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Phenolic Compounds in Plant Foods: Chemistry and Health Benefits

  • Naczk, Marian;Shahidi, Fereidoon
    • Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
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    • v.8 no.2
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    • pp.200-218
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    • 2003
  • Phenolic compounds in food and plant materials belong to the simple phenols, phenolic acids, coumarins, flavonoids, stilbenes, tannins, lignans and lignins, all of which are considered as secondary plant metabolites. These compounds may be synthesized by plants during normal development or in response to stress conditions. Phenolics are not distributed uniformly in plants. Insoluble phenolics are components of cell walls while soluble ones are present in vacuoles. A cursory account of phenolics of cereals, beans, pulses, fruits, vegetables and oilseeds is provided in this overview. The information on the bioavailability and absorption of plant phenolics remains fragmentary and diverse. Pharmacological potentials of food phenolics ave extensively evaluated. However, there are many challenges that must be overcome in order to fully understand both the function of phenolics in plant as well as their health effects.

Population Dynamics of Mustard Aphid, Lipaphis erysimi (Kaltenbach) as Influenced by Abiotic Factors and Different Rapeseed Mustard Genotypes

  • Roy, Santosh-Kumar;Kanchan Baral
    • International Journal of Industrial Entomology
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    • v.4 no.1
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    • pp.69-76
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    • 2002
  • Mustard aphid, Lipaphis erysimi(Kalt.) plays a key role in determining the productivity of rapeseed-mustard. This pest alone attributes 30-70% losses in yield potential in different agro climatic zones with a mean loss of 54.2% in India. Considering the extent of damage caused by the pest, the present experiment was conducted at Pulses and Oilseeds Research Station during 1992-93 to 1994-95 to study the migratory nature of mustard aphid by trapping them in yellow colour pan tray and their simultaneous growth and development on three different genotypes. The temperature during noon hours is the predominant factor to govern the appearance of alate mustard aphid in rapeseed-mustard field. Stepwise regression analysis revealed that temperature and relative humidity played an important role for its development. The variety RW white flower glossy stem harboured minimum number of aphid in comparison to other two varieties B 9 and T6342. The population reached a peak of 61.28 aphids/10 cm central twig during $6^{th}$ standard week irrespective of varieties.

pH Affects the In vitro Formation of cis-9, trans-11 CLA and trans-11 Octadecenoic Acid by Ruminal Bacteria When Incubated with Oilseeds

  • Wang, J.H.;Song, M.K.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.16 no.12
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    • pp.1743-1748
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    • 2003
  • The effect of pH on the fermentation characteristics and the formation of cis-9, trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and trans-11 octadecenoic acid by mixed ruminal bacteria was examined in vitro when incubated with linseed or rapeseed. Concentrate (1%, w/v) with ground linseed (0.6%, w/v) or rapeseed (0.5%, w/v) was added to 600 ml mixed solution of strained rumen fluid with artificial saliva (1:1, v/v), and was incubated anaerobically for 12 h at $39^{\circ}C$. The pH of culture solution was maintained at level close to 4.5, 5.3, 6.1 and 6.9 with 30% $H_2SO_4$ or 30% NaOH solution. pH increment resulted in increases of ammonia and total volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentration in culture solutions containing both oilseeds. Fermentation did not proceeded at pH 4.5. Molar proportion of acetate decreased but that of propionate increased as pH increased when incubated with oilseeds. While the hydrogenating process was very slow at the pH range of 4.5 to 5.3, rapid hydrogenation was found from the culture solutions of pH 6.1 and 6.9 when incubated with linseed or rapeseed. As pH in culture solution of linseed or rapeseed increases proportions of oleic acid (cis-9 $C_{18:1}$) and trans-11 octadecenoic acid increased but those of linoleic acid and linolenic acid decreased. The CLA proportion increased with pH in culture solution containing rapeseed but CLA was mostly not detected from the incubation of linseed.

Effect of Concentrate Level on the Formation of Conjugated Linoleic Acid and Trans-octadecenoic Acid by Ruminal Bacteria when Incubated with Oilseeds In Vitro

