• Title, Summary, Keyword: occupational safety and health

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A Study on the Job Stress of Opticians (안경사 직무스트레스에 관한 연구)

  • Hwang, Hae-Young;Kim, Hyun-Mok;Kim, In-Soo;Son, Jeong-Sik
    • Journal of Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society
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    • v.18 no.1
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    • pp.1-10
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    • 2013
  • Purpose: This study is conducted to evaluate the job stressors for opticians in Ulsan city. Methods: We investigated job stress of 180 opticians working in Ulsan. The results of this study from The Korean standard job stressors assessment tool developed by Korea occupational safety and health agency (KOSHA) was compared with Korean reference value. The questionnaire on the social, demographic characteristics of opticians was also used to find the factors affecting to job stressors by using multiple linear regression analysis. Results: Among the eight fields of stressors, the interpersonal conflict (the median value; 33.4, the measurements; men; 38.8, women; 41.5) and company culture (the median; 41.7, the measurements; men; 47.4, women; 49.3) were higher than the median value of the Korean workers. By multiple linear regression analysis, the significant factors to the interpersonal conflict were the duty, working hours, unmarried, average salary. In terms of the company culture, last school, rest day of month, job career, average salary and working hours were significantly associated to the score of company culture. Conclusions: Based on the results, important factor in the formation of a positive organizational culture through to improve treatment of opticians investigation and mutual horizontal communication systems in the workplace for the manage on interpersonal conflict and company culture.

Assessment of Defect Risks in Apartment Projects based on the Defect Classification Framework (효율적인 품질관리를 위한 공동주택 하자위험 분석)

  • Jang, Ho-Myun
    • Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society
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    • v.20 no.11
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    • pp.510-519
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    • 2019
  • The aim of this study was to set a defect classification framework and evaluate the defect risks in apartment buildings For this, approximately 15,056 defect items for 133 apartment buildings were examined. As a result of the analysis, the major defect of the RC work was cracks, which were found mainly in public locations. Moreover, the RC work was found to exhibit a high defect risk of water problem and surface appearance, which are highly connected with cracks. Second, the finish work has a high defect risk because it is composed of various work types, and there are many kinds of materials and construction parts involved. Third, the major defects of the waterproof work were incorrect installation and missing tasks, which have high defect risks in the garage. This is because defects that require rework occur mainly in the underground garage. Based on these results, this study proposed countermeasures for defect risk management to be considered in the construction, handover, post-handover, and occupancy phases. These have been set in detail based on the three zones: low frequency high severity (LFHS), low frequency low severity (LFLS), and high frequency low severity (HFLS).

A Quantitative Risk Analysis of LPG Leaked During Cylinder Delivery (가스용기 운반 중 누출된 LPG의 정량적 위험 분석)

  • Kim B-J,;Park Ki-Chang;Lee Kuen-Won
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Gas
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    • v.7 no.2
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    • pp.33-41
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    • 2003
  • There exists high hazard when transporting LPG as well as using, storing, and producing. For small scale LPG consumer, retailers deliver LPG to customers via a truck loading many LPG cylinders. Suppose there occurred a accident during LPG cylinder transfer, this could result in serious damages to the life and properties in the near or neighbor of the accident spot. In this regard, we made a quantitative risk analysis to estimate the possible damages and the probability through the identification of accidents causes and the simulation of the possible scenario. In this study, we made the Excel & Visual Basic computer program to perform quantitative LPG accident analysis. The simulation showed the following results. In case of UVCE(Unconfined Vapor Cloud Explosion), the effect within l0m of the accident spot showed very severe structural damages and even the accident can break the window glasses of the area of 150 m apart from accident spot. In case of TNT corresponding probit analysis, after 10 minutes LPG leaking, $75\%$ window glasses of 40 m distance was expected to be broken. And $16\%$ frames of 20m distance, $10\%$ frames of 40m distance was expected to be collapsed.

