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The Analysis on Forest Fire Occurrence Characteristics by Regional Area in Korea from 1990 to 2014 Year

  • Jeon, Bo Ram;Chae, Hee Mun
    • Journal of Forest and Environmental Science
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    • v.32 no.2
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    • pp.149-157
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    • 2016
  • Understanding regional characteristics in forest fire occurrence is important to establish effective forest fire prevention policy in Korea. This study analyzed the characteristics of forest fires occurred in 16 administrative districts for recent 25 years (1990~2014) to examine regional characteristics in forest fire occurrence. Forest fire occurrence reflects regional characteristics depending on climatic factors as well as region's society-cultural factors. Results showed that the first cause of forest fire occurrence was carelessness by human activities throughout all administrative districts, however, the second cause depends on regional characteristics. As the results of forest fire occurrence period analyzed for 10 days, the most forest fires occurred in the southern region during January to March, while forest fires in the northern region occurred mostly during March to April. We classified forest fire occurrence patterns into three types (centralized: Gyeonggi-do, dispersal: Busan, horizontally distributed: Gyeongsangnam-do) by multi-temporal analysis for forest fire occurrence period.

Terrain Classification Using Three-Dimensional Co-occurrence Features (3차원 Co-occurrence 특징을 이용한 지형분류)

  • Jin Mun-Gwang;Woo Dong-Min;Lee Kyu-Won
    • The Transactions of the Korean Institute of Electrical Engineers D
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    • v.52 no.1
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    • pp.45-50
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    • 2003
  • Texture analysis has been efficiently utilized in the area of terrain classification. In this application features have been obtained in the 2D image domain. This paper suggests 3D co-occurrence texture features by extending the concept of co-occurrence to 3D world. The suggested 3D features are described using co-occurrence histogram of digital elevations at two contiguous position as co-occurrence matrix. The practical construction of co-occurrence matrix limits the number of levels of digital elevation. If the digital elevation is quantized into the number of levels over the whole DEM(Digital Elevation Map), the distinctive features can not be obtained. To resolve the quantization problem, we employ local quantization technique which preserves the variation of elevations. Experiments has been carried out to verify the proposed 3D co-occurrence features, and the addition of the suggested features significantly improves the classification accuracy.

Developing of Forest Fire Occurrence Probability Model by Using the Meteorological Characteristics in Korea (기상특성을 이용한 전국 산불발생확률모형 개발)

  • Lee Si Young;Han Sang Yoel;Won Myoung Soo;An Sang Hyun;Lee Myung Bo
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural and Forest Meteorology
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    • v.6 no.4
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    • pp.242-249
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    • 2004
  • This study was conducted to develop a forest fire occurrence model using meteorological characteristics for the practical purpose of forecasting forest fire danger. Forest fire in South Korea is highly influenced by humidity, wind speed, and temperature. To effectively forecast forest fire occurrence, we need to develop a forest fire danger rating model using weather factors associated with forest fire. Forest fore occurrence patterns were investigated statistically to develop a forest fire danger rating index using time series weather data sets collected from 8 meteorological observation centers. The data sets were for 5 years from 1997 through 2001. Development of the forest fire occurrence probability model used a logistic regression function with forest fire occurrence data and meteorological variables. An eight-province probability model by was developed. The meteorological variables that emerged as affective to forest fire occurrence are effective humidity, wind speed, and temperature. A forest fire occurrence danger rating index of through 10 was developed as a function of daily weather index (DWI).

A Study on Occurrence of Backache Related to Types of Daily Activities in Adulthood (성인의 활동형태와 관련된 요통발생에 관한 조사연구)

  • Hur, Young
    • Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing
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    • v.8 no.1
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    • pp.99-110
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    • 1978
  • For the study on occurrence of backache related to types of daily activities in adulthood Nine hundred twenty six adults living in Seoul were randomly selected as subjects from the eight kinds of occupation; housewives, teachers, nurses, officers, physicians, labourers, beauticians & barbers, and students. The purpose of this study was to identify various factors related to backache in daily activities and to apply these factors in clinical situations as well as in the community situations. This survey was conducted from September 21 through October 8, 1976. Under the ten hypothesis designed for this study, the. followings were obtained; 1. Significant difference on occurrence of backache was revealed according to sex difference at 0.5% level. (x$^2$= 27.85, df: 1, p<0.005) 2. Significant difference on occurrence of backache was revealed according to age groups at 2.5% level. (x$^2$= 11.13, df= 3, p<0.025) 3. Significant difference on occurrence of backache was revealed according to types of occupation at 2.5% level. (x$^2$= 18.04, df: 7, p<0.025) 4. Significant difference on occurrence of backache was revealed according to types of movement originated by hand during occupational activities at 1% level. (x$^2$= 14.23, df= 4, p<0.01) 5, Significant difference on occurrence of backache was revealed according to types f movement of legs during occupational activities at 0.5% level. x$^2$= 20.78, df: 3, p<0.005) . No significant difference on occurrence of backache was revealed according to length f daily working hours. . Significant difference on occurrence of backache was revealed according to degree of exercises at the level. x$^2$= 6.01, df= 2, p<0.05) . Significant difference on occurrence of backache was revealed according to sleeping posture at 1% level. x$^2$= 9.61, df: 2, p<0.01). Significant difference on occurrence of backache was revealed according to ordinary pattern of mean posture score at 0.5% level. (t : 4.27, df: 924, p<0.005) 10. Significant difference was revealed mean posture scores according to period of backache history at 0.5% level. (f- ratio = 3.73, df= 4, 562 p<0.005).

