• Title, Summary, Keyword: nutrient density

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Effects of Mud Flat Bacteria Origin Protease Supplementation on Growth Performance, Amino Acid Digestibility, Blood Characteristics, Meat Quality, Fecal VFA and NH3-N Concentration in Finishing Pigs (갯벌 미생물 유래 단백질 분해 효소제의 급여가 비육돈의 생산성, 아미노산 소화율, 혈액성상, 육질특성 및 분내 휘발성 지방산과 NH3-N 함량에 미치는 영향)

  • 김해진;민병준;조진호;진영걸;유종상;김인호;장정순;이운교
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.48 no.1
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    • pp.49-58
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    • 2006
  • This study was conducted to evaluate effects of mud flat bacteria origin protease supplementation on growth performance, amino acid digestibility, blood characteristics, meat quality, fecal VFA (volatile fatty acids) and NH3-N (ammonia nitrogen) concentration in finishing pigs. Eighty pigs (Landrace×Yorkshire×Duroc, 60.08±2.69 kg average initial body weight) were used during experimental period. Dietary treatments included 1) high nutrient density diet, 2) high nutrient density diet+0.1% protease, 3) low nutrient density diet and 4) low nutrient density diet+0.1% protease. For overall period, ADG was improved in treatment of high nutrient density diet added protease compared with treatment of low nutrient density diet without protease (P<0.05). DM and N digestibilities were improved in treatments of high nutrient density diet and low nutrient density diet added protease compared with treatment of low nutrient density diet without protease (P<0.05). Essential amino acid digestibility was improved in treatment of low nutrient density diet added protease compared with other treatments (P<0.05). Nonessential amino acid digestibility was improved in treatment of high nutrient density diet added protease compared with treatments of high and low nutrient density diet (P<0.05). BUN (blood urea nitrogen) concentration in blood was increased in treatment of high nutrient density diet added protease compared with treatment of low nutrient density diet without protease (P<0.05). L*value of M. longissimus dorsi muscle was increased in treatments of low nutrient density diet compared with treatments of high nutrient density diet (P<0.05). In conclusion, mud flat bacteria origin protease was effective for improving growth performance, amino acid digestibility and influencing BUN concentration and meat color in finishing pigs.

Interaction between Nutrient Density Diets and Sex on Carcass and Quality Characteristics in Finishing Pigs (사료의 영양소 수준과 성별이 도체 및 육질특성에 미치는 영향)

  • Ha, Y.J.;Lee, J.I.;Lee, J.Y.;Lee, J.W.;Jung, J.D.;Kwack, S.J.;Song, Y.M.;Do, C.H.
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.47 no.1
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    • pp.57-72
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    • 2005
  • The present study was undertaken to investigate the effects of nutrient density diets and sex on carcass and pork quality characteristics in finishing pigs. A total of 96 pigs(58.04 $\pm$ 6.85 kg) were divided into 2 groups(gilts and barrows), each sex group was assigned to 3 nutrient density(high : 18.5%, middle : 16.0% and low: 14.0% CP, respectively) and raised up to 1l0kg live weight. Each treatment had four replicates with three or five pigs per replicate. The treatments comprised the feeding regimes of 1) the low density diet for 60 days, 2) the middle nutrient density diet for the 30 days followed by a low nutrient density diet for the remaining 30 days and 3) the high nutrient density diet for the 30 days followed by a middle nutrient density diet for the remaining 30 days. Pigs were conventionally slaughtered, and then chilled overnight. Carcass characteristics and grades were determined on those carcasses, and pork loin muscle was removed from each left side at 5th to 13th rib for quality evaluation were evaluated. There were no differences in the carcass weight between sex and nutrient density. Dressing percent of L-L(gilts) treatment was significantly higher than that of other treatments(P< 0.05). Barrows showed a thicker back fat thickness than gilts. There were no difference in intramuscular fat, subcutaneous fat and springiness between sex and nutrient density. Intermuscular fat of barrows groups was significantly higher than the gilts groups(P < 0.05). In the meat quality characteristics, there were no difference in general composition, meat and fat color between sex and nutrient density. pH of L-L(gilts) treatment was significantly higher than that of other treatments(P < 0.05). Cooking loss and shear force value of H-M(barrows) treatment were significantly higher than those of other treatments(P< 0.05). Purge loss of barrows groups was significantly higher than the gilts groups(P < 0.05). Myoglobin content of H-M treatment was significantly lower than L-L and M-L treatments(P< 0.05). Texture of H-M treatment was higher than L-L and M-L treatments. The content of myristic, palmitic, palmitoleic and oleic acid were significantly higher in the barrows groups(P< 0.05). However, stearic, linoleic and arachidonic acid were significantly higher in the gilts(P < 0.05). Amino acid content of L-L treatment was significantly higher than M-L and H-M treatments(P < 0.05). In conclusion, carcass and pork quality characteristics were affected by sex and nutrient density.