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Smoke Generation by Burning Test of Cypress Plates Treated with Boron Compounds (붕소 화합물로 처리된 편백목재의 연소시험에 의한 연기발생)

  • Chung, Yeong-Jin;Jin, Eui
    • Applied Chemistry for Engineering
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    • v.29 no.6
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    • pp.670-676
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    • 2018
  • Experiments on combustion gases generation of untreated cypress specimens or treated with boric acid, ammonium pentaborate, and boric acid/ammonium pentaborate additive were carried out. Test specimens were painted three times with 15 wt% boron compound aqueous solutions. After drying, the generation of combustion gas was analyzed using a cone calorimeter (ISO 5660-1). As a result, comparing to untreated specimen, the smoke performance index (SPI) of the specimens treated with the boron compound increased by 1.37 to 2.68 times and the smoke growth index (SGI) decreased by 29.4 to 52.9%. The smoke intensity (SI) of the specimens treated with boron compounds is expected to be 1.16 to 3.92 times lower than that of untreated specimens, resulting in lower smoke and fire hazards. Also, the maximum carbon monoxide ($CO_{peak}$) concentration of specimens treated with boron compounds was 12.7 to 30.9% lower than that of untreated specimens. However, it was measured to produce fatal toxicities from 1.52 to 1.92 times higher than that of permissible exposure limits (PEL) by Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA). The boron compounds played a role in reducing carbon monoxide, but it did not meet the expectation of reduction effect because of the high concentration of carbon monoxide in cypress itself.

A Study of Establishment of the Infrastructure for Consequence Analysis of Metallic Dust Explosion (금속성 분진폭발의 영향 분석을 위한 기반구축에 관한 연구)

  • Jang, Chang Bong;Lee, Kyung Jin;Moon, Myong Hwan;Baek, Ju Hong;Ko, Jae Wook
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Gas
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    • v.21 no.4
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    • pp.84-91
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    • 2017
  • Recent years have witnessed the increased usage of flammable metals, such as aluminum or magnesium, in wide range of high-tech industries. These metals are indispensable for the improvement of physical properties of materials as well as the design capability of the final product. During the process, unwanted metal dusts could be released to the environment. This can lead to an occupational health and safety issues. Due to their flammable nature, more serious problem of an explosion can happen in extreme cases. The explosion is the combustion of tiny solid particles and vapor mixture, caused by pyrolysis. This complex composition makes engineering analysis more difficult, compared to simple gas explosions or vapor cloud combustions. The study was conducted to assess this light metal dust explosion in an effort to provide the bases for a risk assessment. Dust explosion characteristics of each material was carefully evaluated and an appropriate analysis tool was developed. A comprehensive database was also constructed and utilized for the calibration of the developed response model and the verification for its accuracy. Subsequently, guidelines were provided to prevent dust explosions that could occur in top-notch industrial processes.

Analyzing on the Fluctuation Characteristics of Management Condition of Construction Company (건설업체 경영상태 변동에 대한 특성 분석)

  • Jang, Ho-Myun
    • Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society
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    • v.15 no.2
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    • pp.1118-1125
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    • 2014
  • The past IMF foreign exchange crisis and subprime financial crisis had a big influence on variability of macroeconomics, even if the origin of its occurrence might be different. This not only had a significant infrequence on the overall industries, but also produced many insolvent companies by being closely linked with a management environment of an individual construction company leading the construction industry. The purpose of this research is to investigate characteristics of management condition of construction company according to the size of construction company using KMV model developed on the basis of the Black & Scholes option pricing theory. This research has set 28 construction companies listed to KOSPI/KOSDAQ for applying the KMV model and measuring the level of the default risk of construction companies. The data was retrieved from TS2000 established by Korea Listed Companies Association (KLCA), Statistics Korea. The analysis period is between first quarter of 2004 and fourth quarter of 2010. This research examine characteristics of the level and fluctuation process of the management condition of construction company according to the size of construction company.

Influence of Housing Market Changes on Construction Company Insolvency (주택시장 변화가 규모별 건설업체 부실화에 미치는 영향 분석)

  • Jang, Ho-Myun
    • Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society
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    • v.15 no.5
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    • pp.3260-3269
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    • 2014
  • The construction industry has strong ties with other industries, and so construction company insolvency also has a strong influence on other industries. Prediction models addressing the insolvency of construction company have been well studied. Although factors contributing to insolvency must precede those of predictions of insolvency, studies on these contributing factors are limited. The purpose of this study is to analyze the influence of changes in the housing market on construction company insolvency by using the Vector Error Correction Model. Construction companies were divided into two groups, and the expected default frequency(EDF), which indicates insolvency of each company was measured through the KMV model. The results verified that 10 largest construction companies were in a better financial condition compared to relatively smaller construction companies. As a result of conducting impulse response analysis, the EDF of large companies was found to be more sensitive to housing market change than that of small- and medium-sized construction companies.

