• Title, Summary, Keyword: oesophageal cancer

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High Temperature of Food and Beverage Intake Increases the Risk of Oesophageal Cancer in Xinjiang, China

  • Tang, Li;Xu, Fenglian;Zhang, Taotao;Lei, Jun;Binns, Colin William;Lee, Andy Ho-Won
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.14 no.9
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    • pp.5085-5088
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    • 2013
  • Background: The north-western region of China has a high incidence of oesophageal cancer. This study aimed to investigate whether the intake of food and beverage at high temperature is associated with the risk of oesophageal cancer among adults residing in this remote part of China. Materials and Methods: A case-control study was undertaken in Urumqi and Shihezi, Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region of China, between 2008 and 2009. Participants were 359 incident oesophageal cancer patients and 380 hospital-based controls. Information on temperature of food and beverage intake was obtained by face-to-face interview. Logistic regression analyses were performed to ascertain the association between intake temperature and the risk of oesophageal cancer. Results: The oesophageal cancer patients consumed foods and beverages at higher temperatures than controls, p<0.001. High temperature of tea, water and food intake appeared to increase the risk of oesophageal cancer by more than two-fold, with adjusted odds ratio (95% confidence intervals) of 2.86 (1.73-4.72), 2.82 (1.78-4.47) and 2.26 (1.49-3.45), respectively. Conclusions: Intake of food and beverage at high temperature was positively associated with the incidence of oesophageal cancer in north-western China.

Processed Meat Consumption and Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oesophagus in a Large Case-Control Study in Uruguay

  • Stefani, Eduardo De;Boffetta, Paolo;Ronco, Alvaro Luis;Deneo-Pellegrini, Hugo;Correa, Pelayo;Acosta, Gisele;Mendilaharsu, Maria
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.14
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    • pp.5829-5833
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    • 2014
  • Background: The role of processed meat in the aetiology of squamous cell oesophageal cancer has been explored in detail. Methods: In the time period 1990-2005, a case-control study was conducted in Montevideo, Uruguay including 2,368 participants (876 cases of oesophageal cancer and 1,492 controls). Relative risks, approximated by the odds ratios, were estimated by multiple unconditional logistic regression. Results: Processed meat was positively associated with oesophageal cancer (upper quartile vs lower quartile OR 2.30, 95%CI 1.72-3.07), whereas salted meat intake was positively associated with squamous cell oesophageal cancer (OR 3.82, 95%CI 2.74-5.33). Finally other cured meats were positively associated with oesophageal cancer (OR 1.65, 95%CI 1.22-2.22). Conclusions: It could be concluded that processed meat consumption could be an important risk factor for the aetiology of squamous cell oesophageal cancer in Uruguay.

Influence of Intravenous Contrast Medium on Dose Calculation Using CT in Treatment Planning for Oesophageal Cancer

  • Li, Hong-Sheng;Chen, Jin-Hu;Zhang, Wei;Shang, Dong-Ping;Li, Bao-Sheng;Sun, Tao;Lin, Xiu-Tong;Yin, Yong
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.14 no.3
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    • pp.1609-1614
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    • 2013
  • Objective: To evaluate the effect of intravenous contrast on dose calculation in radiation treatment planning for oesophageal cancer. Methods: A total of 22 intravein-contrasted patients with oesophageal cancer were included. The Hounsfield unit (HU) value of the enhanced blood stream in thoracic great vessels and heart was overridden with 45 HU to simulate the non-contrast CT image, and 145 HU, 245 HU, 345 HU, and 445 HU to model the different contrast-enhanced scenarios. 1000 HU and -1000 HU were used to evaluate two non-physiologic extreme scenarios. Variation in dose distribution of the different scenarios was calculated to quantify the effect of contrast enhancement. Results: In the contrast-enhanced scenarios, the mean variation in dose for planning target volume (PTV) was less than 1.0%, and those for the total lung and spinal cord were less than 0.5%. When the HU value of the blood stream exceeded 245 the average variation exceeded 1.0% for the heart V40. In the non-physiologic extreme scenarios, the dose variation of PTV was less than 1.0%, while the dose calculations of the organs at risk were greater than 2.0%. Conclusions: The use of contrast agent does not significantly influence dose calculation of PTV, lung and spinal cord. However, it does have influence on dose accuracy for heart.