Growth Performance, Relative Meat and Organ Weights, Cecal Microflora, and Blood Characteristics in Broiler Chickens Fed Diets Containing Different Nutrient Density with or without Essential Oils

  • Kim, Sang-Jin;Lee, Kyung-Woo;Kang, Chang-Won;An, Byoung-Ki
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.29 no.4
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    • pp.549-554
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    • 2016
  • The present study was conducted to investigate whether dietary essential oils could affect growth performance, relative organ weights, cecal microflora, immune responses and blood profiles of broiler chickens fed on diets containing different nutrient densities. A total of eight hundred-forty 1-d-old male broiler chicks were randomly allotted into twenty-eight pens (7 pens per treatment, 30 chicks per pen). There were four experimental diets containing two different nutrient densities and supplemented with or without essential oils. Experimental period lasted for 35 days. No clear interaction between nutrient density and essential oils on any of growth performance-related parameters was observed. Live body weights were affected (p<0.05) by nutrient density at 21 days and by dietary essential oils at 35 days. Essential oils significantly (p<0.05) increased daily body weight gain and feed conversion ratio during the periods of 22 to 35 and 1 to 35 days, but failed to affect feed intake during the entire experimental period. Daily weight gain at 1 to 21 days and feed intake at 1 to 21 and 1 to 35 days were significantly impaired (p<0.05) by nutrient density. There were significant treatment interactions (p<0.05) on relative weights of bursa of Fabricius and abdominal fat contents. Finally, either essential oil or nutrient density did not influence the relative percentages of breast and leg meats, the population of cecal microflora, blood parameters and antibody titers against Newcastle disease and infectious bronchitis in broiler chickens. It was concluded that dietary essential oils, independent to nutrient density, failed to stimulate feed intake, but increased growth performance in broiler chickens.

Anthropometric, Biochemical Characteristics, Nutrient Intakes and Bone Density by Smoking Period in Elderly Male Smokers: Analysis of Data from Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES), 2008~2011 (흡연 노인 남성의 흡연기간에 따른 신체적, 생화학적 특성, 영양소섭취 및 골밀도 차이 : 2008~2011년 국민건강영양조사 자료 분석)

  • Choi, Soon-Nam;Jho, Kwang-Hyun;Chung, Nam-Yong
    • Journal of the Korean Dietetic Association
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    • v.21 no.3
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    • pp.181-193
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    • 2015
  • This study investigated anthropometric and biochemical characteristics, nutrient intakes, and bone density of Korean elderly men (over 65 yrs). Data on bone density and anthropometric (height, weight, waist circumference, body mass index and blood pressure) and biochemical (total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol, triglyceride and hemoglobin) characteristics, nutrient intakes, and nutrient density were obtained from the Fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES, 2008~2011). Subjects were categorized into smoking and non-smoking groups, and smoking groups were divided into three groups by smoking period (under 20 yrs, 21~40 yrs and over 41 yrs). Serum triglyceride concentrations of the smoking group aged 21~40 yrs were higher than those of other groups (P<0.01), whereas other biochemical factors were not different. Intake ratios of energy, protein, phosphorus and sodium in subjects were over 100% of Dietary Reference Intake for Koreans (KDRI). Nutrient densities according to intakes of thiamin, riboflavin, and niacin per 1,000 kcal were significantly different among the groups (P<0.05). Bone density of subjects decreased according to smoking period (T-score of total femur in non-smoking group -0.3108, and -0.2918, -0.4941, -0.6847 in smoking group, respectively). Ratio of osteoporosis was 38.1% in the non-smoking group and 44.4%, 51.1%, and 64.0% in the smoking group, respectively. The findings of the present study show that smoking may be associated with bone health, higher ratio of osteoporosis, and low nutrient density in elderly men. Therefore, practical and systematic non-smoking programs are required to improve the bone density of elderly men as well as maintain healthy bone levels and desirable lifestyle.

