• Title, Summary, Keyword: occupational safety and health

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Outbreak of Sudden Cardiac Deaths in a Tire Manufacturing Facility: Can It Be Caused by Nanoparticles?

  • Kim, Eun-A;Park, Jung-Sun;Kim, Kun-Hyung;Lee, Na-Roo;Kim, Dae-Seong;Kang, Seong-Kyu
    • Safety and Health at Work
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    • v.3 no.1
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    • pp.58-66
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    • 2012
  • Objectives: The purpose of this study was to review clinical characteristics and working environments of sudden cardiac death (SCD) cases associated with a tire manufacturer in Korea, and review possible occupational risk factors for cardiovascular disease including nanoparticles (ultrafine particles, UFPs). Methods: We reviewed (i) the clinical course of SCD cases and (ii) occupational and non-occupational risk factors including chemicals, the physical work environment, and job characteristics. Results: Possible occupational factors were chemicals, UFPs of rubber fume, a hot environment, shift work, overworking, and noise exposure. The mean diameter of rubber fume (63-73 nm) was (larger than diesel exhaust [12 nm] and outdoor dust [50 nm]). The concentration of carbon disulfide, carbon monoxide and styrene were lower than the limit of detection. Five SCD cases were exposed to shift work and overworking. Most of the cases had several non-occupational factors such as hypertension, overweight and smoking. Conclusion: The diameter of rubber fume was larger than outdoor and the diesel exhaust, the most well known particulate having a causal relationship with cardiovascular disease. The possibility of a causal relation between UFPs of rubber fume and SCD was not supported in this study. However, it is necessary to continue studying the relationship between large sized UFPs and SCD.

Cancer Mortality and Incidence in Cement Industry Workers in Korea

  • Koh, Dong-Hee;Kim, Tae-Woo;Jang, Seung-Hee;Ryu, Hyang-Woo
    • Safety and Health at Work
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    • v.2 no.3
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    • pp.243-249
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    • 2011
  • Objectives: Cement contains hexavalent chromium, which is a human carcinogen. However, its effect on cancer seems inconclusive in epidemiologic studies. The aim of this retrospective cohort study was to elucidate the association between dust exposure in the cement industry and cancer occurrence. Methods: The cohorts consisted of male workers in 6 Portland cement factories in Korea. Study subjects were classified into five groups by job: quarry, production, maintenance, laboratory, and office work. Cancer mortality and incidence in workers were observed from 1992 to 2007 and 1997-2005, respectively. Standardized mortality ratios and standardized incidence ratios were calculated according to the five job classifications. Results: There was an increased standardized incidence ratio for stomach cancer of 1.56 (27/17.36, 95% confidence interval: 1.02-2.26) in production workers. The standardized mortality ratio for lung cancer increased in production workers. However, was not statistically significant. Conclusion: Our result suggests a potential association between cement exposure and stomach cancer. Hexavalent chromium contained in cement might be a causative carcinogen.

An Empirical Analysis on Labor Unions and Occupational Safety and Health Committees' Activity, and Their Relation to the Changes in Occupational Injury and Illness Rate

  • Yi, Kwan-Hyung;Cho, Hm-Hak;Kim, Ji-Yun
    • Safety and Health at Work
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    • v.2 no.4
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    • pp.321-327
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    • 2011
  • Objectives: To find out from an analysis of empirical data the levels of influence, which a labor union (LU) and Occupational Safety and Health Committee (OSHC) have in reducing the occupational injury and illness rate (OIIR) through their accident prevention activities in manufacturing industries with five or more employees. Methods: The empirical data used in this study are the Occupational Safety and Health Tendency survey data, Occupational Accident Compensation data and labor productivity and sales data for the years 2003 to 2007. By matching these three sources of data, a final data set (n = 280) was developed and analyzed using SPSS version 18 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). Results: It was found that a workplace with a LU has a lower OIIR than one without a LU. In manufacturing industries with five or more employees in 2007, the OIIR of the workplaces without a LU was 0.87%, while that of workplaces with a LU was much lower at 0.45%. In addition, workplaces with an established OSHC had a lower OIIR than those without an OSHC. Conclusion: It was found that the OIIR of workplaces with a LU is lower than those without a LU. Moreover, those with the OSHC usually had a lower OIIR than those without. The workplace OIIR may have an impact on management performance because the rate is negatively correlated with labor productivity and sales. In the long run, the OIIR of workplaces will be reduced when workers and employers join forces and recognize that the safety and health activities of the workplace are necessary, not only for securing the health rights of the workers, but also for raising labor productivity.