Diet Patterns and Risk of Squamous Cell Oesophageal Carcinoma: A Case-control Study in Uruguay

  • De Stefani, Eduardo;Deneo-Pellegrini, Hugo;Ronco, Alvaro L.;Boffetta, Paolo;Correa, Pelayo;Mendilaharsu, Maria;Acosta, Gisele;Quarneti, Aldo;Silva, Cecilia
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.6
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    • pp.2765-2769
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    • 2014
  • Background: Oesophageal cancer presents high incidence rates in the so-called Brazilian-Uruguayan belt. Materials and Methods: The present study included 1,170 participants (234 cases and 936 controls) which were analyzed by unconditional multiple logistic regression in order to examine risk of oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (OESCC) associated with several food groups. Results: Boiled red meat (OR 2.59, 95%CI 1.69-3.97), lamb meat (OR 1.64, 95%CI 1.07-2.51), processed meat (OR 1.49, 95%CI 1.01-2.21), whole milk (OR 1.78, 1.19-1.68), fresh vegetables and fruits (OR 0.42, 95%CI 0.27-0.63), mate consumption (OR 2.04, 95%CI 1.32-3.16), and black tea (OR 0.10, 95%CI 0.04-0.28) were significantly associated with risk of OESCC. Conclusions: Hot beverages (mate) and hot foods (boiled meat) appear to be important determinants in the risk of OESCC, allowing the penetration of carcinogens in tobacco and alcohol into the oesophageal mucosa.

Resveratrol Inhibits Oesophageal Adenocarcinoma Cell Proliferation via AMP-activated Protein Kinase Signaling

  • Fan, Guang-Hua;Wang, Zhong-Ming;Yang, Xi;Xu, Li-Ping;Qin, Qin;Zhang, Chi;Ma, Jian-Xin;Cheng, Hong-Yan;Sun, Xin-Chen
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.2
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    • pp.677-682
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    • 2014
  • Resveratrol has been examined in several model systems for potential effects against cancer. Adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is reported to suppress proliferation in most eukaryocyte cells. Whether resveratrol via AMPK inhibits proliferation of oesophageal adenocarcinoma cells (OAC) is unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the roles of AMPK in the protective effects of resveratrol in OAC proliferation and to elucidate the underlying mechanisms. Treatment of cultured OAC derived from human subjects or cell lines with resveratrol resulted in decreased cell proliferation. Further, inhibition of AMPK by pharmacological reagent or genetical approach abolished resveratrol-suppressed OAC proliferation, reduced the level of $p27^{Kip1}$, a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, and increased the levels of S-phase kinase-associated protein 2 (Skp2) of $p27^{Kip1}$-E3 ubiquitin ligase and 26S proteasome activity reduced by resveratrol. Furthermore, gene silencing of $p27^{Kip1}$ reversed resveratrol-suppressed OAC proliferation. In conclusion, these findings indicate that resveratrol inhibits Skp2-mediated ubiquitylation and 26S proteasome-dependent degradation of $p27^{Kip1}$ via AMPK activation to suppress OAC proliferation.

Polymorphisms in Heat Shock Proteins A1B and A1L (HOM) as Risk Factors for Oesophageal Carcinoma in Northeast India

