• Title, Summary, Keyword: organic acids

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Influence of organic acids and heat treatment on ginsenoside conversion

  • Jang, Gwi Yeong;Kim, Min Young;Lee, Yoon Jeong;Li, Meishan;Shin, Yu Su;Lee, Junsoo;Jeong, Heon Sang
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.42 no.4
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    • pp.532-539
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    • 2018
  • Background: Heat treatments are applied to ginseng products in order to improve physiological activities through the conversion of ginsenosides, which are key bioactive components. During heat treatment, organic acids can affect ginsenoside conversion. Therefore, the influence of organic acids during heat treatment should be considered. Methods: Raw ginseng, crude saponin, and ginsenoside $Rb_1$ standard with different organic acids were treated at $130^{\circ}C$, and the chemical components, including ginsenosides and organic acids, were analyzed. Results: The organic acid content in raw ginseng was 5.55%. Organic acids were not detected in crude saponin that was not subjected to heat treatment, whereas organic acids were found in crude saponin subjected to heat treatment. Major ginsenosides ($Rb_1$, Re, and $Rg_1$) in ginseng and crude saponin were converted to minor ginsenosides at $130^{\circ}C$; the ginsenoside $Rb_1$ standard was very stable in the absence of organic acids and was converted into minor ginsenosides in the presence of organic acids at high temperatures. Conclusion: The major factor affecting ginsenoside conversion was organic acids in ginseng. Therefore, the organic acid content as well as ginsenoside content and processing conditions should be considered important factors affecting the quality of ginseng products.

Chemical Characterization of Water-Soluble Organic Acids in Size-Segregated Particles at a Suburban Site in Saitama, Japan

  • Bao, Linfa;Sakamoto, Kazuhiko
    • Asian Journal of Atmospheric Environment
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    • v.3 no.1
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    • pp.42-51
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    • 2009
  • Saturated n-dicarboxylic acids ($C_2-C_7$, $C_9$), unsaturated dicarboxylic acids (maleic, fumaric, phthalic acid), ketocarboxylic acids (pyruvic, glyoxylic acid), and dicarbonyls (glyoxal, methylglyoxal) were determined in size-segregated samples with a high-volume Andersen air sampler at a suburban site in Saitama, Japan, May 12-17 and July 24-27, 2007 and January 22-31, 2008. The seasonal average concentrations of these detected organic acids were 670 $ng/m^3$, accounting for about 4.4-5.7% (C/C) of water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) and 2.3-3.6% (C/C) of organic carbon (OC). The most abundant species of dicarboxylic acids was oxalic acid, followed by malonic, phthalic, or succinic acids. Glyoxylic acid and methyglyoxal were most abundant ketocarboxylic acid and dicarbonyl, respectively. Seasonal differences, size-segregated concentrations, and the correlations of these acids with ambient temperatures, oxidants, elemental carbon (EC), OC, WSOC, and ionic components were also discussed in terms of their corresponding sources and possible secondary formation pathways. The results suggested that photochemical reactions contributed more to the formation of particulate organic acids in Saitama suburban areas than did direct emissions from anthropogenic and natural sources. However, direct emissions of vehicles were also important sources of several organic acids in particles, such as phthalic and adipic acids, especially in winter.

Effect of Organic Acids on Cr(III) Oxidation by Mn-oxide

  • Chung, Jong-Bae
    • Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.41 no.4
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    • pp.241-245
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    • 1998
  • Two oxidation states of chromium commonly occur in natural soil/water systems, Cr(III) and Cr(VI). The oxidized form, Cr(VI), exists as the chromate ion and is more mobile and toxic than Cr(III). Therefore oxidation of Cr(III) by various Mn-oxides in natural systems is a very important environmental concern. Organic substances can inhibit the Cr(III) oxidation by binding, Cr(III) strongly and also by dissolving Mn-oxides. Most of Cr(III) oxidation studies were carried out using in vitro systems without organic substances which exist in natural soil/water systems. In this study effect of organic acids - oxalate and pyruvate - on Cr(III) oxidation by $birnessite({\delta}-MnO_2)$ was examined. The two organic acids significantly inhibited Cr(III) oxidation by birnessite. Oxalate showed more significant inhibition than pyruvate. As solution pH was lowered in the range of 3.0 to 5.0, the Cr(III) oxidation was more strongly depressed. Addition of more organic acids reduced the Cr(III) oxidation mare extensively. Different inhibition effects by the organic acids could be due to their ability of reductive dissolution of Mn-oxides and/or Cr(III) binding. Organic acids dissolved Mn-oxide during the Cr(III) oxidation by the oxide, Dissolution by oxalic acid was much greater than that by pyruvate, and the dissolution was more extensive at lower pH. Inhibition of Cr(III) oxidation was parallel to the dissolution of Mn-oxide by organic acids. Although the effect of Cr(III) binding by organic acids on Cr(III) oxidation is not known yet, Mn-oxide dissolution by organic acids could be a main reason for the inhibition of Cr(III) oxidation by Mn-oxide in presence of organic acids. Thus oxidation of Cr(III) to Cr(VI) by various Mn-oxides in natural systems could be much less than the oxidation estimated by in vitro studies with only Cr(III) and Mn-oxides.

