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The Efficacy of Recombinant Human Follicle Stimulating Hormone (rhFSH) in Human IVF-ET Program (체외수정시술시 유전자 재조합 난포자극호르몬제의 효용성)

  • Han, Kuk-Sun;Lee, Hong-Bok;Song, In-Ok;Park, Yong-Seog;Byun, Hye-Kyung;Jun, Jin-Hyun;Koong, Mi-Kyoung
    • Clinical and Experimental Reproductive Medicine
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    • v.29 no.1
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    • pp.45-56
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    • 2002
  • Objectives: Recently, recombinant FSH (rFSH) has been manufactured using a Chinese hamster ovary cell line transfected with the gene encoding human FSH. Both rFSH and urinary gonadotropin (uFSH) could be used for controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (COH). However, uFSH implies a number of disadvantages, such as batch-to-batch inconsistency, no absolute source control, dependence on large amounts of urine, low specific activity, and low purity. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of rFSH in human IVF-ET program. Materials and Methods: A total of 508 infertile women was enrolled in this study. They are classified into rFSH group (n=177) or uFSH group (n=331), and all of them were matched by age and cause of infertility in same period. The $Puregon^{(R)}$ (Organon, Holland) was used as rFSH, and the Metrodin-$HP^{(R)}$ (Serono, Switzeland) and $Humegon^{(R)}$ (Organon, Holland) was used as uFSH. We subdivided the patients into three age groups. The outcomes of IVF-ET program were analyzed using the statistical package for social sciences (SPSS). Results: There was no significant differences in the level of estradiol on hCG injection day, the numbers of retrieved oocytes, matured oocytes, fertilized oocytes, transferred embryos, frozen embryos between the two groups. The total dose (IU) of gonadotropin for COH was significantly lower in the rFSH group compared to uFSH group ($1339{\pm}5491.1$ vs $2527.8{\pm}1075.2$ IU, p<0.001). Clinical pregnancy rate per embryo transfer in the rFSH group showed increasing tendency, compared to the uFSH group, but there was no statistical significance (35.2% vs 29.3%). Our results demonstrated that the relative efficiency of rFSH compared with uFSH is higher in older patients. Conclusions: The ovarian stimulatory effect and clinical outcome of recombinant FSH was similar to that of the urinary gonadotropin. The IVF-ET cycles with significantly lower dose of gonadotropin in rFSH group showed comparable results. Therefore, we suggest that recombinant FSH is more potent and effective than urinary gonadotropin.

Clincal Manifestations of Patients Dying of Severe Community Acquired Pneumonia (중증 원외폐렴으로 사망한 환자의 임상적 분석)

  • Choi, Won-Il;Sohn, Jeong-Ho;Kwun, Oh-Yong;Heo, Jeong-Sook;Whang, Jae-Seok;Han, Seong-Beom;Jeon, Young-June
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.41 no.5
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    • pp.537-545
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    • 1994
  • Background: In 1987, the British Thoracic Society (BTS) subjected an extensive list of patient variables to statistical analysis in a prospective study of prognosis in 453 adults with community-acquired pneumonia and, subsequently published guidelines for management of severe community acquired pneumonia. It was hoped that those at risk of dying from community acquired pneumonia could be easily identified and treated appropriately, thereby reducing mortality. To date, severe community acquired pneumonia has not been well studied in Korea. Therefore, we studied retrospectively 10 patients dying of severe community acquired pneumonia in Dongsan Hospital to see clinical manifestations of dying of severe community-acquired pneumonia. Methods: Between July 1987 and july 1993, 498 patients were admitted to Keimyung University Dongsan Hospital with community acquired pneumonia, and 77 of them received intensive care. Of the 77 patients, 10 patients died. We reviewed medical records of these patients. Results: 1) The mean age of the patients was 56.2 years(range, 25 to 75 years). There were 7 men and 3 women. Seven patients(70%) were older than 60years of age. 2) The clinical features on admission were as follows: tachypnca, hypoxemia, mental change, cyanosis, leukopenia, leukocytosis, azotemia, hypotension, hypoalbuminemia in order of frequency. Three patients had one abnormal physical finding, 3 patients had 2, 2 patients had 3, and 2 patients had none of these abnormal physical findings. All patients had at least one of the abnormal laboratory findings. 3) A potential bacterial pathogen was isolated in sputum culture from 2 patients. One was E.coli, the other Enterobacter species. Sputum stain were positive in eight cases (G(+)cocci in six, G(+) cocci and G(-)bacilli in two). 4) Features of respiratory failure were the main reasons for ICU transfer, but two patients were transferred only following a cardiac or respiratory arrest in the general ward. 5) The mean of 2.7 different antibiotics were given to the patients. The aminoglycoside and first generation cephalosporin were the most frequently prescribed antibiotics, followed by the third generation cephalosporin and vancomycin. The most frequently prescribed antibiotics combination was a 1st generation cephalosporin plus an aminoglycoside. 6) Seven patients death(70%) occured after admission within the first five days, and a mean duration of hospitaliztion was 11.2 days. Conclusion: As the results show most death occured within the first five days after admission and aged patients; consequently, an aggressive intensive treatment should be provided early to the patients with severe community acquired pneumonia, and we should pay more attention to the aged patients.