Calculation of Derived Investigation Levels for Uranium Intake (우라늄 섭취의 유도조사준위 산출)

  • Lee, Na-Rae;Han, Seung-Jae;Cho, Kun-Woo;Jeong, Kyu-Hwan;Lee, Dong-Myung
    • Journal of Radiation Protection and Research
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    • v.38 no.2
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    • pp.68-77
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    • 2013
  • Derived Investigation levels(DILs) were calculated to protect the workers from the effects of both radiological hazard and chemical toxicity by uranium intake. Investigation Levels(ILs) of committed effective dose of 2 mSv $y^{-1}-6$ mSv $y^{-1}$ and uranium concentration of 0.3 ${\mu}g$ $g^{-1}$ in kidney, based on Korean Nuclaer Safety Act, Korean Occupational Safety and Health Act and current scientific studies of uranium intake were assumed. DILs of radiological hazard and chemical toxicity were then calculated based on the concentration of uranium in air of workplace, the lung monitoring and urine analysis, respectively. As a result, in case of the nuclear fuel fabrication plant where 3.5% enriched uranium is handled, derived investigation level(DIL) for the control of the concentration of uranium in the air of workplace assumed with 15-min acute inhalation was 0.6 mg $m^{-3}$ for all types of uranium. DILs for the control of the average concentration of uranium in air of workplace, assuming an 8-hour workday, were 15.21 ${\mu}g$ $m^{-3}$ of Type F uranium, 0.41-1.23 Bq $m^{-3}$ and 0.13-0.39 Bq $m^{-3}$ for Type M and Type S uranium, respectively. DILs for the lung monitoring assumed with a period of 6-month interval were 0.37-1.11 Bq and 0.39-1.17 Bq in acute and chronic inhalation for Type M, respectively and 0.30- 0.91 Bq and 0.19-0.57 Bq in acute and chronic inhalation for Type S, respectively. Since a detection limit of typical germanium detector for the measurement of 235U activity is 4 Bq, DILs calculated for the lung monitoring were not appropriate. DILs for urine analysis, for which an interval was assumed to be 1 month, were 14.57 ${\mu}g$ $L^{-1}$ based on chemical toxicity after acute inhalation. In addition, acute and chronic inhalation of Type M were calculated 2.85-8.58 ${\mu}g$ $L^{-1}$ and 1.09-3.27 ${\mu}g$ $L^{-1}$ based on the radiological hazard, respectively.

