• Title, Summary, Keyword: occupational exposure

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OccIDEAS: An Innovative Tool to Assess Past Asbestos Exposure in the Australian Mesothelioma Registry

  • MacFarlane, Ewan;Benke, Geza;Sim, Malcolm R.;Fritschi, Lin
    • Safety and Health at Work
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    • v.3 no.1
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    • pp.71-76
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    • 2012
  • Malignant mesothelioma is an uncommon but rapidly fatal disease for which the principal aetiological agent is exposure to asbestos. Mesothelioma is of particular significance in Australia where asbestos use was very widespread from the 1950s until the 1980s. Exposure to asbestos includes occupational exposure associated with working with asbestos or in workplaces where asbestos is used and also 'take-home' exposure of family members of asbestos exposed workers. Asbestos exposure may also be nonoccupational, occurring as a consequence of using asbestos products in non-occupational contexts and passive exposure is also possible, such as exposure to asbestos products in the built environment or proximity to an environmental source of exposure, for example an asbestos production plant. The extremely long latency period for this disease makes exposure assessment problematic in the context of a mesothelioma registry. OccIDEAS, a recently developed online tool for retrospective exposure assessment, has been adapted for use in the Australian Mesothelioma Registry (AMR) to enable systematic retrospective exposure assessment of consenting cases. Twelve occupational questionnaire modules and one non-occupational module have been developed for the AMR, which form the basis of structured interviews using OccIDEAS, which also stores collected data and provides a framework for generating metrics of exposure.

Indolent B-Cell Lymphoid Malignancy in the Spleen of a Man Who Handled Benzene: Splenic Marginal Zone Lymphoma

  • Lee, Jihye;Kang, Young Joong;Ahn, Jungho;Song, Seng-Ho
    • Safety and Health at Work
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    • v.8 no.3
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    • pp.315-317
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    • 2017
  • We present the case of a 45-year-old man with a history of benzene exposure who developed splenic marginal zone lymphoma. For 6 years, he had worked in an enclosed space cleaning instruments with benzene. He was diagnosed with splenic marginal zone lymphoma 19 years after retirement. During his time of working in the laboratory in the 1980s, working environments were not monitored for hazardous materials. We indirectly estimated the cumulative level of past benzene exposure using job-exposure matrices and technical assumptions. Care must be taken in investigating the relevance of occupational benzene exposure in the occurrence of indolent B-cell lymphoma. Because of the long latency period and because occupational measurement data do not exist for the period during the patient's exposure, the epidemiological impact of benzene exposure may be underestimated.

Characteristics of Occupational Exposure to Benzene during Turnaround in the Petrochemical Industries

  • Chung, Eun-Kyo;Shin, Jung-Ah;Lee, Byung-Kyu;Kwon, Ji-Woon;Lee, Na-Roo;Chung, Kwang-Jae;Lee, Jong-Han;Lee, In-Seop;Kang, Seong-Kyu;Jang, Jae-Kil
    • Safety and Health at Work
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    • v.1 no.1
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    • pp.51-60
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    • 2010
  • Objectives: The level of benzene exposure in the petrochemical industry during regular operation has been well established, but not in turnaround (TA), where high exposure may occur. In this study, the characteristics of occupational exposure to benzene during TA in the petrochemical companies were investigated in order to determine the best management strategies and improve the working environment. This was accomplished by evaluating the exposure level for the workers working in environments where benzene was being produced or used as an ingredient during the unit process. Methods: From 2003 to 2008, a total of 705 workers in three petrochemical companies in Korea were studied. Long- and short-term (< 1 hr) samples were taken during TAs. TA was classified into three stages: shut-down, maintenance and start-up. All works were classified into 12 occupation categories. Results: The long-term geometric mean (GM) benzene exposure level was 0.025 (5.82) ppm (0.005-42.120 ppm) and the short-term exposure concentration during TA was 0.020 (17.42) ppm (0.005-61.855 ppm). The proportions of TA samples exceeding the time-weighted average, occupational exposure level (TWA-OEL in Korea, 1 ppm) and the short-term exposure limit (STEL-OEL, 5 ppm) were 4.1% (20 samples of 488) and 6.0% (13 samples of 217), respectively. The results for the benzene exposure levels and the rates of exceeding the OEL were both statistically significant (p < 0.05). Among the 12 job categories of petrochemical workers, mechanical engineers, plumbers, welders, fieldman and scaffolding workers exhibited long-term samples that exceeded the OEL of benzene, and the rate of exceeding the OEL was statistically significant for the first two occupations (p < 0.05). Conclusion: These findings suggest that the periodic work environment must be assessed during non-routine works such as TA.

