• Title, Summary, Keyword: nonlinear control

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Designing Tracking Method using Compensating Acceleration with FCM for Maneuvering Target (FCM 기반 추정 가속도 보상을 이용한 기동표적 추적기법 설계)

  • Son, Hyun-Seung;Park, Jin-Bae;Joo, Young-Hoon
    • Journal of the Institute of Electronics Engineers of Korea SC
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    • v.49 no.3
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    • pp.82-89
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    • 2012
  • This paper presents the intelligent tracking algorithm for maneuvering target using the positional error compensation of the maneuvering target. The difference between measured point and predict point is separated into acceleration and noise. Fuzzy c-mean clustering and predicted impact point are used to get the optimal acceleration value. The membership function is determined for acceleration and noise which are divided by fuzzy c-means clustering and the characteristics of the maneuvering target is figured out. Divided acceleration and noise are used in the tracking algorithm to compensate computational error. The filtering process in a series of the algorithm which estimates the target value recognize the nonlinear maneuvering target as linear one because the filter recognize only remained noise by extracting acceleration from the positional error. After filtering process, we get the estimates target by compensating extracted acceleration. The proposed system improves the adaptiveness and the robustness by adjusting the parameters in the membership function of fuzzy system. To maximize the effectiveness of the proposed system, we construct the multiple model structure. Procedures of the proposed algorithm can be implemented as an on-line system. Finally, some examples are provided to show the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

Seismic Behavior and Performance Evaluation of Uckling-restrained Braced Frames (BRBFs) using Superelastic Shape Memory Alloy (SMA) Bracing Systems (초탄성 형상기억합금을 활용한 좌굴방지 가새프레임 구조물의 지진거동 및 성능평가)

  • Hu, Jong Wan
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers
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    • v.33 no.3
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    • pp.875-888
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    • 2013
  • The researches have recently progressed toward the use of the superelastic shape memory alloys (SMAs) to develop new smart control systems that reduce permanent deformation occurring due to severe earthquake events and that automatically recover original configuration. The superelastic SMA materials are unique metallic alloys that can return to undeformed shape without additional heat treatments only after the removal of applied loads. Once the superelastic SMA materials are thus installed at the place where large deformations are likely to intensively occur, the structural system can make the best use of recentering capabilities. Therefore, this study is intended to propose new buckling-restrained braced frames (BRBFs) with superelastic SMA bracing systems. In order to verify the performance of such bracing systems, 6-story braced frame buildings were designed in accordance with the current design specifications and then nonlinear dynamic analyses were performed at 2D frame model by using seismic hazard ground motions. Based on the analysis results, BRBFs with innovative SMA bracing systems are compared to those with conventional steel bracing systems in terms of peak and residual inter-story drifts. Finally, the analysis results show that new SMA bracing systems are very effective to reduce the residual inter-story drifts.

Behaviour of steel-fibre-reinforced concrete beams under high-rate loading

  • Behinaein, Pegah;Cotsovos, Demetrios M.;Abbas, Ali A.
    • Computers and Concrete
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    • v.22 no.3
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    • pp.337-353
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    • 2018
  • The present study focuses on examining the structural behaviour of steel-fibre-reinforced concrete (SFRC) beams under high rates of loading largely associated with impact problems. Fibres are added to the concrete mix to enhance ductility and energy absorption, which is important for impact-resistant design. A simple, yet practical non-linear finite-element analysis (NLFEA) model was used in the present study. Experimental static and impact tests were also carried out on beams spanning 1.3 meter with weights dropped from heights of 1.5 m and 2.5 m, respectively. The numerical model realistically describes the fully-brittle tensile behaviour of plain concrete as well as the contribution of steel fibres to the post-cracking response (the latter was allowed for by conveniently adjusting the constitutive relations for plain concrete, mainly in uniaxial tension). Suitable material relations (describing compression, tension and shear) were selected for SFRC and incorporated into ABAQUS software Brittle Cracking concrete model. A more complex model (i.e., the Damaged Plasticity concrete model in ABAQUS) was also considered and it was found that the seemingly simple (but fundamental) Brittle Cracking model yielded reliable results. Published data obtained from drop-weight experimental tests on RC and SFRC beams indicates that there is an increase in the maximum load recorded (compared to the corresponding static one) and a reduction in the portion of the beam span reacting to the impact load. However, there is considerable scatter and the specimens were often tested to complete destruction and thus yielding post-failure characteristics of little design value and making it difficult to pinpoint the actual load-carrying capacity and identify the associated true ultimate limit state (ULS). To address this, dynamic NLFEA was employed and the impact load applied was reduced gradually and applied in pulses to pinpoint the actual failure point. Different case studies were considered covering impact loading responses at both the material and structural levels as well as comparisons between RC and SFRC specimens. Steel fibres were found to increase the load-carrying capacity and deformability by offering better control over the cracking process concrete undergoes and allowing the impact energy to be absorbed more effectively compared to conventional RC members. This is useful for impact-resistant design of SFRC beams.

