• Title, Summary, Keyword: occupational safety and health

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A STUDY ON BIOLOGICAL MARKERS FOR THE ASSESSMENT OF GENOTOXICITY AND OXIDATIVE DAMAGE IN CHROMIUM EXPOSED WORKERS.

  • Maeng, Seung-Hee;Hiroshi Kasai;Yu, Il-Je;Lee, Byung-Moo;Lee, Jong-Yoon;Lee, Kwon-Seob;Chung, Ho-Keun;Chung, Hai-Won
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Toxicology Conference
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    • pp.121-122
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    • 2001
  • According to the epidemiological studies in chromium workers, hexavalent chromium is associated with the risk of lung cancer. Genotoxicity such as chromosome aberration, and cellular oxidative damages by reactive oxygen species produced by hexavalent chromium exposure may play an important role in the carcinogenesis process. We investigated the availabilities of several kinds of biological markers to assess the genotoxicity and oxidative damages from chromium exposure in Korean chromium plating workers.(omitted)

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Exposure to Volatile Organic Compounds and Possibility of Exposure to By-product Volatile Organic Compounds in Photolithography Processes in Semiconductor Manufacturing Factories

  • Park, Seung-Hyun;Shin, Jung-Ah;Park, Hyun-Hee;Yi, Gwang-Yong;Chung, Kwang-Jae;Park, Hae-Dong;Kim, Kab-Bae;Lee, In-Seop
    • Safety and Health at Work
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    • v.2 no.3
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    • pp.210-217
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    • 2011
  • Objectives: The purpose of this study was to measure the concentration of volatile organic compound (VOC)s originated from the chemicals used and/or derived from the original parental chemicals in the photolithography processes of semiconductor manufacturing factories. Methods: A total of four photolithography processes in 4 Fabs at three different semiconductor manufacturing factories in Korea were selected for this study. This study investigated the types of chemicals used and generated during the photolithography process of each Fab, and the concentration levels of VOCs for each Fab. Results: A variety of organic compounds such as ketone, alcohol, and acetate compounds as well as aromatic compounds were used as solvents and developing agents in the processes. Also, the generation of by-products, such as toluene and phenol, was identified through a thermal decomposition experiment performed on a photoresist. The VOC concentration levels in the processes were lower than 5% of the threshold limit value (TLV)s. However, the air contaminated with chemical substances generated during the processes was re-circulated through the ventilation system, thereby affecting the airborne VOC concentrations in the photolithography processes. Conclusion: Tens of organic compounds were being used in the photolithography processes, though the types of chemical used varied with the factory. Also, by-products, such as aromatic compounds, could be generated during photoresist patterning by exposure to light. Although the airborne VOC concentrations resulting from the processes were lower than 5% of the TLVs, employees still could be exposed directly or indirectly to various types of VOCs.

Evaluation of the Genetic Toxicity of Cyclopentane and Ammonium Nitrate - In vitro Mammalian Chromosomal Aberration Assay in Chinese Hamster Ovary Cells

  • Kim, Soo-Jin;Rim, Kyung-Taek;Kim, Jong-Kyu;Kim, Hyeon-Yeong;Yang, Jeong-Sun
    • Safety and Health at Work
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    • v.2 no.1
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    • pp.17-25
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    • 2011
  • Objectives: In this study, the in vitro mammalian chromosomal aberration (CA) assay was conducted to gain additional information concerning the hazards associated with the use of cyclopentane and ammonium nitrate. While these two chemicals had already been tested by many methods, they had not been studied in the CA test. Methods: The assay was performed using the ovarian infantile cell (CHO-K1 cell), by the direct method (-S9) and by the metabolic activated method (+S9 mix). Results: Using the direct method, the 7 dosages in a 48 hour treatment group did not show that the frequency of CA is proportion to the dosage addition. The frequency of CA is not proportion to the dosage addition for a 6 hour treatment using the metabolic activated method. Conclusion: From these findings, it was decided that the 2 chemicals do not induce chromosomal aberrations under the tested conditions.

Evaluation of the Quality of Occupational Health and Safety Management Systems Based on Key Performance Indicators in Certified Organizations

  • Mohammadfam, Iraj;Kamalinia, Mojtaba;Momeni, Mansour;Golmohammadi, Rostam;Hamidi, Yadollah;Soltanian, Alireza
    • Safety and Health at Work
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    • v.8 no.2
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    • pp.156-161
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    • 2017
  • Background: Occupational Health and Safety Management Systems are becoming more widespread in organizations. Consequently, their effectiveness has become a core topic for researchers. This paper evaluates the performance of the Occupational Health and Safety Assessment Series 18001 specification in certified companies in Iran. Methods: The evaluation is based on a comparison of specific criteria and indictors related to occupational health and safety management practices in three certified and three noncertified companies. Results: Findings indicate that the performance of certified companies with respect to occupational health and safety management practices is significantly better than that of noncertified companies. Conclusion: Occupational Health and Safety Assessment Series 18001-certified companies have a better level of occupational health and safety; this supports the argument that Occupational Health and Safety Management Systems play an important strategic role in health and safety in the workplace.