  • Wang, J.H.;Song, M.K.;Son, Y.S.;Chang, M.B.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.15 no.5
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    • pp.687-694
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    • 2002
  • An in vitro study was conducted to examine the effect of addition level of concentrate on fermentation characteristics and long-chain unsaturated fatty acids composition, especially conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and trans-octadecenoic acid (t-FA) by mixed ruminal bacteria when incubated with linseed or rapeseed. Four levels (0.83, 1.25, 1.67 and 2.08%, w/v) of concentrate and ground oilseeds (linseed or rapeseed; 0.83%, w/v) were added to mixed solution of strained rumen fluid with artificial saliva (1:1, v/v) in the glass jar with a glass lid equipped with stirrer, and was incubated anaerobically for 24 h at $39^{\circ}C$. Addition level of concentrate slightly reflect on pH and ammonia concentration of the culture solution at the various incubation times when incubated with both linseed and rapeseed. Total VFA concentration slightly increased with incubation times and concentrate levels for incubations with oilseeds. While CLA composition had a clearly increasing trend with incubation time when incubated with linseed, percent CLA was relatively stable when incubated with rapeseed. Percent CLA, however, had a clearly decreasing trend with concentrate level throughout incubation times with significances at 3 h incubations when incubated with linseed (p<0.038) and rapeseed (p<0.0009). The differences in compositions of t-FA were relatively small among concentrate levels for both incubations with linseed and rapeseed. The ratios of t-FA to CLA were lower for linseed with increased proportion of CLA than for rapeseed.

Effects of Supplementing Whole Oilseeds to Alcohol-Fermented Feedstuff Based on Rye Hay on in vitro Rumen Fermentation Characteristics (호밀 건초 급여하의 By-pass 전지종실을 첨가한 알코올 발효사료의 in vitro 발효특성)

  • Shin, Jong-Seo;Park, Byoung-Ki;Oh, Jin-Seok;Kim, Byong-Wan;Hong, Byong-Ju
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.27 no.3
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    • pp.219-228
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    • 2007
  • This study was conducted to determine the effects of supplementing whole oilseeds to the alcohol fermented feedstuff based on rye hay on in vitro rumen fermentation of Hanwoo steers. Experiments were arranged with four treatment groups, T1 (without any oilseeds), T2 (supplemented with cottonseed), T3 (supplemented with linseed) and T4 (supplemented with soybean). The pH decreased at 6 and 12h in vitro incubation in T2 and at 3 and 12h in vitro incubation in T4 (p<0.05). However, no decrease of the pH was observed at any in vitro incubation in T3 (p>0.05). Ammonia concentration increased at 6h in vitro incubation in T2 and at 6 and 9 h in vitro incubation in T4 (p<0.05). Concentrations of acetate, butyrate and propionate increased at 3, 9 and 12h in vitro incubation in T4 and at 3h in vitro incubation in T3 (p<0.05). This study indicates that the supplementation of whole oilseeds to alcohol fermented feedstuff based on rye kay can improve the in vitro rumen fermentation.

Effect of extraction method on sesame oil quality

  • Lee, Byong Won;Kim, Sung Up;Oh, Ki-Won;Kim, Hyun-Joo;Lee, Ji Hae;Lee, Byoung Kyu
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Crop Science Conference
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    • pp.255-255
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    • 2017
  • Sesame has been consumed for centuries as flavoring ingredient in eastern Asian countries, especially Korea. Sesame seeds have been used as health food for traditional medicine to prevent disease in Asian countries for several thousand years. Sesame seed has higher oil content (around 50%) than most of the known oilseeds. Sesame oil is rich in monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids. Extraction of sesame has developed significantly over the years. The mechanical method was an early means of separation which was physical pressure to squeeze the oil out. Nowadays, solvent extraction becomes the commonly used commercial technique to recover oil from oilseeds. In this study, we investigated extraction efficiency and quality of oil affected by cultivars and extraction methods of sesame seed. Different variables were investigated; roasting temperature ($170{\sim}220^{\circ}C$), extraction methods (solvent and physical pressure), forced ventilation system and cultivars. The Contents of B(a)P in sesame oil after roasting at $170{\sim}220^{\circ}C$ were 0.30~2.53 ppm. When we introduced forced ventilation system during roasting, B(a)P Contents were decreased up to 36%. The Oil extraction efficiency on sesame seed was statistically depending on the cultivars and extraction methods. The oil extraction yields of solvent and physical pressure extraction were 56.3% and 44.6%, respectively. Many of sesame cultivars and genetic resources are linolenic acid content of less than 0.5%. The results supported that we have developed a safe and high quality sesame oil processing methods for small and medium-sized companies.

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A Study on the Safety of Mycotoxins in Grains and Commonly Consumed Foods (곡류 등 다소비 식품 중 곰팡이독소 안전성 조사 연구)