Designing fuzzy systems for optimal parameters of TMDs to reduce seismic response of tall buildings

  • Ramezani, Meysam;Bathaei, Akbar;Zahrai, Seyed Mehdi
    • Smart Structures and Systems
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    • v.20 no.1
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    • pp.61-74
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    • 2017
  • One of the most reliable and simplest tools for structural vibration control in civil engineering is Tuned Mass Damper, TMD. Provided that the frequency and damping parameters of these dampers are tuned appropriately, they can reduce the vibrations of the structure through their generated inertia forces, as they vibrate continuously. To achieve the optimal parameters of TMD, many different methods have been provided so far. In old approaches, some formulas have been offered based on simplifying models and their applied loadings while novel procedures need to model structures completely in order to obtain TMD parameters. In this paper, with regard to the nonlinear decision-making of fuzzy systems and their enough ability to cope with different unreliability, a method is proposed. Furthermore, by taking advantage of both old and new methods a fuzzy system is designed to be operational and reduce uncertainties related to models and applied loads. To design fuzzy system, it is required to gain data on structures and optimum parameters of TMDs corresponding to these structures. This information is obtained through modeling MDOF systems with various numbers of stories subjected to far and near field earthquakes. The design of the fuzzy systems is performed by three methods: look-up table, the data space grid-partitioning, and clustering. After that, rule weights of Mamdani fuzzy system using the look-up table are optimized through genetic algorithm and rule weights of Sugeno fuzzy system designed based on grid-partitioning methods and clustering data are optimized through ANFIS (Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System). By comparing these methods, it is observed that the fuzzy system technique based on data clustering has an efficient function to predict the optimal parameters of TMDs. In this method, average of errors in estimating frequency and damping ratio is close to zero. Also, standard deviation of frequency errors and damping ratio errors decrease by 78% and 4.1% respectively in comparison with the look-up table method. While, this reductions compared to the grid partitioning method are 2.2% and 1.8% respectively. In this research, TMD parameters are estimated for a 15-degree of freedom structure based on designed fuzzy system and are compared to parameters obtained from the genetic algorithm and empirical relations. The progress up to 1.9% and 2% under far-field earthquakes and 0.4% and 2.2% under near-field earthquakes is obtained in decreasing respectively roof maximum displacement and its RMS ratio through fuzzy system method compared to those obtained by empirical relations.

Modeling and Analysis of Cooperative Engagements with Manned-Unmanned Ground Combat Systems (무인 지상 전투 체계의 협동 교전 모델링 및 분석)

  • Han, Sang Woo;Pyun, Jai Jeong
    • Journal of the Korea Society for Simulation
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    • v.29 no.2
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    • pp.105-117
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    • 2020
  • Analysis of combat effectiveness is required to consider the concept of tactical cooperative engagement between manned-unmanned weapon systems, in order to predict the required operational capabilities of future weapon systems that meets the concept of 'effect-based synchronized operations.' However, analytical methods such as mathematical and statistical models make it difficult to analyze the effects of complex systems under nonlinear warfare. In this paper, we propose a combat simulation model that can simulate the concept of cooperative engagement between manned-unmanned combat entities based on wireless communications. First, we model unmanned combat entities, e.g., unmanned ground vehicles and drones, and manned combat entities, e.g., combatants and artillery, considering the capabilities required by the future ground system. We also simulate tactical behavior in which all entities perform their mission while sharing battlefield situation information through wireless communications. Finally we explore the feasibility of the proposed model by analyzing combat effectiveness such as target acquisition rate, remote control success rate, reconnaissance lead time, survival rate, and enemy's loss rate under a small-unit armor reconnaissance scenario. The proposed model is expected to be used in war-game combat experiments as well as analysis of the effects of manned-unmanned ground weapons.

The Impact of Self-efficacy on Job Engagement and Job Performance of SMEs' Members: SEM-ANN Analysis (중소기업 조직구성원의 자기효능감이 직무열의와 직무성과에 미치는 영향: 구조모형분석-인공신경망 분석의 적용)

  • Kang, Tae-Won;Lee, Yong-Ki;Lee, Yong-Suk
    • Asia-Pacific Journal of Business Venturing and Entrepreneurship
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    • v.13 no.6
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    • pp.155-166
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    • 2018
  • The purpose of this study is to analyze the impact of self-efficacy of SMEs' organization members on job engagement and job performance, and to analyze the difference between gender and marital status by applying SEM-ANN analysis. To accomplish the study purpose, 285 valid samples were collected from 400 SMEs' organization members and analyzed. In this study, self - efficacy consisted of three sub-dimensions: self-confidence, self-regulation efficacy, and task difficulty preference. As a result of the analysis, self - efficacy such as self-confidence, self-regulation efficacy, and task difficulty preference had a positive direct effect on job engagement. In addition, self-efficacy and self-control efficacy have a positive effect on job performance, but the preference of task difficulty has no significant effect. In addition, job engagement has a positive(+) effect on job performance, and has a mediating role in the relationship between self-efficacy and job performance. Also, married males preferred self-regulation efficacy, while females preferred self-regulation and self-control efficacy regardless of marital status. The purpose of this study is to present the framework of self-efficacy-job engagement-job performance of SMEs by measuring the self-efficacy related researches mainly in education and service industries, and is meaningful that companies can help to find the basis of management of organization members by gender and marital status of organization members. In addition, the SEM-ANN analysis process of this study is different in that it explains the nonlinear (nonobservative) relationship that can analyze the influence or the combination of the reference variables in the linear (compensatory) relation using the SEM.