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An Analysis of Impacts of Climate Change on Rice Damage Occurrence by Insect Pests and Disease (기후변화가 벼 병해충 피해면적 발생에 미치는 영향분석)

  • Jeong, Hak-Kyun;Kim, Chang-Gil;Moon, Dong-Hyun
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
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    • v.33 no.1
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    • pp.52-56
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    • 2014
  • BACKGROUND: It is known that impacts of climate change on damage occurrence by insect pests and diseases are increasing. The negative effects of climate change on production will threaten our food security. It is needed that on the basis of analysis of the impacts, proper strategies in response to climate change are developed. METHODS AND RESULTS: The objective of this paper is to estimate impacts of climate change on rice damage occurrence by insect pests and diseases, using the panal model which analyzes both cross-section data and time series data. The result of an analysis on impacts of climate change on rice damage occurrence by pest insect and disease showed that the damage occurrence by Rice leaf roller and Rice water weevil increased if temperature increased, and damage occurrence by Stripe, Sheath blight, and Leaf Blast increased if precipitation(or amount of sunshine) increased(or decreased). CONCLUSION: Adaptation strategies, supplying weather forecasting information by region, developing systematical strategies for prevention of damage occurrence by pest insect and disease, analyzing the factors of damage occurrence by unexpected pest insect and disease, enforcing international cooperation for prevention of damage occurrence are needed to minimize the impacts of damage occurrence on rice production.

Histogram Equalized Eigen Co-occurrence Features for Color Image Classification (컬러이미지 검색을 위한 히스토그램 평활화 기반 고유 병발 특징에 관한 연구)

  • Yoon, TaeBok;Choi, YoungMee;Choo, MoonWon
    • Proceedings of the Korea Information Processing Society Conference
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    • pp.705-708
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    • 2010
  • An eigen color co-occurrence approach is proposed that exploits the correlation between color channels to identify the degree of image similarity. This method is based on traditional co-occurrence matrix method and histogram equalization. On the purpose of feature extraction, eigen color co-occurrence matrices are computed for extracting the statistical relationships embedded in color images by applying Principal Component Analysis (PCA) on a set of color co-occurrence matrices, which are computed on the histogram equalized images. That eigen space is created with a set of orthogonal axes to gain the essential structures of color co-occurrence matrices, which is used to identify the degree of similarity to classify an input image to be tested for various purposes. In this paper RGB, Gaussian color space are compared with grayscale image in terms of PCA eigen features embedded in histogram equalized co-occurrence features. The experimental results are presented.

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Satellite Monitoring and Prediction for the Occurrence of the Red Tide in the Middle Coastal Area in the South Sea of Korea

  • Yoon, Hong-Joo;Kim, Young-Seup
    • Korean Journal of Remote Sensing
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    • v.19 no.1
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    • pp.21-30
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    • 2003
  • It was studied the relationship between the red tide occurrence and the meteorological and oceanographic factors, the choice of potential area for red tide occurrence, and the satellite monitoring for red tide. From 1990 through 2001, the red tide continuously appeared and the number of red tide occurrence increased every year. Then, the red tide bloomed during the periods of July and August. An important meteorological factor governing the mechanisms of the increasing in number of red tide occurrence was heavy precipitation. Oceanographic factors of favorable marine environmental conditions for the red tide formation included warm water temperature, low salinity, high suspended solid, low phosphorus, low nitrogen. A common condition for the red tide occurrence was heavy precipitation 2∼4 days earlier, and the favorable conditions for the red tide formation were high air temperature, proper sunshine and light winds for the day in red tide occurrence. From satellite images, it was possible to monitor the spatial distributions and concentrations of red tide. It was founded the potential areas for red tide occurrence in August 2000 by CIS conception: Yeosu∼Dolsan coast, Gamak bay, Namhae coast, Marado coast, Goheung coast, Deukryang bay, respectively.