Occupational Exposure to Steady Magnetic Fields and its Effect on Workers Blood Indices at an Electrolysis Unit

  • Ravandi, Mohammad Reza Ghotbi;Mardi, Hossein;Khanjani, Narges;Barkhordari, Abolfazl
    • Journal of Magnetics
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    • v.21 no.2
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    • pp.255-260
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    • 2016
  • The health effects of environmental and occupational exposure to steady magnetic fields is a matter of concern. The aim of this study was to evaluate the hematologic effects of exposure to steady magnetic fields at the electrolysis unit of a Copper complex. The population under study was the workers of the electrolysis unit of the copper refinery. The average steady magnetic field in the exposure group was 2.5 mT. The blood indices of workers exposure to steady magnetic fields after adjusting for confounders showed decreased white blood cells (except neutrophils) and increase in the number and volume of platelets. Red blood cells did not show any significant difference. Exposure to steady magnetic fields even in proposed safe limits may have hematologic effects on humans. There is a necessity for more research about the safe doses of exposure to magnetic fields.

Occupational Exposure to Knee Loading and the Risk of Osteoarthritis of the Knee: A Systematic Review and a Dose-Response Meta-Analysis

  • Verbeek, Jos;Mischke, Christina;Robinson, Rachel;Ijaz, Sharea;Kuijer, Paul;Kievit, Arthur;Ojajarvi, Anneli;Neuvonen, Kaisa
    • Safety and Health at Work
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    • v.8 no.2
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    • pp.130-142
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    • 2017
  • Background: Osteoarthritis of the knee is considered to be related to knee straining activities at work. The objective of this review is to assess the exposure dose-response relation between kneeling or squatting, lifting, and climbing stairs at work, and knee osteoarthritis. Methods: We included cohort and case-control studies. For each study that reported enough data, we calculated the odds ratio (OR) per 5,000 hours of cumulative kneeling and per 100,000 kg of cumulative lifting. We pooled these incremental ORs in a random effects meta-analysis. Results: We included 15 studies (2 cohort and 13 case-control studies) of which nine assessed risks in more than two exposure categories. We considered all but one study at high risk of bias. The incremental OR per 5,000 hours of kneeling was 1.26 (95% confidence interval 1.17-1.35, 5 studies, moderate quality evidence) for a log-linear exposure dose-response model. For lifting, there was no exposure dose-response per 100,000 kg of lifetime lifting (OR 1.00, 95% confidence interval 1.00-1.01). For climbing, an exposure dose-response could not be calculated. Conclusion: There is moderate quality evidence that longer cumulative exposure to kneeling or squatting at work leads to a higher risk of osteoarthritis of the knee. For other exposure, there was no exposure dose-response or there were insufficient data to establish this. More reliable exposure measurements would increase the quality of the evidence.

An Evaluation of Exposure to Petroleum Based Dry Cleaning Solvent Used in Commercial Dry Cleaning Shops (석유계 솔벤트를 사용하는 세탁소 작업자의 노출평가)

  • Jeong, Jee Yeon;Yi, Gwang Yong;Lee, Byung kyu;Lee, Naroo;Kim, Bong Yeon;Kim, Kwang Jong
    • Journal of Korean Society of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
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    • v.15 no.1
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    • pp.19-26
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    • 2005
  • In previous report, we presented that petroleum based solvents used in dry cleaning shop was almost similar to stoddard solvent defined by ACGIH and NIOSH, and the occupational exposure standard of stoddard solvent could be used in total exposure assessment of those solvents. The specific aim of the this study was to evaluate of the solvent exposure used in commercial dry cleaning shops by using occupational exposure standard of stoddard solvent. We conducted first survey of 8 self-employed dry cleaning shops and 5 factory type dry cleaning shops from July to August, and second survey of the same shops from October to November in 2002. The exposure concentration to the solvent during loading and unloading activity of vented dry cleaning machine was 489.2ppm(GM), 270.3ppm(GM), respectively, which was almost excursion limit(500ppm) of ACGIH, and exceed the ceiling limit(312ppm) of NIOSH. The time-weighted average (TWA) worker exposure to the solvent was 21.3ppm(GM) at self-employed shops, 20.7ppm(GM) at factory type shops on first survey, and 31.1ppm(GM), 33.7ppm(GM), respectively on second survey. The TWA exposure concentration of workers with spotting and cleaning machine operating job was 25.4ppm(GM), which was 2.9 times higher than the TWA exposure concentration, 8.8ppm(GM) of press workers. All TWA exposure concentrations was lower than OEL(100ppm) of stoddard solvent. We found that the most heavy exposure process at dry cleaning was loading, unloading process, and the vent of dry cleaning machine was the main emission source for workers exposure to petroleum based solvent.