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The Present State and Problems of Hotel Buffet Styled Restaurant -II. A Survey of Ecology in Food and Nutrition of Some Urban Females Dining in Hotel Buffet Styled Restaurant- (호텔 뷔페음식(飮食)에 관(關)한 실태조사(實態調査) -제(弟) 2보(報). 여성(女性)들의 뷔페식당(食堂)에서의 끽식행동(喫食行動)에 관(關)한 연구(硏究)-)

  • Choi, Kyung-Suk;Mo, Su-Mi
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Culture
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    • v.6 no.2
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    • pp.185-197
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    • 1991
  • An eating behavior research was done with 50 females at a buffet styled restaurant during their lunch time. Of the respondents, 52.0% were professional and 54.0% were graduate school graduates. Of the respondents, 58.0% of the company were friends and 24.0% were relatives. The average time period of eating was $93.0{\pm}23.4$ minutes. The average frequency of taking food was $4.0{\pm}1.1$ and the average frequency of taking food after satiety was $1.4{\pm}0.8$. It is significant that lower frequency of food consumption was directly proportional to the age groups of respondents. The average selected food items were $30.4{\pm}7.1$ out of 175 and the average weight of the consumed food was $995.0{\pm}240.9$ g. The older age group chose a similar number of food items, but the amount of each food item was considerably less than younger. So the younger the age group was, the more they ate. The average food items at one time was $7.1{\pm}2.2$ and the average food weight time was $233.7{\pm}69.7$ g. The percentage of respondents who evaluated themselves as 'ate too much' was 70.0% and those who evaluate themselves 'ate properly' was 14.0%. Most of them were satisfied with the buffet service. The average of number of food items consumed by respondents before cooking was $50.5{\pm}8.9$. The consumption of calories and nutrients was compared with the Korean Daily Recommended Dietary Allowances. The consumed calories were 60.9% of RDAs, protein 104.4%, calcium 77.1%, iron 129.8%, vitamin A 66.5%, thiamin 96.0%, riboflavin 95.7%, niacin126.6% and ascorbic acid 112.3%. This data exceeded 1/3 of the Korean Daily RDAs tremendously and tells us extreme overeating. The energy ratio of carbohydrate: fat: protein was 51.6: 29.9: 18.5. Caloric consumption of animal food was 27.9% and the consumption rate of the other nutrients from animal food was considerably high. But the consumption rate of vitamin A was 90.9% from vegetable groups. Accoding to this study, buffet service gives some advantages. It gives customers an good opportunity to vary their food intake, which enhances eating experiences and can cause an improvemont of food habits. But overeating is a problem. Therefore, we think it is necessary for those women who have influence over their family's food selection, to have nutrition education about a desirable order of eating a meal, food selection, and health problems due to overeating at buffet styled restaurant. There should be some improvement in the management of buffet service. For example, proper temperature, texture, and freshness of the food should be maintained. Prevention of mixed food smells should be considered as well. To lower the price it is desirable to reduce the number of similar items and to use seasonal food as much as possible. A buffet styled restaurant with less food items with cheaper prices is recommended. Various traditional food should be developed for the menu items. We expect buffet services to be sutable to maintain good health and to be popular to any eater.