  • Saikia, Snigdha;Barooah, Prajjalendra;Bhattacharyya, Mallika;Deka, Manab;Goswami, Bhabadev;Sarma, Manash P;Medhi, Subhash
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.18
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    • pp.8227-8233
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    • 2016
  • Background: To investigate polymorphisms in heat shock proteins A1B and A1L (HOM) and associated risk of oesophageal carcinoma in Northeast India. Materials and Methods: The study includes oesophageal cancer (ECA) patients attending general outpatient department (OPD) and endoscopic unit of Gauhati Medical College. Patients were diagnosed based on endoscopic and histopathological findings. Genomic DNA was typed for HSPA1B1267 and HSPA1L2437 SNPs using the polymerase chain reaction with restriction fragment length polymorphisms. Results: A total of 78 cases and 100 age-sex matched healthy controls were included in the study with a male: female ratio of 5:3 and a mean age of $61.4{\pm}8.5years$. Clinico-pathological evaluation showed 84% had squamous cell carcinoma and 16% were adenocarcinoma. Dysphagia grades 4 (43.5%) and 5 (37.1%) were observed by endoscopic and hispathological evaluation. The frequency of genomic variation of A1B from wild type A/A to heterozygous A/G and mutant G/G showed a positive association [chi sq=19.9, p=<0.05] and the allelic frequency also showed a significant correlation [chi sq=10.3, with cases vs. controls, OR=0.32, $p{\leq}0.05$]. The genomic variation of A1L from wild T/T to heterozygous T/C and mutant C/C were found positively associated [chi sq=7.02, p<0.05] with development of ECA. While analyzing the allelic frequency, there was no significant association [chi sq=3.19, OR=0.49, p=0.07]. Among all the risk factors, betel quid [OR=9.79, Chi square=35.0, p<0.05], tobacco [OR=2.95, chi square=10.6, p<0.05], smoking [OR=3.23, chi square=10.1, p<0.05] demonstrated significant differences between consumers vs. non consumers regarding EC development. Alcohol did not show any significant association [OR=1.34, chi square=0.69, p=0.4] independently. Conclusions: It can be concluded that the present study provides marked evidence that polymorphisms of HSP70 A1B and HSP70 A1L genes are associated with the development of ECA in a population in Northeast India, A1B having a stronger influence. Betel quid consumption was found to be a highly significant risk factor, followed by smoking and tobacco chewing. Although alcohol was not a potent risk factor independently, alcohol consumption along with tobacco, smoking and betel nut was found to contribute to development of ECA.

Dietary and Demographical Risk Factors for Oesophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma in the Eastern Anatolian Region of Turkey Where Upper Gastrointestinal Cancers are Endemic

  • Koca, Timur;Arslan, Deniz;Basaran, Hamit;Cerkesli, Arda Kaymak;Tastekin, Didem;Sezen, Duygu;Koca, Ozlem;Binici, Dogan Nasir;Bassorgun, Cumhur Ibrahim;Ozdogan, Mustafa
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.5
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    • pp.1913-1917
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    • 2015
  • Background: Oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is endemic in the Eastern Anatolian region of Turkey. The present study was performed to identify risk factors for ESCC that specifically reflect the demography and nutritional habits of individuals living in this region. Materials and Methods: The following parameters were compared in 208 ESCC patients and 200 control individuals in the Eastern Anatolian region: age, sex, place of living, socioeconomic level, education level, smoking, alcohol intake, nutritional habits, and food preservation methods. Results: The mean age of ESCC patients was 56.2 years, and 87 (41.8%) were 65 years-old or older. The ratio of women to men in the patient group was 1.39/1. ESCC patients consumed significantly less fruit and yellow or green vegetables and more hot black tea, 'boiled yellow butter', and mouldy cheese than did control individuals. Residence in rural areas, smoking, and cooking food by burning animal manure were also significantly associated with ESCC. Conclusions: The consumption of boiled yellow butter and mouldy cheese, which are specific to the Eastern Anatolian region, and the use of animal manure for food preparation were identified as risk factors in this region. Further studies are required to potentially identify the carcinogenic substances that promote the development of ESCC in this region.

Influence of Clinically Significant Portal Hypertension on Hepatectomy for Hepatocellular Carcinoma: a Meta-analysis

  • Tang, Yun-Hao;Zhu, Wen-Jiang;Wen, Tian-Fu
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.4
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    • pp.1649-1654
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    • 2014
  • Background: Clinically significant portal hypertension (PHT) is considered as a contraindication for hepatectomy according to the guidelines of the European Association for Study of Liver and the American Association for Study of Liver Diseases. However, this issue remains controversial. Here we performed a metaanalysis to evaluate the impact of PHT on the results of hepatectomy for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Methods: Cohort studies evaluating the impact of clinically significant PHT, defined as oesophageal varices and/or splenomegaly associated with thrombocytopenia, on the results of hepatectomy for HCC were identified using a predefined search strategy. Summary risk ratios (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) for PHT and outcomes after hepatectomy for HCC were calculated. Results: Seven cohort studies which including 574 cases with PHT and 1,354 cases without PHT were considered eligible for inclusion. The meta-analysis showed that, in all patients, pooled RRs of post-operative liver failure, post-operative ascites, peri-operative blood transfusion, operative mortality, 3- and 5-year overall survival associated with PHT were 2.23 (95% CI: 1.48-3.34, P=0.0001), 1.77 (95% CI: 1.19-2.64, P=0.005), 1.23 (95% CI: 1.03-1.49, P=0.03), 2.58 (95% CI: 1.12-5.96, P=0.03), 0.82 (95% CI: 0.75-0.88, P<0.00001) and 0.76 (95% CI: 0.69-0.85, P<0.00001), respectively. In subgroup analysis, similar results were found in Child-Pugh class A patients. Conclusion: This meta-analysis suggests that presence of oesophageal varices and/or splenomegaly associated with thrombocytopenia is associated with higher rates of post-operative complications and poor long-term survival after hepatectomy for HCC.