Oxidative DNA Damage from Nanoparticle Exposure and Its Application to Workers' Health: A Literature Review

  • Rim, Kyung-Taek;Song, Se-Wook;Kim, Hyeon-Yeong
    • Safety and Health at Work
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    • v.4 no.4
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    • pp.177-186
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    • 2013
  • The use of nanoparticles (NPs) in industry is increasing, bringing with it a number of adverse health effects on workers. Like other chemical carcinogens, NPs can cause cancer via oxidative DNA damage. Of all the molecules vulnerable to oxidative modification by NPs, DNA has received the greatest attention, and biomarkers of exposure and effect are nearing validation. This review concentrates on studies published between 2000 and 2012 that attempted to detect oxidative DNA damage in humans, laboratory animals, and cell lines. It is important to review these studies to improve the current understanding of the oxidative DNA damage caused by NP exposure in the workplace. In addition to examining studies on oxidative damage, this review briefly describes NPs, giving some examples of their adverse effects, and reviews occupational exposure assessments and approaches to minimizing exposure (e.g., personal protective equipment and engineering controls such as fume hoods). Current recommendations to minimize exposure are largely based on common sense, analogy to ultrafine material toxicity, and general health and safety recommendations.

Dermal Exposure Associated with Occupational End Use of Pesticides and the Role of Protective Measures

  • MacFarlane, Ewan;Carey, Renee;Keegel, Tessa;El-Zaemay, Sonia;Fritschi, Lin
    • Safety and Health at Work
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    • v.4 no.3
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    • pp.136-141
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    • 2013
  • Background: Occupational end users of pesticides may experience bodily absorption of the pesticide products they use, risking possible health effects. The purpose of this paper is to provide a guide for researchers, practitioners, and policy makers working in the field of agricultural health or other areas where occupational end use of pesticides and exposure issues are of interest. Methods: This paper characterizes the health effects of pesticide exposure, jobs associated with pesticide use, pesticide-related tasks, absorption of pesticides through the skin, and the use of personal protective equipment (PPE) for reducing exposure. Conclusions: Although international and national efforts to reduce pesticide exposure through regulatory means should continue, it is difficult in the agricultural sector to implement engineering or system controls. It is clear that use of PPE does reduce dermal pesticide exposure but compliance among the majority of occupationally exposed pesticide end users appears to be poor. More research is needed on higher-order controls to reduce pesticide exposure and to understand the reasons for poor compliance with PPE and identify effective training methods.

BENZENE AND LEUKEMIA An Epidemiologic Risk Assessment

  • Rinsky Robert A.;Smith Alexander B.;Hornung Richard;Filloon Thomas G.;Young Ronald J.;Okun Andrea H.;Landrigan Philip J.
    • 대한예방의학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.651-657
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    • 1994
  • To assess quantitatively the association between benzene exposure and leukemia, we examined the mortality rate of a cohort with occupational exposure to benzene. Cumulative exposure for each cohort member was estimated from historical air-sampling data and, when no sampling data existed, from interpolation on the basis of existing data. The overall standardized mortality ratio (a measure of relative risk multiplied by 100) for leukemia was 337 (95 percent confidence interval, 154 to 641), and that for multiple myeloma was 409 (95 percent confidence interval, 110 to 1047). With stratification according to levels of cumulative exposure, the standardized mortality ratios for leukemia increased from 109 to 322, 1186, and 6637 with increases in cumulative benzene exposure from less than 40 parts per million-years (ppm-years), to 40 to 199, 200 to 399, and 400 or more. respectively. A cumulative benzene exposure of 400 ppm years is equivalent to a mean annual exposure of 10 ppm over a 40-year working lifetime; 10 ppm is the currently enforceable standard in the United States for occupational exposure to benzene. To examine the shape of the exposure-response relation, we performed a conditional logistic-regression analysis, in which 10 controls were matched to each cohort member with leukemia. From this model, it can be calculated that protection from benzene induced leukemia would increase exponentially with any reduction in the permissible exposure limit.

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A Review of Mercury Exposure and Health of Dental Personnel

  • Nagpal, Natasha;Bettiol, Silvana S.;Isham, Amy;Hoang, Ha;Crocombe, Leonard A.
    • Safety and Health at Work
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    • v.8 no.1
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    • pp.1-10
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    • 2017
  • Considerable effort has been made to address the issue of occupational health and environmental exposure to mercury. This review reports on the current literature of mercury exposure and health impacts on dental personnel. Citations were searched using four comprehensive electronic databases for articles published between 2002 and 2015. All original articles that evaluated an association between the use of dental amalgam and occupational mercury exposure in dental personnel were included. Fifteen publications from nine different countries met the selection criteria. The design and quality of the studies showed significant variation, particularly in the choice of biomarkers as an indicator of mercury exposure. In several countries, dental personnel had higher mercury levels in biological fluids and tissues than in control groups; some work practices increased mercury exposure but the exposure levels remained below recommended guidelines. Dental personnel reported more health conditions, often involving the central nervous system, than the control groups. Clinical symptoms reported by dental professionals may be associated with low-level, long-term exposure to occupational mercury, but may also be due to the effects of aging, occupational overuse, and stress. It is important that dental personnel, researchers, and educators continue to encourage and monitor good work practices by dental professionals.