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A Study on the Relationships between the Oral Health Activities and Oral Health Conditions of the Elderly (노인의 구강보건행위와 구강건강상태와의 관련성 조사 연구)

  • Gwon, Mi-Young;Young, Jin-Young
    • Journal of dental hygiene science
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    • v.6 no.4
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    • pp.271-276
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    • 2006
  • This study set out to analyze the relationships between the senior citizens' dental health activities and dental health conditions, to provide basic data to develop a program for their better dental health, and finally to search for the ways to improve their life quality through dental health care. The subjects were 142 senior citizens(58 were male and 84 were female) who were 65 years old or older and visited a dental hospital or clinic in the Seoul metropolitan area from April 17 to April 28, 2006. With the cooperation from the dentists, the investigators examined their dental conditions and conducted one-on-one interviews to collect the information about their demographic characteristics, dental health activities, and subjective dental health conditions. The collected data were analyzed with T-test, ANOVA and Pearson's correlation coefficient using the SPSS WIN 11.5 program. The analysis results were summarized as follows: First, 58 men(40.8%) and 84 women(59.2%) consisted of the subject group, where percentage of the female participants was bigger Those who were aged from 65 to 69 made the biggest age group in the subjects, accounting for 58.5% with 83. Second, those who had three dental caries or less and then didn't treat them or treated them(F) accounted for the biggest percentage with 117(82.4%) and 72(50.7%) respectively. As for the remaining teeth, the biggest number of them(40 subjects, 28.2%) had three or less remaining. Third, it turned out the female subjects had a higher level of dental health activities than their male counterparts(P = 0.00). As for living expenses, those who were paid salary or earned income themselves carried out their dental health activities in a higher level than those who lived on the benefit from the government(p = 0.02). Fourth, the subjects' subjective dental health conditions had negative correlations with their dental caries not treated. And there were positive correlations between their dental caries not treated and dental caries lost and between their dental caries treated and remaining teeth. Fifth, those subjects who earned their living expenses themselves had the most dental caries treated at 5.4(p = 0.02), and there was statistically significant difference with the numbers. Sixth, those subjects who brushed their teeth in their own manner had 11.8 teeth lost(p = 0.05), which was more than the number of those who brushed their teeth in other methods. And there was statistically significant difference among them. The remaining teeth were found most at 17.3(p = 0.00) among those who brushed their upper and lower teeth separately. In addition, those who visited the public health center often had significantly more teeth treated(4.3) than others(p = 0.00).

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Relationship between health behaviors and nutrient supplement intake (건강행태와 영양제 복용 유무의 관련성)

  • Lee, Jong-suk;Kim, In-tae
    • Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society
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    • v.18 no.11
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    • pp.498-508
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    • 2017
  • Purpose: The present study investigated nutrient supplement intake to examine the relationship between the health behaviors of nutrient supplement users and nonusers and nutrient supplement users and other drug users. The results provide baseline data to understand whether nutrient supplements actually perform as expected in view of the fact that healthy people that take nutritional supplements may become healthier, but may also develop nutritional supplement abuse problems. Among 7,006 household heads of 24,614 household members from the Korea Health Panel data in 2008, a total of 6,009 household heads were the respondents of the Korea Health Panel Survey (appendix) in 2009. Method: The subjects of the present study were targeted household heads. The respondents who reported that they had taken (planned to take) life/health promotion-related drugs (01. vitamins/nutritional supplements) for more than three months that were purchased at pharmacies during the past one year at the time of the survey were defined as nutritional supplement users. Those who took other drugs (05. hair-loss treatments, 06. obesity treatments, 10. others) were regarded as other drug users. A chi-squared test was performed to analyze the sociodemographic characteristics of the subjects and differences between groups. Multiple regression analyses were conducted to analyze health behaviors according to nutrient supplement intake. Result: Comparison of (A) nutritional supplement users and nonusers revealed that those who were women, 50 years or older, and spent more than average living expenses were more likely to take nutritional supplements, which was not significant in health behavior variables. Analysis of nutritional supplement users and other drug users (B) revealed that those who were high school graduates or above, had a spouse, were non-smokers, took drugs, ate regular meals, and were not stressed by economic or family conflicts were more likely to take nutritional supplements. Conclusion: The results of the present study indicated that people take nutritional supplements because of their psychological desire to be healthy, not because they are not healthy, have problems, or believe supplements will make them healthier.