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Gas Chromatographic Analysis of Organic Acids in Seeds of Clerodendron trichotomum and Lindera obtusiloba.

  • Kim, Kyoung-Rae;Dong, Suk-Won;Kim, Jung-Han;Sim, Kyoung-Ku;Ha, Yu-Mi
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Applied Pharmacology
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    • pp.169-169
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    • 1996
  • Seeds of Clerodendron trichotomum and Lindera obtusiloba were screened for organic acids. Free organic acids were solid-phase extracted using Chromosorb P from aqueous extract of the seed powder. Organic acids were then converted to tert.-buthldimethylsilyl derivatives with subsequent analysis by dual-capillary gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. More than twenty organic acids were tentatively identified.

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The Effect of Salt Concentrations on the Production of Volatile Organic Acids by Zygosaccharomyces rouxii, a Soy Sauce Yeast (간장에서 분리한 Zygosaccharomyces rouxii의 휘발성 유기산 생성에 미치는 식염농도의 영향)

  • 권동진;하덕모
    • Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters
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    • v.22 no.2
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    • pp.120-125
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    • 1994
  • By using a synthetic medium simulated on the amino acid composition of soybeam, the effect of salt concentrations on the production of volatile organic acid by the strains of Zygosaccharomyces rouxii So-3101, a soy sauce yeast, was studied at the concentrations of 12.5, 18.0, 22.0 and 28.5% NaCl. The growth, consumption of glucose, and production of alcohol, total acid and volatile organic acid, showed the highest values at a concentration of 12.5% NaCl, and those values were decreased with an increase in the salt concentration. The ratio of volatile organic acid to total organic acid was remained at approximately the same level within the range of salt concentrations between 12.5~22.0%, whereas the ratio was decreased at a salt concentration of 28.5%. After incubation for 16 days, 8 volatile organic acids, i.e. acetic, propionic, n-butyric, isobutyric, isovaleric, isocaproic, n-caproic, and heptanoic acids, were detected by gas chromatography. Among the volatile organic acids, acetic acid was produced in the appreciable amiunt and its ratio to the other volatile acids was increased with an increase in the salt concentration.A small amount of isocaproic, propionic, isobutyric and isovaleric acids were produced, and n-caproic, n-butyric and heptanoic acids were detected only at the lower salt concentration.

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Determination of Organic Acids in Tobacco Leaves by HPLC (HPLC를 이용한 잎담배 중 유기산 함량 분석)

  • Min, Hye-Jeong;Jang, Seok-Su;Kim, Ick-Joong;Shin, Jun-Won;Kim, Yong-Ha;Min, Young-Keun
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Tobacco Science
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    • v.28 no.2
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    • pp.130-135
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    • 2006
  • This study was carried out to improve the analytical methods for determination of organic acids in tobacco leaf by HPLC. The samples for HPLC analysis were pre-treated by means of SPE. The calibration curve for each acid was linear and $R^2$ values ranged from 0.9990 to 1.0000. The limit of detection were obtained from the calibration curves and their values were between 1.39 to $4.87{\mu}g/mL$. Recovery rates of organic acids were between 88.6 % to 98.5 %. The concentrations of organic acids among the various tobacco leaves were compared to the concentration of organic acids, were in the order oriental, burley, flue-cured tobacco. In the case of flue-cured and oriental tobacco leaves, the order of concentration of organic acids was malic acid, oxalic acid, citric acid. But in the case of burley tobacco leaves, the order of concentration of organic acids was citric acid, oxalic acid, malic acid.