A Study on Relationship between Physical Elements and Tennis/Golf Elbow

  • Choi, Jungmin;Park, Jungwoo;Kim, Hyunseung
    • Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea
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    • v.36 no.3
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    • pp.183-196
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    • 2017
  • Objective: The purpose of this research was to assess the agreement between job physical risk factor analysis by ergonomists using ergonomic methods and physical examinations made by occupational physicians on the presence of musculoskeletal disorders of the upper extremities. Background: Ergonomics is the systematic application of principles concerned with the design of devices and working conditions for enhancing human capabilities and optimizing working and living conditions. Proper ergonomic design is necessary to prevent injuries and physical and emotional stress. The major types of ergonomic injuries and incidents are cumulative trauma disorders (CTDs), acute strains, sprains, and system failures. Minimization of use of excessive force and awkward postures can help to prevent such injuries Method: Initial data were collected as part of a larger study by the University of Utah Ergonomics and Safety program field data collection teams and medical data collection teams from the Rocky Mountain Center for Occupational and Environmental Health (RMCOEH). Subjects included 173 male and female workers, 83 at Beehive Clothing (a clothing plant), 74 at Autoliv (a plant making air bags for vehicles), and 16 at Deseret Meat (a meat-processing plant). Posture and effort levels were analyzed using a software program developed at the University of Utah (Utah Ergonomic Analysis Tool). The Ergonomic Epicondylitis Model (EEM) was developed to assess the risk of epicondylitis from observable job physical factors. The model considers five job risk factors: (1) intensity of exertion, (2) forearm rotation, (3) wrist posture, (4) elbow compression, and (5) speed of work. Qualitative ratings of these physical factors were determined during video analysis. Personal variables were also investigated to study their relationship with epicondylitis. Logistic regression models were used to determine the association between risk factors and symptoms of epicondyle pain. Results: Results of this study indicate that gender, smoking status, and BMI do have an effect on the risk of epicondylitis but there is not a statistically significant relationship between EEM and epicondylitis. Conclusion: This research studied the relationship between an Ergonomic Epicondylitis Model (EEM) and the occurrence of epicondylitis. The model was not predictive for epicondylitis. However, it is clear that epicondylitis was associated with some individual risk factors such as smoking status, gender, and BMI. Based on the results, future research may discover risk factors that seem to increase the risk of epicondylitis. Application: Although this research used a combination of questionnaire, ergonomic job analysis, and medical job analysis to specifically verify risk factors related to epicondylitis, there are limitations. This research did not have a very large sample size because only 173 subjects were available for this study. Also, it was conducted in only 3 facilities, a plant making air bags for vehicles, a meat-processing plant, and a clothing plant in Utah. If working conditions in other kinds of facilities are considered, results may improve. Therefore, future research should perform analysis with additional subjects in different kinds of facilities. Repetition and duration of a task were not considered as risk factors in this research. These two factors could be associated with epicondylitis so it could be important to include these factors in future research. Psychosocial data and workplace conditions (e.g., low temperature) were also noted during data collection, and could be used to further study the prevalence of epicondylitis. Univariate analysis methods could be used for each variable of EEM. This research was performed using multivariate analysis. Therefore, it was difficult to recognize the different effect of each variable. Basically, the difference between univariate and multivariate analysis is that univariate analysis deals with one predictor variable at a time, whereas multivariate analysis deals with multiple predictor variables combined in a predetermined manner. The univariate analysis could show how each variable is associated with epicondyle pain. This may allow more appropriate weighting factors to be determined and therefore improve the performance of the EEM.

Diving patterns and diving related disease of diving fishermen in Korea (수산물채취 잠수부의 작업특성과 잠수관련질환의 양상)

  • SaKong, Joon
    • Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health
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    • v.31 no.1
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    • pp.139-156
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    • 1998
  • Diving related disease including decompression sickness is an important occupational health problem and diving fishermen remain a fairly hazardous occupation in Korea. To prevent diving related disease, we investigate diving patterns, incidence of diving related diseases, and contributing factors of 433 diving fishermen of three coast interviewing and mailing questionnaire in 1996. Mean age of divers was 39.7 years, ranged from 24 to 58 years, 92.8% of these were male, and 58.4% of divers were high school graduates. Mean duration of work as a diver was 12.9 years, ranged from 2 to 40 years. It was found that 70.4% of divers were using hookah system, 22.2% of helmet, and only 2.5% SCUBA. About half of them have learned diving skills from other divers. The peak season of diving was from April to June and mean working days were 20.3 days per month during the peak season. On the average, the divers dived 5-6 times, ranged from 1 to 10 times a day with 51.1 minutes of diving time, ranged from 20 to 120 minutes, at 30 m or 40 m in depth, and 35.5 minute of interval on surface. Most divers ascended slowly making decompression stop, yet the decompression profile used was not based on any scientific knowledge except for their own experiences. It appeared that each diving system had slightly different diving patterns. There were 282(65.0%) divers that suffered from DCS in 1995 and 31.2% of divers were given recompression therapy at a medical facility since they worked as diving fishermen. Skin and musculoskeletal complaints were common symptoms of DCS and 39% of divers experienced a voiding difficulty. In univariate analysis, females have an increased frequency of DCS(93% vs 66% for males). Old age, long duration of work, helmet diving, diving time, diving depth, repetitive diving, and blow up were all contributing factors to DCS. It was found that most diving patterns exceed no decompression limit and did not use the standard decompression table. This suggests that most of divers are at high risk of developing diving related disease with prolonged dives and lengthy repetitive diving in deep depth. Considering the diving patterns and economic aspect of professional diving, the incidence of DCS among diving fishermen in Korea will not decrease in the near future. These findings suggest that periodical health surveillance for divers, and education of health and safety are important for reducing the risk of diving related disease in the population of diving fishermen.

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