A Computed Tomography-Based Anatomic Comparison of Three Different Types of C7 Posterior Fixation Techniques : Pedicle, Intralaminar, and Lateral Mass Screws

  • Jang, Woo-Young;Kim, Il-Sup;Lee, Ho-Jin;Sung, Jae-Hoon;Lee, Sang-Won;Hong, Jae-Taek
    • Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society
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    • v.50 no.3
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    • pp.166-172
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    • 2011
  • Objective : The intralaminar screw (ILS) fixation technique offers an alternative to pedicle screw (PS) and lateral mass screw (LMS) fixation in the C7 spine. Although cadaveric studies have described the anatomy of the pedicles, laminae, and lateral masses at C7, 3-dimensional computed tomography (CT) imaging is the modality of choice for pre-surgical planning. In this study, the goal was to determine the anatomical parameter and optimal screw trajectory for ILS placement at C7, and to compare this information to PS and LMS placement in the C7 spine as determined by CT evaluation. Methods : A total of 120 patients (60 men and 60 women) with an average age of $51.7{\pm}13.6$ years were selected by retrospective review of a trauma registry database over a 2-year period. Patients were included in the study if they were older than 15 years of age, had standardized axial bone-window CT imaging at C7, and had no evidence of spinal trauma. For each lamina and pedicle, width (outer cortical and inner cancellous), maximal screw length, and optimal screw trajectory were measured, and the maximal screw length of the lateral mass were measured using m-view 5.4 software. Statistical analysis was performed using Student's t-test. Results : At C7, the maximal PS length was significantly greater than the ILS and LMS length (PS, $33.9{\pm}3.1$ mm; ILS, $30.8{\pm}3.1$ mm; LMS, $10.6{\pm}1.3$; p<0.01). When the outer cortical and inner cancellous width was compared between the pedicle and lamina, the mean pedicle outer cortical width at C7 was wider than the lamina by an average of 0.6 mm (pedicle, $6.8{\pm}1.2$ mm; lamina, $6.2{\pm}1.2$ mm; p<0.01). At C7, 95.8% of the laminae measured accepted a 4.0-mm screw with a 1.0 mm of clearance, compared with 99.2% of pedicle. Of the laminae measured, 99.2% accepted a 3.5-mm screw with a 1.0 mm clearance, compared with 100% of the pedicle. When the outer cortical and inner cancellous height was compared between pedicle and lamina, the mean lamina outer cortical height at C7 was wider than the pedicle by an average of 9.9 mm (lamina, $18.6{\pm}2.0$ mm; pedicle, $8.7{\pm}1.3$ mm; p<0.01). The ideal screw trajectory at C7 was also measured ($47.8{\pm}4.8^{\circ}$ for ILS and $35.1{\pm}8.1^{\circ}$ for PS). Conclusion : Although pedicle screw fixation is the most ideal instrumentation method for C7 fixation with respect to length and cortical diameter, anatomical aspect of C7 lamina is affordable to place screw. Therefore, the C7 intralaminar screw could be an alternative fixation technique with few anatomic limitations in the cases when C7 pedicle screw fixation is not favorable. However, anatomical variations in the length and width must be considered when placing an intralaminar or pedicle screw at C7.