Effect of Temperature on the Production of Free Organic Acids during Kimchi Fermentation

  • Park, Young-Sik;Ko, Chang-Young;Ha, Duk-Mo
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.3 no.4
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    • pp.266-269
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    • 1993
  • The production of free non-volatile and volatile organic acids in Kimchi during fermentations at 30, 20 and $5^{\circ}C$, were determined by gas chromatography. The order in the amount of non-volatile organic acid, soon after preparation, was malic, citric, tartaric, pyroglutamic, oxalic, lactic, succinic and ${\alpha}-ketoglutaric$ acids. The major non-volatile acids at the optimum ripening time were malic, tartaric, citric and lactic acids, and as the temperature was lowered, the amount of lactic, succinic, oxalic, pyroglutamic and fumaric acids increased, while that of malic and tartaric acids decreased. The order in the amount of volatile acids at the beginning was acetic, butyric, propionic and formic acids. Among these acids, acetic acid was significantly increased in its amount during fermentation and the Kimchi fermented at low temperature produced more acetic acid than that fermented at high temperature.

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Composition of Fatty Acid and Organic Acid in Acanthopanax (오가피(五加皮)의 지방산(脂肪酸) 및 유기산(有機酸) 조성(組成))

  • Shin, Eung-Tae;Kim, Chang-Sik
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.17 no.5
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    • pp.403-405
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    • 1985
  • The composition of fatty acids and organic acids in the fruits, stems, and roots of Acanthopanax were studied. The major fatty acids in the fruits, stems and roots were oleic, linoleic and palmitic acids and these composed about 86-98% of total fatty acids. However, there are great differences in content of the major fatty acids between varieties and each parts. Citric, malefic, succinic, malonic, fumaric and malic acids were identified in the fruits. Malic acid was the predaminant organic acid. There are great differences in individual content of the organic acids between varieties and each parts. Malonic and malefic acids were not detected in the stems and roots, respectively. Citric acid was most abundant organic acid parts. Total organic acid content in roots was very low compared to that of fruits and stems.

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The Changes of Non-Volatile Organic Acids in Low Salt Fermented Squid Affected by Adding to Squid Ink (오징어 먹즙 첨가에 따른 저염 오징어 젓갈의 비휘발성 유기산 변화)

  • Oh, Sung-Cheon;Cho, Jung-Soon
    • Journal of the Korean Applied Science and Technology
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    • v.20 no.1
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    • pp.64-71
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    • 2003
  • Squid ink was added to the low salt fermented squid by 4% of concentration and ripened at 10$^{\cric}C$ for 6 weeks and at 20$^{\cric}C$ for 28 days. The effect of the squid ink on the non-volatile organic acids of low salt fermented squid were investigated. The results are as follows; The non-volatile organic acid in the salt fermented squid without addition of the squid ink was examined and the result showed that lactic and acetic acids were the major organic acids even if very small amount of citric and oxalic acids were detected. In the squid ink added to the low salt fermented squid, total quantity of non-volatile organic acid in the latter part of the ripening was lower than no treatment groups.

Effect of Organic Acids on Growth and Heat Resistance of Listeria monocytogenes Scott A (Listeria monocytogenes Scott A 의 성장과 열저항성에 미치는 유기산의 영향)

  • 이신호;조현순;김순희
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.23 no.2
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    • pp.293-297
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    • 1994
  • The effect of organic acids on growth and heat resistance of Listeria monocytogenes Scott A were investigated. The growth of L. monocytogenes was inhibited in Tryptic Soy Broth(TSB) with 0.1 or 0.2% of acetic , tartic , propionic , citric and lactic acid at 35$^{\circ}C$, respectively. The growth of l. Monocytogenes did not occur in TSB with 0.2% of acetic acid or propionic acid during 48h of incubation. The heat resistance of L.monocytogenes was affected by kind of organic acid, ph and heating substrate. L.monocytogenes showed more heat resistant in TSB with various organic acids than in 0.1M sodium phosphate with the same organic acids. Heat resistance decreased as pH of heating substrate decreased . Surface-adherent microcolony was more heat resistant than planktonic cell of L. monocytogenes. Propionic and lactic acids more affected on heat resistance of L.monocytogenes than acetic , tartaric and citric acids.

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