A Study on the Factors Affecting Bone Mineral Density in Adult Women - Based on the Mothers of Elementary School Students- (일부 초등학생의 어머니를 대상으로 한 성인 여성의 골밀도에 영향을 미치는 요인에 관한 연구)

  • 김기랑
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.33 no.3
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    • pp.241-249
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    • 2000
  • The bone mineral density(vertebrae Ll-4, femoral neck, Ward's triangle and trochanter) of 160 healthy adult women aged 29-45 was measured and general characteristics, anthropomentric measurements, and dietary intake were also studied to determine the main factors affecting the bone mineral density(BMD) of adult women. The nutrient intake of the subjects was adequate to RDA level except energy, Ca, Fe, and vit A. The BMD of vertebrae L24 showed significant positive association with nutrient intake such as animal protein, P, Ca(animal) and Fe(animal). The BMD of the femoral neck correlated significantly with anthropometric measurements such as height, weight, waist circumference, hip circumference, body fat and body mass index. The BMD of both sites(vertebrae L24 and femoral neck) were significantly related to vertebrae L24 was daily Ca intake and that of femoral neck was daily energy expenditure. In conclusion, adequate nutrient intake, especially protein, P, Ca and Fe as well as increases in physical activity were suggested to prevent the loss of bone mineral density in adult women.

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A Study on the Influence of the Dietary Intake upon Bone Mineral Density in Korean Aged (한국 노인의 식사내용이 골격밀도에 미치는 영향에 관한 조사연구)

  • 한성숙
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.21 no.5
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    • pp.333-347
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    • 1988
  • The purpose of the present study was to investigate the relationship between nutrient status, and bone mineral state which influenced by aging process. The subjects were 196 people over 65 years old(male 72, female124). The present dietary intake was estimated by the 24-hr, recall method, and individual dietary history concerning consumption of meat, fish and dairy products was obtained by questionaires. The syndrome of senility including seniliy was evaluated according to "Cornell Medical Index". The five subjects who showed 'Good' grade in bone senility, and five subjects who showed 'Risk' and 'Danger' grade were selected and their spine and femur bone density was measured by "Dual Photon Absorptiometry". The bone density measurement showed that the subjects with 'Good' grade in bone senility had bone density above that of normal person, and their nutrient status were satisfactory, whereas the subjects with 'Risk' and 'Danger' grade in bone senility had severe osteoporotic pattern, and their nutrient status were very poor. The food consumption score showed that the subject with higher intake of meat rather than milk had good grade in bone senility (p<0.05). Therefore, past meats consumption can be considered to be a significant factor in the present bone status. The nutrient intakes appeared to be significant factors in bone status in male, whereas there was little effect of nutrients intakes in female. Therefore, the risk of osteoporosis can increase as syndrome of bone senility and nutrient intakes were worse, and its is possible to evaluate bone status and predict osteoporosis simply from informations concerning syndrome of bone senility and nutrient intakes in old population over 65.

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Food Preferences and Nutrient Density of Wedding Reception Food Consumed by the Community Residents in the Chungbuk Area

  • Kim, Myoung-Sook;Kim, Ki-Nam
    • Journal of Community Nutrition
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    • v.8 no.4
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    • pp.200-206
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    • 2006
  • A survey was conducted to investigate the preferences of wedding reception food, food consumption and its nutrient density, and the factors that influence nutrient density, in order to obtain baseline data for the development of an educational program on dining out. Subjects included 105 male and female adults who attended a wedding ceremony and consumed wedding reception food in the Chungbuk area between August and September 2004 and interviewed using a questionnaire. 63.0% of the subjects responded that they over-ate at the reception. 20.5% reported that they skipped the meal before the reception. The respondents who skipped the meal had more calorie intakes (899kcal) than those who did not (800kcal). In food preferences, noodles (51.0%), watermelon (47.0%), rice cake (39.0%), sweet and sour pork (38.0%), potato noodles stir-fried with vegetables (37.0%), beef rib soup with cooked rice (37.0%), bulgogi (35.0%), braised beef ribs (35.0%), fried shrimp (32.0%) were higher percentages in order. People preferred grain, meat and fatty food to vegetables. Total calorie intake from the reception foods were 881 kcal for males, and 769kcal for females. In evaluation of nutrient density, the density of calcium, vitamin A, vitamin C and dietary fiber did not meet the standard of the recommended intake. Especially, vitamin C and dietary fiber were less than 50% of the recommended level. The main factors that influence the nutrient density were household incomes, occupations, marital status, and total fat consumed. In conclusion, an educational program should be developed and offered to improve their dietary quality.