A study on OHIP-14 and EQ-5D of residents in some rural areas (일부 농촌지역 주민들의 OHIP-14와 EQ-5D에 관한 연구)

  • Lee, Eun-Gyeong;Park, Jeong-Hee;Park, Jeong-Ran;Park, Jae-Yong
    • Journal of Korean society of Dental Hygiene
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    • v.11 no.2
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    • pp.197-211
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    • 2011
  • Objectives : OHIP-14 and EQ-5D were used, targeting the residents of farming communities to identify the elements that influence oral cavity's health and quality of life due to health and to identify the importance of oral cavity's health in order to increase health of adults' oral cavity and quality of life via improved health. Methods : This research was conducted from July 17th, 2010 to August 16th, 2010 targeting 600 residents in Goryeong-gun, Gyeongsangbuk-do, aging over 40. The data has been analyzed using Mann-Whitney U test, Kruskal-Wallis test and hierarchical multiple regression through SPSS Win Program 18.0 version. Results : 1. OHIP-14 and EQ-5D based on general characteristics showed lower oral health-related quality of life and health-related quality of life on the following cases: women (p=0.004, p<0.001), older (p<0.001, p<0.001), lower scholastic ability (p<0.001, p<0.001), lower average of average spending money (p<0.001, p<0.001), higher number of chronic disease (p<0.001, p<0.001), less drinking (p=0.012, p=0.008), lower perceived oral health and health status (p<0.001, p<0.001) and non smoking showed only EQ-5D (p<0.001). 2. OHIP-14 and EQ-5D based on oral health behavior showed lower oral health-related quality of life and health-related quality of life on the following cases: no periodic oral check-up (p<0.001, p<0.001), less experience of oral health education (p<0.001, p<0.001), horizontal tooth-brushing method(p<0.001, p<0.001) and lower frequency of tooth-brushing showed only OHIP-14 (p=0.042). OHIP-14 and EQ-5D based on oral health status and subjective oral symptom showed lower oral health-related quality of life and health-related quality of life on following cases: number of existing tooth less than 20 (p<0.001, p<0.001), the number of missing teeth more than 9 (p<0.001, p=0.044), DMFT (Decay, Missing, Filling Teeth) index more than 18 (p<0.001, p<0.001), wears denture (p<0.001, p<0.001), edentulous (p<0.001, p=0.002), have xerostomia (p<0.001, p<0.001) and have chewing discomfort (p<0.001, p<0.001). 3. Factors affecting OHIP-14 were gender, age, perceived oral health status, perceived health status, number of existing teeth, dental status, xerostomia and chewing discomfort, and the of reliability (how well it explains) the final model was 48.7%. EQ-5D showed relevance on gender, age, presence of chronic disease, perceived health status, xerostomia, chewing discomfort and oral health-related quality of life, and the reliability of the final model was 42.9%. Conclusions : In order to improve the quality of life of ruralists, oral health needs to be improved or remained by increasing the rate of possession of the existing teeth and preventing the loss of teeth. In order to do so, improvement of accessibility of dental clinic, change of direction from treatment-centered to prevention-centered health care system, development of oral health education program and various oral health care policies which would vitalize continuous oral health care system are considered to be necessary.

Needs and Satisfaction of Cancer Patients on the Medical Services in Jeju Special Self-Governing Province (제주지역 암환자의 의료서비스 요구도 및 만족도 분석)

  • Kim, Woo-Jeong;Kim, Min-Young;Chang, Weon-Young;Choi, Jae-Hyuck
    • The Korean Journal of Hospice and Palliative Care
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    • v.13 no.3
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    • pp.153-160
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    • 2010
  • Purpose: The purpose of the present study was to investigate needs and satisfaction on the medical services of cancer patients in Jeju Special Self-Governing Province. Methods: Total 174 cancer patients, who visited at the clinic of Jeju National University Hospital, submitted informed consent and participated in this study from July 13 to July 30, 2009. Self questionnaire was used and data were analyzed with Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, Mann-Whitney U test, ANOVA, and Kruskal-Wallis test. Results: Participants expressed the needs of most economical support (3.38 out of 4), followed by counseling of treatment plan (3.22), information of disease (3.07), and disease management except cancer (2.97). Participants were satisfied most with religious counseling (3.41), followed by nursing service support (3.39), employment counseling (3.26), and counseling for family or interpersonal relationships (3.26). The satisfaction of economical support was the lowest (1.98). Satisfaction of men was higher than women, and needs in patients who were living with children was the highest. Patients who were living alone or with children showed the lowest satisfaction about the medical services. There were no significant differences in the general characteristics, however, participants who were older than 60 years of age or had higher income showed lower needs and higher satisfaction. There were no significant differences in the medical characteristics, however, thyroid cancer patients and patients who were treated with radiation therapy or transarterial embolization showed low satisfaction. Conclusion: Cancer patients seemed to need more economical support, information of treatment or disease, and symptom management. Furthermore, there were various needs about the services, depending on family formation or economical support of patients. Therefore, it is certain that patients who were suffering from other cancers, except the 5 major cancers, needed more services. In conclusion, continuous and systemic policy to consider patient's characteristics and needs are needed in community as well as health care system.

