethylthiophosphate, diethylphosphate, diethylthiophosphate, Cis and Trans-3-(2-2dichlorovinyl)-2, 2-dimethylcyclopropane carboxylic acid, 3-phenoxybenzoic acid (3-PBA), Cis-3-(2-2dibrmovinyl)-2, and 2-dimethylcyclopropane carboxylic acid. Each metabolite was summed ${\Sigma}DAP$ and ${\Sigma}PY$ according to the chemical class. Results: Urinary metabolite detection rates and concentrations were similar between the greenhouse groups, but the orchard group was different. Similar 3-PBA detection rates were found in the three groups, but the geometric mean was very high in the orchard group compared to the two greenhouse groups. 3-PBA concentration in the orchard group was $4.11{\mu}g/g$ creatinine; the chili and cucumber greenhouse groups were 1.27 and $1.16{\mu}g/g$ creatinine, respectively. ${\Sigma}DAP$ was significantly associated with cultivation crop type and seasonal variation, but ${\Sigma}PY$ was not relevant. Conclusions: Our results suggest that cultivation and crop type may be correlated with different pesticide types and exposure levels. Furthermore, seasonal factors were related as potential factors influencing the level of organophosphate metabolites, but not for pyrethroid metabolites.

The Effect of Hemoperfusion on Plasma Concentration of Toxins in Acute Pesticide Poisoned Patients (살충제 중독환자에서 혈액관류가 혈중 살충제 농도에 미치는 영향)

  • Gil Hyo-Wook;Yang Jong-Oh;Lee Eun-Yong;Hong Sae-Yong
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Clinical Toxicology
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    • v.4 no.1
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    • pp.1-6
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    • 2006
  • Purpose: Hemoperfusion is an effective modality of extracorporeal elimination of toxins in acutely poisoned patients. We evaluated the effect of hemoperfusion on plasma concentration of toxins in patients exposed to certain pesticides. Methods: Eleven patients who were acutely exposed to pesticides participated in our study. We measured plasma pesticide concentration from the whole blood obtained by arterial and venous sources by gas chromatography. Results: The plasma concentrations of only 3 patients was measured. Methidation clearance by hemoperfusion was 82.2%, fenitrothion was 23%, and endosulfan was 0% Conclusion: Measurement of plasma organophosphate concentration is not a practical application. Our results suggest that hemoperfusion is applicable in patients with pesticide intoxication according to clinical status.

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De-novo Hybrid Protein Design for Biodegradation of Organophosphate Pesticides

  • Awasthi, Garima;Yadav, Ruchi;Srivastava, Prachi
    • Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters
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    • v.47 no.2
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    • pp.278-288
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    • 2019
  • In the present investigation, we attempted to design a protocol to develop a hybrid protein with better bioremediation capacity. Using in silico approaches, a Hybrid Open Reading Frame (Hybrid ORF) is developed targeting the genes of microorganisms known for degradation of organophosphates. Out of 21 genes identified through BLAST search, 8 structurally similar genes (opdA, opd, opaA, pte RO, pdeA, parC, mpd and phnE) involved in biodegradation were screened. Gene conservational analysis categorizes these organophosphates degrading 8 genes into 4 super families i.e., Metallo-dependent hydrolases, Lactamase B, MPP and TM_PBP2 superfamily. Hybrid protein structure was modeled using multi-template homology modeling (3S07_A; 99%, 1P9E_A; 98%, 2ZO9_B; 33%, 2DXL_A; 33%) by $Schr{\ddot{o}}dinger$ software suit version 10.4.018. Structural verification of protein models was done using Ramachandran plot, it was showing 96.0% residue in the favored region, which was verified using RAMPAGE. The phosphotriesterase protein was showing the highest structural similarity with hybrid protein having raw score 984. The 5 binding sites of hybrid protein were identified through binding site prediction. The docking study shows that hybrid protein potentially interacts with 10 different organophosphates. The study results indicate that the hybrid protein designed has the capability of degrading a wide range of organophosphate compounds.