Expected Overtopping P개bability Considering Real Tide Occurrence

  • Kweonl, Hyuck-Min;Lee, Young-Yeol;Oh, Young-Min
    • Proceedings of the Korea Water Resources Association Conference
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    • pp.479-483
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    • 2004
  • A new calculation method of expected overtopping probability of rubble mound breakwater considering real tide occurrence has been proposed. A calculation method of expected overtopping probability of rubble mound breakwater was proposed by Kweon and Suh (2003). In their calculation, the fluctuation of tidal elevation was expressed by the sinusoidal change that yields the uniform distribution of occurrence frequency. However, the realistic distribution of tidal elevation should influence on the overtopping chance. In this study, the occurrence frequency of tidal elevation obtained from the real sea is included. The tidal elevation used in this study is collected from the east coastal part of Korean peninsular. Analyzing the annual data of the tidal fluctuation measured hourly during 355 days, the distribution of occurrence frequency is formulated utilizing by the normal distribution with one peak. Among the calculation procedures of annual maximum wave height, wave height-period joint distribution, wave run-up height and occurrence frequency of tide, only the annual maximum wave height is again chosen randomly from normal distribution to consider the uncertainty. The others are treated by utilizing the distribution function or relationship itself, It is found that the inclusion of the variability of tidal elevation has great influence on the computation of the expected overtopping probability of rubble mound breakwater. The bigger standard deviation of occurrence frequency is, the lower the overtopping probability of rubble mound breakwater is.

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The Effects of Soil Surface Moisture Distribution in Perlite on Occurrence of Wild Plants (지표면의 수분분포가 야생초본류의 발생에 미치는 영향)

  • Bak, In-Young;Kim, Min-Soo
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Environmental Restoration Technology
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    • v.4 no.1
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    • pp.16-23
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    • 2001
  • This study was conducted to analyse the relation between physical characteristics of soil surface and wild plants occurrence. Lots of natural occurrence on loamy soil and a little of natural occurrence on perlite. Those were used to observe the wild plants occurrence through the duration. Natural occurrence of wild plants were observed on uniform sand, perlite, loamy soil and 2cms loamy soil layer above the perlite. Uniform sand was compared with different height of drain ditch. The results of analysis were as followed. 1. Wild plants germinated on the uniform perlite layer, they did not grow larger. Because water in large pores of perlite surface drained rapidly and evaporated easily, therefore surface remained low moisture contents. 2. A lot of weed grew on 2cms loamy layer on perlite which stratified above the perlite layer. Because perlite had plenty of soil moisture and soil moisture moved easily from perlite to loamy soil layer. 3. Uniform loamy soil had similar occurrence on the uniform perlite. It was nearly same at surface moisture distribution but lower than layered loamy soil on perlite, and the vertical distributions at soil moisture was totally lower than 2cms loamy soil layer on perlite. 4. Wild plants were grew on uniform sand on different height of drain ditch. In this case, much more wild plants were grew on which had more higher drainage ditch. The number of wild plants occurred when it was affected by soil surface moisture, drain ditch and natural occurrence of wild plants. This could be controlled by layered soil at surface moisture. Therefore weed occurrence can control in planting ground, where soil layer would not be disturbed.

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A Clustering Study of Young Children's Challenging Behaviors and Occurrence Rate through Age 2 to 5 (연령 증가에 따른 영유아 문제행동 발생율 군집화 연구)

  • Yoo, Soo Ok
    • Korean Journal of Child Studies
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    • v.34 no.6
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    • pp.57-75
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    • 2013
  • The purpose of this study was to examine changes in the rate of occurrence of challenging behaviors in young children according to their increase in age. The study is based on the responses of teachers in child care centers(N=246). They were asked which 38 types of challenging behavior occur most among ages 2, 3, 4, or 5 in young children's classrooms. The major results of this study were as follows. First, the occurrence rates of young children's challenging behaviors were classified into 5 clusters; decreased(Cluster 1, Cluster 2, Cluster 3), maintained(Cluster 4), or increased(Cluster 5) according to increases in their respective ages. Second, the behaviors such as throwing tantrums and biting, evident in Cluster 1, decreased very rapidly from a very high occurrence rate by age 3. The classroom culture maladjustment behaviors such as running aimlessly around the classroom and shouting, apparent in Cluster 2, had decreased rapidly from a high occurrence rate by age 4. The intentional classroom disruptive behaviors such as dropping objects to create noise and the peer culture maladjustment behaviors studied in Cluster 3 decreased gradually from a rate of medium occurrence by age 5. These results revealed the discontinuity which a few young children exhibit. Third, hurting others, observed in Cluster 4 maintained a low occurrence rate from age 2 until age 5. Using inappropriate language and threatening others in Cluster 5 increased gradually from a low occurrence at 2 to a high rate of occurrence at age 5. By carefully examining the change of young children's challenging behaviors on the basis of objective data in terms of the continuity/discontinuity and increased/decreased rate of diverse challenging behaviors, we will be better able help teachers and parents to plan the instruction, prevention and intervention of young children's challenging behaviors.