Survey on Food Consumption Patterns and Nutrient Intakes of College Students by Body Mass Index (체질량지수에 따른 남녀대학생들의 식품 소비경향과 영양소 섭취실태에 관한 연구)

  • Choi, Ji-Hyun;Wang, Soo-Kyung
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Culture
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    • v.11 no.5
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    • pp.689-698
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    • 1996
  • This study was designed to investigate food consumption patterns and nutrient intakes of college students, divided into subgroups of normal weight men (no.=140), normal weight women (no.=101), and underweight women (no.=155) by body mass index. Frequency of food eaten, nutrient intakes from each meal, percentages of RDAs, and nutrient densities were analyzed using 24-hour recall records. It was very interesting in these results as follows. Normal weight men ate on the whole more frequently than other groups. Underweight women had higher intakes of nutrient than did normal weight women. However normal weight women consumed food of greater nutrient density than did other college students. Consequently, it is desirable to suggest nutrient density of food than learn RDAs for adequate diet in nutritional education programs.

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Correlation of Coffee Consumption, Lifestyle, and Nutrient Density (커피 소비와 생활습관 및 영양밀도의 관련성)

  • Kim, Sun-Hee;Han, Byoung-Duck;Yun, Mi-Eun
    • Journal of the Korean Dietetic Association
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    • v.25 no.2
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    • pp.115-128
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    • 2019
  • This study evaluated the nutrient intake with increasing coffee consumption for 403 adults aged over 30 years in Korea. The 403 subjects were national health screening examinees, who visited Sahmyook Seoul Hospital's Comprehensive Check-up Center between 2017.11.01 and 2018.12.18. The subjects were asked to answer questionnaires covering a 24-hour recall fluid and dietary intake before the health examination. The research ethics council of Sahmyook University (2-7001793-AB-N-012019036HR) approved this study. Coffee consumption exceeding two servings daily was more likely in males, in those aged between 30 and 40 years, and in the smoking, drinking, non-exercise, non-breakfast groups compared to each counterpart. The correlation between the coffee consumption frequency and current nutrient density showed negative correlations in most micronutrients. The mean nutrient density decreased gradually with increasing coffee consumption (<1 serving daily, ${\leq}1{\sim}2$ servings daily, >2 servings daily) in the ANOVA analysis. Therefore, the progressive adverse health effects of excessive coffee consumption needs to be researched further, and a daily total caffeine limit should be suggested in education of the nation levels.

High Cell Density Culture of Anabaena variabilis with Controlled Light Intensity and Nutrient Supply

  • Yoon, Jong-Hyun;Shin, Jong-Hwan;Ahn, Eun-Kyung;Park, Tai-Hyun
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.18 no.5
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    • pp.918-925
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    • 2008
  • Controlling the light energy and major nutrients is important for high cell density culture of cyanobacterial cells. The growth phase of Anabaena variabilis can be divided into an exponential growth phase and a deceleration phase. In this study, the cell growth in the deceleration phase showed a linear growth pattern. Both the period of the exponential growth phase and the average cell growth rate in the deceleration phase increased by controlling the light intensity. To control the light intensity, the specific irradiation rate was maintained above $10\;{\mu}mol/s/g$ dry cell by increasing the incident light intensity stepwise. The final cell density increased by controlling the nutrient supply. For the control of the nutrient supply, nitrate, phosphate, and sulfate were intermittently added based on the growth yield, along with the combined control of light intensity and nutrient concentration. Under these control conditions, both final cell concentration and cell productivity increased, to 8.2 g/l and 1.9 g/l/day, respectively.