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Call for a Computer-Aided Cancer Detection and Classification Research Initiative in Oman

  • Mirzal, Andri;Chaudhry, Shafique Ahmad
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.17 no.5
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    • pp.2375-2382
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    • 2016
  • Cancer is a major health problem in Oman. It is reported that cancer incidence in Oman is the second highest after Saudi Arabia among Gulf Cooperation Council countries. Based on GLOBOCAN estimates, Oman is predicted to face an almost two-fold increase in cancer incidence in the period 2008-2020. However, cancer research in Oman is still in its infancy. This is due to the fact that medical institutions and infrastructure that play central roles in data collection and analysis are relatively new developments in Oman. We believe the country requires an organized plan and efforts to promote local cancer research. In this paper, we discuss current research progress in cancer diagnosis using machine learning techniques to optimize computer aided cancer detection and classification (CAD). We specifically discuss CAD using two major medical data, i.e., medical imaging and microarray gene expression profiling, because medical imaging like mammography, MRI, and PET have been widely used in Oman for assisting radiologists in early cancer diagnosis and microarray data have been proven to be a reliable source for differential diagnosis. We also discuss future cancer research directions and benefits to Oman economy for entering the cancer research and treatment business as it is a multi-billion dollar industry worldwide.

English Discourse of Tourism: An Example of Oman

  • TUZLUKOVA, Victoria;AL-MAHROOQI, Rahma
    • Cross-Cultural Studies
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    • v.24
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    • pp.184-195
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    • 2011
  • Acknowledging the importance of English as the language of tourism discourse, this paper explores its current standing in the landscape of tourism in Oman. It also investigates its features and functions aimed at promoting the country as a wonderful tourist destination to people around the globe and framing tourism as a customer-oriented industry that meets tourists' interests and needs. To convey these messages the authors examine English tourism discourse in Oman from linguistic, pragmatic and socio-cultural perspectives.

Chemical Control of Leaf Spot of Date Palm (Phoenix dactylifera) in Sultanate of Oman

  • Livingston, Sam;Mufargi, Khamis-Al;Sunkeli, Mehmood-Al
    • The Plant Pathology Journal
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    • v.18 no.3
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    • pp.165-167
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    • 2002
  • Date palm (Phoenix dactylifera) is an important fruit and cash crop in Sultanate of Oman, occupying nearly 60% of the total cultivated area. However, leaf spots caused by Mycosphaerella tassiana, Alternaria spp., and Dreshcleri sp. have become a threat to date palm's cultivation in recent years. In this study, a field experiment was conducted to find out a suitable chemical spray program to control the disease. A prophylactic spray schedule with mancozeb (Dithane M45), copper oxychloride (Champion), and mancozeb+copper (Trimiltox) effectively controlled the disease when applied at a time when the disease severity index (DSI) was low, ranging from 0 to 1.68. Meanwhile, the disease did not decrease, but instead increased gradually, when the fungicide combination was applied when DSI was high, ranging from 1.78 to 5.37. It was concluded that fungicides should be applied at the early stage or before disease initiation in order to control the disease effectively.

Microbial Consortia in Oman Oil Fields: A Possible Use in Enhanced Oil Recovery

  • Al-Bahry, Saif N.;Elsahfie, Abdulkader E.;Al-Wahaibi, Yahya M.;Al-Bimani, Ali S.;Joshi, Sanket J.;Al-Maaini, Ratiba A.;Al-Alawai, Wafa J.;Sugai, Yuichi;Al-Mandhari, Mussalam
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.23 no.1
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    • pp.106-117
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    • 2013
  • Microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) is one of the most economical and efficient methods for extending the life of production wells in a declining reservoir. Microbial consortia from Wafra oil wells and Suwaihat production water, Al-Wusta region, Oman were screened. Microbial consortia in brine samples were identified using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and 16S rRNA gene sequences. The detected microbial consortia of Wafra oil wells were completely different from microbial consortia of Suwaihat formation water. A total of 33 genera and 58 species were identified in Wafra oil wells and Suwaihat production water. All of the identified microbial genera were first reported in Oman, with Caminicella sporogenes for the first time reported from oil fields. Most of the identified microorganisms were found to be anaerobic, thermophilic, and halophilic, and produced biogases, biosolvants, and biosurfactants as by-products, which may be good candidates for MEOR.