  • Kim, Jae-Kwan;Kim, Young-Sug;Lee, Chang-Hee;Seo, Mi Young;Jang, Mi Kyung;Ku, Eun-Jung;Park, Kwang-Hee;Yoon, Mi-Hye
    • Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety
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    • v.32 no.6
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    • pp.470-476
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    • 2017
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate and evaluate the safety of the grains, nut products, beans and oilseeds being sold in Gyeonggi province by analyzing mycotoxins. A multi-mycotoxins analysis method based on LC-MS/MS was validated and applied for the determination of eight mycotoxins, including aflatoxins ($B_1$, $B_2$, $G_1$ and $G_2$), fumonisins ($B_1$, $B_2$), zearalenone and ochratoxcin A in 134 samples. The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantitation (LOQ) for the eight mycotoxins ranged from 0.14 to $8.25{\mu}g/kg$ and from 1.08 to $7.21{\mu}g/kg$, respectively. Recovery rates of mycotoxins were determined in the range of 61.1 to 97.5% with RSD of 1.0~14.5% (n=3). Fumonisin $B_1$, $B_2$, zearalenone, and ochratoxin A were detected in 22 samples, indicating that 27% of grains, 12.5% of beans and 11.8% of oilseeds were contaminated. Fumonisin and zearalenone were detected simultaneously in 2 adlays and 3 sorghums. Fumonisin $B_1$ and $B_2$ were detected simultaneously in most samples whereas fumonisin $B_1$ was detected in 1 adlay, 1 millet and 1 sesame sample. The average detected amount of fumonisin was $49.3{\mu}g/kg$ and $10.1{\mu}g/kg$ for grains and oilseeds, respectively. The average detected amount of zearalenone was $1.9{\mu}g/kg$ and $1.5{\mu}g/kg$ for grains and beans, respectively. In addition, the average amount of ochratoxin A was $0.08{\mu}g/kg$ for grains. The calculated exposure amounts of fumonisin, zeralenone and ochratoxin A for grains, beans and oilseeds were below the PMTDI/PTWI.

Food Classification by the Codex Alimentarius Commission: Cereal Grains, Nuts and Seeds, Herbs and Spices (코덱스의 식품 분류: 곡류, 견과종실류, 허브 및 향신료)

  • Lee, Mi-Gyung
    • Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety
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    • v.34 no.2
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    • pp.212-218
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    • 2019
  • The process of establishing domestic standards on hazardous substances in food safety regulations requires harmonization with standards from the Codex Alimentarius Commission (CAC). For this purpose, food classification by the CAC (Codex Classification of Foods and Animal Feeds) also needs to be clearly understood. Therefore, this paper aimed to introduce the Codex Classification on cereal grains, nuts/seeds and herbs/spices because revisions of the Codex were completed in 2017 for cereal grains and in 2018 for nuts/seeds and herbs/spices. The revised Codex Classification on those foods is briefly summarized as follows. Cereal grains in the domestic food classification by the Ministry of Food and Drug Safety, Korea (MFDS) corresponds to the Codex Group 020 cereal grains with six subgroups. The MFDS's nuts and seeds classification corresponds to three groups in the Codex, namely, Group 022 (tree nuts with no subgroups), Group 023 (oilseeds and oilfruits with 5 subgroups), and Group 024 (seeds for beverages and sweets with no subgroups). The food commodities of herbs and spices are included in two Codex groups, Group 027 (with 3 subgroups) and Group 028 (with 9 subgroups). The number of Codex commodity codes assigned to food commodities was 27 for Group 020, 32 for Group 022, 46 for Group 023, 4 for Group 024, 127 for Group 027 and 138 for Group 028. In between the Codex Classification and the MFDS's classification, some differences are shown. For example, the MFDS did not create a subgroup under groups of cereal grains and herbs. The MFDS classified peanuts into the nut group, though a separate group for oilseeds is present, while the Codex classified peanuts into the oilseed and oilfruit group. In addition, there is also a separate group of "plants, others" present in the MFDS's classification. Therefore, care is needed in using the Codex Classification.

Effects of Flaxseed Diets on Fattening Response of Hanwoo Cattle : 1. Performance and Carcass Characteristics

  • Kim, C.M.;Kim, J.H.;Chung, T.Y.;Park, K.K.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.17 no.9
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    • pp.1241-1245
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    • 2004
  • Two separate trials were conducted to determine effects of dietary level of whole flaxseed (WFS; 0, 10 and 15%) on feed intake, weight gain, and carcass yield and quality of Korean Hanwoo cattle. The daily gains of bulls (Trial 1) were not different among treatment groups, but those of cows (Trial 2) fed WFS 15% were higher (p<0.01) than others. Feed intake of both bulls and cows tended to decrease as dietary level of WFS increased. However, feed conversion ratio (feed/gain) of bulls tended to be improved by dietary inclusion of WFS and was significantly improved (p<0.01) in cows by increasing level of WFS. Neither carcass weight nor dressing percentage were affected by WFS level. Back fat thickness of bulls was decreased (p<0.01) by dietary inclusion of WFS and the same trend was observed in cows without statistical significance. Loin-eye area of bulls was not different among treatment groups but was significantly higher (p<0.01) in cows fed WFS. Carcass yield and quality were not improved by WFS addition. The results indicate that WFS is an acceptable fat source in diets of finishing beef cattle to increase energy density without any adverse effects.