Standardization of the Method of Measuring Average Glandular Dose (AGD) and Evaluation of the Breast Composition and Thickness for AGD (평균 유선선량 측정방법의 표준화 및 유방 두께, 실질양상과의 상관관계 분석)

  • Park, Hye-Suk;Kim, Hee-Joung;Lee, Chang-Lae;Cho, Hyo-Min;Yu, A-Ram
    • Progress in Medical Physics
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    • v.20 no.1
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    • pp.21-29
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    • 2009
  • Breast cancer is the most common form of cancer among korean woman. Therefore, the early detection activities of breast cancer such as breast self-examinations, clinical breast examinations, mammography are important. A yearly mammography examination has been recommended for women aged 40 and older for the early detection of breast cancer in asymptomatic periods. However, the glandular tissue of breast is the most radiation-sensitive tissue, and the determination of average glandular dose (AGD) forms an important part of the quality control of the mammographic systems. Because of the difficulty of estimating AGD directly, it is often estimated from the measurements of the incident air kerma and by applying the appropriate conversion factors. The primary objective of this study was to standardize the method of measuring AGD. The secondary objective was to evaluate the relationships between AGD per various composition and thickness of the breast using Monte Carlo simulations. As a result, we standardized the method of measuring AGD according to International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) guidelines (CoP: an international code of practice). Overall, AGD for mammographic practice in Korea was less than 3.0 mGy recommended by the Korea Food and Drug Adminstration (KFDA) protocol, and Korean Institute for Accreditation of Medical Image (KIAMI). The measured and simulated AGD for a given condition were calculated as 1.7 and 1.6 mGy, respectively. For the AGDs obtained, there was no significant difference between them. The simulated AGD was dependent on the fraction of glandular tissue of the breast. The AGD increases with increasing of the breast glandularity due to increasing absorption of low energy photons. The AGD also increases as a function of breast thickness. In conclusion, the results of this study could be used as a baseline to establish a reference level of radiation dose in mammography.

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An Investigative Analysis of Preference and Uses for the Angelica gigas Nakai - Focused on the consumer in the Seoul and Kyunggido Area - (당귀에 대한 기호도 및 이용 실태 조사 - 서울, 경기 지역의 소비자를 중심으로 -)

  • Kim, Myung-Sun;Oh, Yun-Jae
    • Journal of the East Asian Society of Dietary Life
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    • v.19 no.5
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    • pp.783-790
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    • 2009
  • This study was conducted to investigate the recognition and uses of Angelica gigas Nakai. A survey methodology was employed consisted of 37.8% males and 62.2% females from the Seoul and Kyunggido area. The main results are as follows: The older generation have liked and eaten Angelica gigas Nakai rather than the young. The most popular reason provided for the preference of Angelica gigas Nakai was good health benefits. People indicating a dislike for Angelica gigas Nakai had little previous experience of eating this plant. The purchasing main place is appeared the supermarket and traditional market. Angelica gigas Nakai was acknowledged as having the following characteristics 'to do excellent nutrition' (3.82), 'natural food' (3.76), 'to doing for the anti-cancer and anti-oxidization' (3.70), 'good for anemia and women, diseases' (3.64), and 'good for anodyne and diuretic effect' (3.57), but was not associated with 'price is cheap' (3.02) and 'to difficult for buy' (3.10). Recognition and eating experience was low for Angelica gigas Nakai kimchi and rice bread, bread, sauce and healthy drink added with Angelica gigas Nakai, but the opinion of the taste appeared highly.

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