Population Based Study of the Association Between Binge Drinking and Mortality from Cancer of Oropharynx and Esophagus in Korean Men: the Kangwha Cohort Study

  • Jung, Sang Hyuk;Gombojav, Bayasgalan;Park, Eun-Cheol;Nam, Chung Mo;Ohrr, Heechoul;Won, Jong Uk
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.8
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    • pp.3675-3679
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    • 2014
  • We assessed the association between frequency of heavy binge drinking and mortality from oropharynx and esophagus cancer after controlling for the total volume of alcohol intake among Korean men. The cohort comprised 2,677 male residents in Kangwha County, aged 55 or older in March 1985, for their upper digestive tract cancer mortality for 20.8 years up to December 31, 2005. For daily binge drinkers versus non-drinkers, the hazard ratios (95% Cls) for mortality were 4.82 (1.36, 17.1) and 6.75 (1.45, 31.4) for oropharyngeal and esophageal cancers, respectively. Even after adjusting for the volume of alcohol intake, we found the hazard ratios for frequency of binge drinking and mortality of oropharyngeal or esophageal cancer to not change appreciably: the hazard ratios were 4.90 (1.00, 27.0) and 7.17 (1.02, 50.6), respectively. For esophageal cancer, there was a strong dose-response relationship. The frequency of heavy binge drinking and not just the volume of alcohol intake may increase the risk of mortality from upper digestive tract cancer, particularly esophageal cancer in Korean men. These findings need to be confirmed in further studies with a larger sample size.

Correction: Ethanolic Extract of Marsdenia condurango Ameliorates Benzo[a]pyrene-induced Lung Cancer of Rats -Condurango Ameliorates BaP-induced Lung Cancer in Rats-

  • Sikdar, Sourav;Mukherjee, Avinaba;Khuda-Bukhsh, Anisur Rahman
    • Journal of Pharmacopuncture
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    • v.18 no.2
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    • pp.86-87
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    • 2015
  • Objectives: Condurango is widely used in various systems of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) against oesophageal and stomach ailments including certain types of cancer. However, until now no systematic study has been conducted to verify its efficacy and dose with proper experimental support. Therefore, we examined if ethanolic extract of Condurango could ameliorate benzo[a]pyrene (BaP)-induced lung cancer in rats in vivo to validate its use as a traditional medicine. Methods: After one month of scheduled BaP feeding (50 mg/kg body-weight), lung cancer developed after four months. BaP-intoxicated rats were then treated with Condurango (0.06 mL) twice daily starting at the end of the four months for an additional one, two and three months, respectively. Effects of Condurango were evaluated by analyzing lung histology, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and antioxidant biomarkers, DNA-fragmentation, RT-PCR (Reverese Transcriptase-Polymerase Chain Reaction), ELISA (Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay) and western blot of several apoptotic signalling markers and comparing the results against those obtained for controls. Results: A histological study revealed gradual progress in lung tissue-repair activity in Condurango-fed cancer-bearing rats, showing gradual tissue recovery after three months of drug administration. Condurango has the capacity to generate ROS, which may contribute to a reduction in anti-oxidative activity and to an induction of oxidative stress-mediated cancer-cell death. Condurango-activated pro-apoptotic genes (Bax, caspase-3, caspase-9, p53, cytochrome-c, apaf-1, ICAD and PARP) and down-regulated antiapoptotic-Bcl-2 expression were noted both at mRNA and protein levels. Studies on caspase-3 activation and PARP cleavage by western blot analysis revealed that Condurango induced apoptosis through a caspase-3-dependent pathway. Conclusions: The anticancer efficacy of an ethanolic extract of Condurango for treating BaP-induced lung cancer in rats lends support for its use in various traditional systems of medicine.