The Trend of Occupational Injuries in Korea from 2001 to 2010

  • Rhee, Kyung Yong;Choe, Seong Weon;Kim, Young Sun;Koo, Kwon Ho
    • Safety and Health at Work
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    • v.4 no.1
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    • pp.63-70
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    • 2013
  • Objectives: This study is planned to assess the trend of occupational injuries in Korea from 2001 to 2010. Methods: Ten years of occupational injuries, from 2001 to 2010, were analyzed in order to investigate the changing profiles according to the various characteristics of injuries; economic sectors, age of the injured, and type of injuries. The changing profile of occupational injuries was investigated by comparison with an index-created relative value based on the number of cases of reference category. Results: The fatalities of construction, forest, agriculture, and service show the increasing trend. The nonfatal occupational injuries of the manufacturing sector were higher than those of other sectors in every year but the fatal occupational injuries of construction workers were higher than those of the manufacturing sector. Occupational injuries occurring due to amputation and those of slip and trip increased. The number of occupational injuries for the worker groups of 24 years old and below decreased and 45 years old and above increased. In comparison to the figure of fall from height, the figures of slip and trip or caught in equipment are higher in every calendar year. Conclusion: This study find out construction, forest, agriculture, and service sectors, aged worker with 45 years old and over can be target population for the strategies of occupational safety.

A study on establishing asbestos analysis method using a transmission electron microscope with Energy dispersive X-ray analyzer (TEM-EDX) (에너지 분산 X선 분석장치가 장착된 투과전자현미경을 이용한 석면분석방법)

  • Han, Jeong Hee;Kim, Kwang Jin;Chung, Yong Hyun;Lee, Jun Yeon;Lee,, Yong;Chung, Ho Keun;Yu, Il Je
    • Journal of Korean Society of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
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    • v.11 no.2
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    • pp.102-110
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    • 2001
  • To establish an accurate asbestos analysis method for workplace samples, chrysotile, amosite, crocidolite, tremolite, actinolite, and anthophyllite asbestos fibers were analyzed for their morphology, atomic content and electron diffraction patterns. The morphology of asbestos fiber was evaluated in $10,000{\times}$ magnification. The atomic contents was analyzed by X-ray analyzer (TEM-EDX). Asbestos fibers were further assessed using electron diffraction (ED) patterns to provide an additional criterion for classifying the asbestos fibers. Twenty asbestos fibers were initially randomly selected for morphological evaluation; based on an aspect ratio (length : diameter = 3:1). Then the fibers were determined for their EDX spectrums and ED patterns. Our results showed that only chrysotile fiber has a hollow tube structure to be distinguished from other asbestos fibers. Although asbestos fibers had similar morphology, they had different EDX spectrums and ED patterns. Our results on the atomic content of asbestos fibers were very similar to those of other researchers, but amosite and crocidolite had a little difference in atomic content compared with the results from other researchers. The difference may be due to the difference in equipment or asbestos sample selection. A study on asbestos samples from biological specimens to establish a criterion for determining occupational asbestos exposed diseases should be done in the near future.

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The Risk Rating System for Noise-induced Hearing Loss in Korean Manufacturing Sites Based on the 2009 Survey on Work Environments