Safety Climate and Occupational Stress According to Occupational Accidents Experience and Employment Type in Shipbuilding Industry of Korea

  • Kim, Kyung Woo;Park, Sung Jin;Lim, Hae Sun;Cho, Hm Hak
    • Safety and Health at Work
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    • v.8 no.3
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    • pp.290-295
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    • 2017
  • Background: Safety climate and occupational stress are related with occupational accident. The present study tried to identify the differences in safety climate and occupational stress according to occupational accidents experience and employment type (e.g., direct workers and subcontract workers). Methods: In this study, we conducted a survey using safety climate scale and Korean Occupational Stress Scale and classified the participants into four groups: direct workers working for accident-free departments, direct workers working for accident departments, subcontract workers working for accident-free departments, and subcontract workers working for accident departments for 2 years within the same workplace in the shipbuilding industry. Results: The direct workers and subcontract workers showed diverse results in subscales of safety climate and occupational stress. This result is supported by existing studies; however, further study is necessary for more supporting evidence and elaborative methodological approach. Conclusion: The necessity of management for safety climate and psychosocial factor such as occupational stress for both direct workers and subcontract workers as a whole is suggested by this study.

Subchronic Inhalation Toxicity Study of n-pentane in Rats

  • Kim, Jong-Kyu;Cho, Hae-Won;Han, Jeong-Hee;Lee, Sung-Bae;Chung, Yong-Hyun;Rim, Kyung-Taek;Yang, Jeong-Sun
    • Safety and Health at Work
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    • v.3 no.3
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    • pp.224-234
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    • 2012
  • Objectives: This study was conducted in order to obtain information concerning the health hazards that may result from a 13 week inhalation exposure of n-pentane in Sprague-Dawley rats. Methods: This study was conducted in accordance with the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) guidelines for the testing of chemicals No. 413 'Subchronic inhalation toxicity: 90-day study (as revised in 2009)'. The rats were divided into 4 groups (10 male and 10 female rats in each group), and were exposed to 0, 340, 1,530, and 6,885 ppm n-pentane in each exposure chamber for 6 hour/day, 5 days/week, for 13 weeks. All of the rats were sacrificed at the end of the treatment period. During the test period, clinical signs, mortality, body weights, food consumption, ophthalmoscopy, locomotion activity, urinalysis, hematology, serum biochemistry, gross findings, organ weights, and histopathology were assessed. Results: During the period of testing, there were no treatment related effects on the clinical findings, body weight, food consumption, ophthalmoscopy, urinalysis, hematology, serum biochemistry, gross findings, relative organ weight, and histopathological findings. Conclusion: The no-observable-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) of n-pentane is evaluated as being more than 6,885 ppm (20.3 mg/L) in both male and female rats. n-pentane was not a classified specific target organ toxicity in the globally harmonized classification system (GHS).

A Study for Health Hazard Evaluation of Methylene Chloride Evaporated from the Tear Gas Mixture

  • Park, Seung-Hyun;Chung, Eun-Kyo;Yi, Gwang-Yong;Chung, Kwang-Jae;Shin, Jung-Ah;Lee, In-Seop
    • Safety and Health at Work
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    • v.1 no.1
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    • pp.98-101
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    • 2010
  • This study explored the health hazard of those exposed to methylene chloride by assessing its atmospheric concentration when a tear gas mixture was aerially dispersed. The concentration of methylene chloride ranged from 311.1-980.3 ppm (geometric mean, 555.8 ppm), 30 seconds after the dispersion started. However, the concentration fell rapidly to below 10 ppm after dispersion was completed. The concentration during the dispersion did not surpass the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health 'immediately dangerous to life or health' value of 2,300 ppm, but did exceed the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists excursion limit of 250 ppm. Since methylene chloride is highly volatile (vapor pressure, 349 mmHg at $20^{\circ}C$), the post-dispersion atmospheric concentration can rise instantaneously. Moreover, the o-chlorobenzylidenemalononitrile formulation of tear gas (CS gas) is an acute upper respiratory tract irritant. Therefore, tear gas mixtures should be handled with delicate care.

Inhalation toxicity assesment of C.I.No. Reactive Red 195 in Rats (아조계 반응성염료 C.I.No. Reactive Red 195의 흡입독성평가)

  • Chung, Yong Hyun;Han, Jeong Hee;Song, Kyung Seuk;Kim, Hyeon Yeong;Lee, Sung Bae;Yu, Il Je
    • Journal of Korean Society of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
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    • v.11 no.3
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    • pp.198-205
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    • 2001
  • Many reactive dyes have been used in occupational settings without knowing their toxicity and health hazard information. To investigate the toxicity of reactive dye, C.I.No. Reactive Red 195 was exposed to male and female Sprague Dawley rats by inhalation for 28 days. The rats were exposed C.I.No. Reactive Red 195 for 6 hrs per day and 5days per week. The concentrations for the inhalation exposure were 0, 10, 40 and $160mg/m^3$. After 4 weeks of exposure, rats were examined for exposure related changes through pathology, blood biochemistry and hematology. There were no dose related changes including clinical signs, body weight and relative organ weight changes, hematological and biochemical and histopathological findings. The results indicate that no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) of 28 days inhalatrion toxicity test for C.I.No. Reactive Red 195 was $160mg/m^3$.

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