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Comparative Evaluation of Dietary Intakes of Calcium, Phosphorus, Iron, and Zinc in Rural, Coastal, and Urban District (농촌, 어촌, 도시 지역별 칼슘, 인, 철, 아연의 섭취상태 비교평가)

  • Choi, Mi-Kyeong;Kim, Hyun-Sook;Lee, Won-Young;Lee, Hyomin;Ze, Keum-Ryon;Park, Jung-Duck
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.34 no.5
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    • pp.659-666
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    • 2005
  • The purpose of this study was to compare the intake status of calcium, phosphorus, iron, and zinc of Korean adults residing in different regions. Subjects were recruited and divided into three groups according to the districts where they lived, which included rural (n=137), coastal (n=100), and urban district (n=117). Subjects were interviewed using a general questionnaire and 24-hour recall method for dietary intake. The average age of the subjects were 58.1 years for rural district, 57.7 years for coastal district, and 48.6 years for urban district. There was no significance in total food intake by regions. The food intakes from cereals, mushrooms, vegetables of rural district, that from fishes of coastal district, and those from sugars, milks, oils of urban area were the highest among three districts. The calcium, phosphorus, iron, and zinc intakes were $60.1\%,\;123.9\%,\;95.2\%,\;and\;73.1\%$ of RDAs, respectively. The calcium intakes as percentage of RDA in rural and coastal district were significantly (p<0.01) lower than that in urban district. A larger number of subjects from coastal or urban district ate under $75\%$ of zinc RDA compared to those from rural village. Major sources of dietary calcium in total subjects were anchovy, kimchi, milk, soybean curd, rice, ice cream, sea mustard, yogurt, loach, and welsh onion. Rice supplied $15.5\%$ for phosphorus, $22.1\%$ for iron, and $35.9\%$ for zinc of total intake. Except for rice, major sources of dietary zinc were pork, beef, small red bean, dog meat, chicken, jacopever, soybean curd, glutinous millet, and kimchi. In conclusion, the food and mineral intakes of adults differed according to the regions in which they resided. The food and nutrient intakes of coastal district were not satisfactory, and calcium and zinc intakes of three regions did not meet RDAs. Therefore, it is required unique and discriminatory nutritional education with each region for increasing intakes of calcium and zinc.

Standardization of Manufacturing Method and Lactic Acid Bacteria Growth and CO2 Levels of Nabak Kimchi at Different Fermentation Temperatures (나박김치의 제조 표준화 및 발효온도별 젖산균의 생육과 CO2 생성)

  • Kong, Chang-Suk;Seo, Jung-Ok;Bak, Soon-Sun;Rhee, Sook-Hee;Park, Kun-Young
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.34 no.5
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    • pp.707-714
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    • 2005
  • Ingredient ratio for making nabak kimchi and the manufacturing method were standardized from the available literatures. Fermentation properties and $CO_2$ production of the nabak kimchi were investigated during the fermentation at $5^{\circ}C,\;10^{\circ}C,\;and\;20^{\circ}C$. Standardized ingredients ratio of nabak kimchi that added 100 mL of water was as follows: 45.0 g baechu cabbage, 26.9 g radish, 1.9 g green onion, 1.0 g red pepper, 1.2 g crushed garlic, 0.9 g crushed ginger, 0.7 g red pepper powder. The standardized manufacturing method of nabak kimchi was as follows: washing ingredients, cutting radish and baechu cabbage $(2.5\times2.5\times0.5\;cm)$, salting for 20 min, washing and draining, pretreatment of ingredients, dissolving red pepper powder in water, blending, mixing, and adding the water to the mixed ingredients. Fermentations at $5^{\circ}C$ for 8 days, at $10^{\circ}C$ for 3 days, and at $20^{\circ}C$ for 1 day led to the acidity levels of $0.21\%,\;0.20\%,\;and\;0.31\%$, respectively. From the relationships between optimally ripened pH and acidity, nabak kimchi showed lower acidity of $0.20\~0.25\%$ with pH $4.2\~4.5.$ Like other kinds of kimchi, the Levels of Leuconostoc sp. were high specially at later stage of fermentation at low temperature $(5^{\circ}C)$. However, the levels of Lactobacillus sp. were low at $5^{\circ}C$. Nabak kimchi produced high levels of $CO_2$ in the initial fermentation period and followed by rapid decrease of $CO_2$ production with the fermentation. From the relationships between pH and $CO_2$ content, the highest $CO_2$ contents were found pH $4.0\~4.4$, 3.8 and 3.4 at $5^{\circ}C,\;10^{\circ}C$, and $20^{\circ}C$, respectively. This fact indicated that fermentation at $5^{\circ}C$ has the highest $CO_2$ content at optimally ripened pH of 4.3 and the fermentation at lower temperature such as $5^{\circ}C$ could extend the eatable time of nabak kimchi.

Application for Identification of Food Raw Materials by PCR using Universal Primer (일반 프라이머를 이용한 PCR의 식품원료 진위 판별에 적용)

  • Park, Yong-Chjun;Jin, Sang-Ook;Lim, Ji-Young;Kim, Kyu-Heon;Lee, Jae-Hwang;Cho, Tae-Yong;Lee, Hwa-Jung;Han, Sang-Bae;Lee, Sang-Jae;Lee, Kwang-Ho;Yoon, Hae-Seong
    • Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety
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    • v.27 no.3
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    • pp.317-324
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    • 2012
  • In order to determine an authenticity of food ingredient, we used DNA barcode method by universal primers. For identification of animal food ingredients, LCO1490/HCO2198 and VF2/FISH R2 designed for amplifying cytochrome c oxidase subunit1 (CO1) region and L14724/H15915 for cytochrome b (cyt b) region on mitochondrial DNA were used. Livestock (cow, pig, goat, sheep, a horse and deer) was amplified by LCO1490/HCO 2198, VF2/FISH R2 and L14724/H15915 primers. Poultry (chicken, duck, turkey and ostrich) was amplified by LCO1490/HCO 2198 and VF2/FISH R2 primers. But, Fishes (walleye pollack, herring, codfish, blue codfish, trout, tuna and rockfish) were only amplified by VF2/FISH R2 primers. For plant food ingredients, 3 types of primers (trnH/psbA, rpoB 1F/4R and rbcL 1F/724R) have been used an intergenic spacer, a RNA polymerase beta subunit and a ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase region on plastid, respectively. Garlic, onion, radish, green tea and spinach were amplified by trnH/psbA, rpoB 1F/4R and rbcL 1F/724R. The PCR product sizes were same by rpoB 1F/4R and rbcL 1F/724R but, the PCR product size using trnH/psbA primer was different with others for plants each. We established PCR condition and universal primer selection for 17 item's raw materials for foods and determine base sequences aim to PCR products in this study. This study can apply to determine an authenticity of foods through making an comparison between databases and base sequences in gene bank. Therefore, DNA barcode method using universal primers can be a useful for species identification techniques not only raw materials but also processed foods that are difficult to analyze by chemical analysis.