  • Kim, Young-Sun;Cho, Youn-Ho;Kwon, Oh-Jun;Choi, Seong-Weon;Rhee, Kyung-Yong
    • Safety and Health at Work
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    • v.2 no.4
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    • pp.336-347
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    • 2011
  • Objectives: In Korea, an average of 258 workers claim compensation for their noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) on an annual basis. Indeed, hearing disorder ranks first in the number of diagnoses made by occupational medical check-ups. Against this backdrop, this study analyzed the impact of 19 types of noise-generating machines and equipment on the sound pressure levels in workplaces and NIHL occurrence based on a 2009 national survey on work environments. Methods: Through this analysis, a series of statistical models were built to determine posterior probabilities for each worksite with an aim to present risk ratings for noise levels at work. Results: It was found that air compressors and grinding machines came in first and second, respectively in the number of installed noise-generating machines and equipment. However, there was no direct relationship between workplace noise and NIHL among workers since noise-control equipment and protective gear had been in place. By building a logistic regression model and neural network, statistical models were set to identify the influence of the noise-generating machines and equipment on workplace noise levels and NIHL occurrence. Conclusion: This study offered NIHL prevention measures which are fit for the worksites in each risk grade.

Occupational safety and health management system and regulation compliance in manufacturing enterprises (제조업 사업장의 산업안전보건경영체계와 규제 순응도)

  • Kim, Ki-Sik;Rhee, Kyung Yong;Yoon, Young-Shik
    • Journal of the Korea Safety Management and Science
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    • v.15 no.2
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    • pp.21-30
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    • 2013
  • OSHMS(Occupational Safety and Health Management System) is able to define as a typical convergence of all kinds of activities and elements that support maintaining safety at workplace and protecting employee's health. In particular, fundamental function of OSHMS is preventing diverse hazards at workplace through high level of regulation compliance. Furthermore, insuring safety in workplace, protecting employee's health and increasing effectiveness in manufacture are OSHMS's additional functions. Based on the division of manufacture in 2009 Survey on Current Status of Occupational Health & Safety data, the study analyses certain relation between OSHMS and level of regulation compliance. The main finding is that most activities and elements which formed by OSHMS are being affected by regulation clauses.

Selection of Target Materials for GLP Genotoxic Tests by Searching the Mutagenicity Information of Chemicals by Occupational Safety and Health Act (산안법 관리대상물질의 변이원성 검색을 통한 GLP 유전독성 시험대상 후보물질의 선정)

  • Rim, Kyung-Taek;Lim, Cheol-Hong;Ahn, Byung-Joon
    • Journal of Korean Society of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
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    • v.25 no.3
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    • pp.254-284
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    • 2015
  • Objectives: There is a requirement to select target materials for mutagenicity(Genotoxicity) testing, so we determined to set the test priorities of them by searching the related database. Methods and Results: We searched a number of databases to find information on mutagenicity tests with chemicals under the Occupational Safety and Health Act(OSH Act), such as KOSHANET, National Toxicology Program(NTP), European Chemicals Agency(ECHA), US National Library of Medicine(NLM), and Genetic Toxicology Data Bank(GENE-TOX), as well as ChemIDplus webpage, and presented the information. Also we anticipated their hazards with ACToR sites to confirm the 58 mutagenicity(Genotoxicity) tests we will perform. Conclusions: We presented target materials for mutagenicity testing with specific GLP tests consisting of reverse mutation(Ames), chromosomal aberration and micronucleus test.

The Gender Sensitive Analysis of Occupational Injuries and Illnesses of Employees (임금근로자의 산업재해에 대한 성인지적 분석)

  • Rhee, K.Y.;Kim, Young Sun;Kim, K.S.;Park, J.S.;Seo, D.U.;Kim, H.M.
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Safety
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    • v.29 no.6
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    • pp.158-165
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    • 2014
  • The statistics of occupational injuries and illnesses is one of the most important indicators of worker's safety and health in the field of occupational safety and health. The conventional statistics was produced without consideration of gender difference. This study was planned to investigate the difference of occupational injuries and illnesses by gender because that recently female workers was increased through the change of industrial structure such as from manufacturing dominated to service dominated structure. Statistics of occupational injuries and illnesses collected by workmen's compensation insurance system that have no information about gender composition of population. Economically active population survey was used to calculated the rate of occupational injuries and illnesses by gender. The distribution of estimated rate of occupational injuries and illnesses by industry, occupation and the type of accident were different between male and female employees, but those by the size of enterprise, age of the injured, the duration of the first recuperation, and job tenure were similar between male and female employees. This study has shown that gender sensitive approach may be applied to policy of occupational safety and health because that gender neutral perspective may not discover the fact of gender specific problems.