High Occurrence of Non-Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma in Oman

  • Venniyoor, Ajit;Essam, Abdul Monem;Ramadhan, Fatma;Keswani, Heeranand;Mehdi, Itrat;Bahrani, Bassim Al
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.17 no.6
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    • pp.2801-2804
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    • 2016
  • It is conventionally accepted that renal cell carcinoma (RCC) occurs in older patients and the clear cell type is the most common histology. However, ethnic variations exist and this study was carried out to determine the epidemiological pattern of RCC in Oman. Ninety RCC patients who presented to a tertiary care center in the Sultanate of Oman from 2010 to 2014 were studied. The main findings were that the median age of presentation was low, more patients presented with localized stage, and there was a higher incidence of non-clear (especially papillary) histology. Data from other Gulf countries and possible reasons for the different profile are discussed.

Prevalence of diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis among elderly subjects referred for radiological investigation in tertiary hospital at Oman

  • Sirasanagandla, Srinivasa Rao;Al Dhuhli, Humoud;Al Abri, Ahmed;Salmi, Ahmed;Jayapal, Sathish Kumar;Sara, Crosetto;Jaju, Sanjay
    • Anatomy and Cell Biology
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    • v.51 no.3
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    • pp.174-179
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    • 2018
  • Diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH) is characterized by calcification of different entheseal sites including the anterior longitudinal ligament of the spine. There is no documented information about DISH in Oman. This study determined the prevalence of DISH and associated factors among elderly subjects in a national tertiary care referral hospital in Oman. This retrospective study reviewed chest X-rays of all patients aged more than 50 years, referred to the radiology department of Sultan Qaboos University Hospital in the year 2016, based on the Resnick's criteria. The prevalence was expressed as proportions across age groups and sex. Chi-square test and logistic regression analysis was done to determine the association of the age and sex with DISH. A total of 1305 chest X-rays of patients were reviewed. The overall prevalence of DISH was 10%, with male to female ratio of 1.56:1. The odds ratio for males and increasing age were 1.63 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.12-2.3; P<0.05) and 1.34 (95% CI, 1.14-1.58; P<0.001) respectively. The prevalence increased with age to maximum of 13% in the age group of ${\leq}80$. The pre-stage DISH prevalence was 9.3% and more frequently observed among males. Prevalence of DISH in the national tertiary care referral center in Oman is lower than in Jewish population, almost similar to Japanese, but higher than in Koreans. DISH prevalence is positively associated with age and sex. It is necessary to take appropriate precautionary measures to target the ageing population in Oman, especially elderly males.

Legal Deposit in the Sultanate of Oman: The Law of Printing and Publishing and its Role in Building Oman's Culture of Democracy

  • Saleem, Naifa Eid;Al Kindi, Abdullah Khamis;Ai-Rahbi, Khalifa
    • International Journal of Knowledge Content Development & Technology
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    • v.7 no.1
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    • pp.23-55
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    • 2017
  • Omani citizens participate in building the culture of democracy through the implementation of the legal deposit or the Law of Printing and Publishing. Legal deposit is the law that requires individuals and agencies who are responsible for printing and applying the law in Oman, whether they are publishers, printing houses or authors, to submit certain copies of their work or publications to a repository, usually a library. The present study aims to explore the reality of the Omani Law of Printing and Publishing and discover how the law defines the term "publications". In addition to the role of this law in building the Omani culture of democracy, the study uses an interpretive research paradigm of applied unstructured interviews and content analysis. Twenty-four printing houses were interviewed. The findings determined that definition of the term "publications", according to the law, is very general and covers different items, and the Law of Printing and Publishing plays an essential role in the building of Oman's culture of democracy. The study also found that all of the printing houses interviewed participated in creating the Omani culture by depositing the requested copies of their publications, although four of them had negative beliefs about the law of "Printing and Publishing". In addition, the study found (19=79.1%) of the sample interpreted the term "culture of democracy" in a positive way.

Colorectal Cancer Patient Characteristics, Treatment and Survival in Oman - a Single Center Study

  • Kumar, Shiyam;Burney, Ikram A;Zahid, Khawaja Farhan;Souza, Philomena Charlotte D;Belushi, Muna AL;Mufti, Taha Dawood;Meki, Waeil AL;Furrukh, Muhammad;Moundhri, Mansour S AL
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.12
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    • pp.4853-4858
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    • 2015
  • Background: Colorectal cancer is the most common gastrointestinal cancer in Oman with an increasing incidence. We here report the presenting features, treatment outcomes and survival in a University hospital in Oman and compare our data with regional and international studies. Materials and Methods: Medical records of patients with colorectal cancer were reviewed retrospectively between June 2000 and December 2013 and were followed until June 2014. Results: A total of 162 patients were diagnosed with colorectal cancer. The majority were males (58.6%), with a median age of 56 years. Rectum was involved in 29.6% of patients, followed by ascending and sigmoid colon. The majority of patients had stage III (42.6%) and stage IV (32.7%) disease at presentation. K-Ras status was checked for 79 patients, and 41 (51.9%) featured the wild type. Median relapse free survival was 22 months. Median overall survival for all patients was 43 months. Observed 5 year overall survival (OS) for stages I, II and III was 100%, 60% and 60% respectively. On Log rank univariate analysis, age, BMI, diabetes, hypertension, metformin use, stage, clinical nodal status for rectal cancer, pathological T and nodal status, site of metastasis, surgical intervention, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, chemotherapy regimen, no of cycles of chemotherapy, response, RFS, site of recurrence and administration of $2^{nd}$ line chemotherapy were significant factors affecting OS. On Cox regression multivariate analysis none of the factors independently affected the OS. Conclusions: The majority of patients present with advanced disease and at young age. The survival rates are comparable to the published regional and international literature.

Awareness of Risk Factors for Cancer among Omani adults- A Community Based Study

  • Al-Azri, Mohammed;AL-Rasbi, Khadija;Al-Hinai, Mustafa;Davidson, Robin;Al-Maniri, Abdullah
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.13
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    • pp.5401-5406
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    • 2014
  • Background: Cancer is the leading cause of mortality around the world. However, the majority of cancers occur as a result of modifiable risk factors; hence public awareness of cancer risk factors is crucial to reduce the incidence. The objective of this study was to identify the level of public awareness of cancer risk factors among the adult Omani population. Materials and Methods: A community based survey using the Cancer Awareness Measure (CAM) questionnaire was conducted in three areas of Oman to measure public awareness of cancer risk factors. Omani adults aged 18 years and above were invited to participate in the study. SPPSS (ver.20) was used to analyse the data. Results: A total of 384 participated from 500 invited individuals (response rate =77%). The majority of respondents agreed that smoking cigarettes (320, 83.3%), passive smoking (279, 72.7%) and excessive drinking of alcohol (265, 69%) are risks factors for cancer. However, fewer respondents agreed that eating less fruit and vegetables (83, 21.6%), eating more red or processed meat (116, 30.2%), being overweight (BMI> 25) (123, 32%), doing less physical exercise (119, 31%), being over 70 years old (72, 18.8%), having a close relative with cancer (134, 34.9%), infection with human papilloma virus (HPV) (117, 30.5%) and getting frequent sunburn during childhood (149, 38.8%) are risk factors for cancer. A significant association was found between participant responses and their educational level. The higher the educational level, the more likely that respondents identified cancer risk factors including smoking (p<0.0005), passive smoking (p= 0.007), excessive drinking of alcohol (p<0.0005), eating less fruit and vegetables (p= 0.001) and infection with HPV (p<0.0005). Conclusions: The majority of respondents in this study in Oman were not aware of the common risk factors for cancer. It may be possible to reduce the incidence of cancers in Oman by developing strategies to educate the public about these risk factors.