Effect of Sodium ion on the Anaerobic Degradation of Food Waste : Quantitative Evaluation, Inhibition Model (주방폐기물의 혐기성분해에 대한 나트륨이온의 영향: 저해 특성평가, 저해모델)

  • Shin, Hang-Sik;Song, Young-Chae;Paik, Byeong-Cheon
    • Journal of the Korea Organic Resources Recycling Association
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    • v.2 no.2
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    • pp.3-17
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    • 1994
  • The inhibitory effect of sodium ion on the anaerobic degradation of food waste was studied by an anaerobic batch toxicity assay and inhibition model. The anaerobic degradation activity of food waste spiked with over $2g\;Na^+/L$ of sodium ion was severely inhibited at the initial stage of the exposure. The inhibition response of anaerobic microorganisms on the sodium ion estimated from the methane production was differed according to the concentration of sodium ion. The relative acclimation time(RAT) and methanation rate(RMR), defined as the ratios of initial lag time and maximum methane production rate of the sample spiked with sodium ion to the control. respectively, were used to evaluate the acclimation and inhibitory effects quantitatively on the anaerobic microorganisms. When sodium ion was increased from $2g\;Na^+/L$ to $20g\;Na^+/L$, the RAT was exponentially increased from 18.9 to 90. but the RMR was linearly decreased from 0.97 to 0.02. The effects of sodium ion for the maximum methanation rate, first order kinetic constant and ultimate methane production were well evaluated by a generalized nonlinear expression model. it could be described by the uncompetitive inhibition mode. The sodium ion concentration causing 50% inhibition of methanation activity was about $11g\;Na^+/L$, and the critical sodium ion beyond to compelete inhibition was 20 to $21g\;Na^+/L$. The presented results could be used to obtain the design or operation parameters of the anaerobic process treating food waste of high salt.

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A digital Audio Watermarking Algorithm using 2D Barcode (2차원 바코드를 이용한 오디오 워터마킹 알고리즘)

  • Bae, Kyoung-Yul
    • Journal of Intelligence and Information Systems
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    • v.17 no.2
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    • pp.97-107
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    • 2011
  • Nowadays there are a lot of issues about copyright infringement in the Internet world because the digital content on the network can be copied and delivered easily. Indeed the copied version has same quality with the original one. So, copyright owners and content provider want a powerful solution to protect their content. The popular one of the solutions was DRM (digital rights management) that is based on encryption technology and rights control. However, DRM-free service was launched after Steve Jobs who is CEO of Apple proposed a new music service paradigm without DRM, and the DRM is disappeared at the online music market. Even though the online music service decided to not equip the DRM solution, copyright owners and content providers are still searching a solution to protect their content. A solution to replace the DRM technology is digital audio watermarking technology which can embed copyright information into the music. In this paper, the author proposed a new audio watermarking algorithm with two approaches. First, the watermark information is generated by two dimensional barcode which has error correction code. So, the information can be recovered by itself if the errors fall into the range of the error tolerance. The other one is to use chirp sequence of CDMA (code division multiple access). These make the algorithm robust to the several malicious attacks. There are many 2D barcodes. Especially, QR code which is one of the matrix barcodes can express the information and the expression is freer than that of the other matrix barcodes. QR code has the square patterns with double at the three corners and these indicate the boundary of the symbol. This feature of the QR code is proper to express the watermark information. That is, because the QR code is 2D barcodes, nonlinear code and matrix code, it can be modulated to the spread spectrum and can be used for the watermarking algorithm. The proposed algorithm assigns the different spread spectrum sequences to the individual users respectively. In the case that the assigned code sequences are orthogonal, we can identify the watermark information of the individual user from an audio content. The algorithm used the Walsh code as an orthogonal code. The watermark information is rearranged to the 1D sequence from 2D barcode and modulated by the Walsh code. The modulated watermark information is embedded into the DCT (discrete cosine transform) domain of the original audio content. For the performance evaluation, I used 3 audio samples, "Amazing Grace", "Oh! Carol" and "Take me home country roads", The attacks for the robustness test were MP3 compression, echo attack, and sub woofer boost. The MP3 compression was performed by a tool of Cool Edit Pro 2.0. The specification of MP3 was CBR(Constant Bit Rate) 128kbps, 44,100Hz, and stereo. The echo attack had the echo with initial volume 70%, decay 75%, and delay 100msec. The sub woofer boost attack was a modification attack of low frequency part in the Fourier coefficients. The test results showed the proposed algorithm is robust to the attacks. In the MP3 attack, the strength of the watermark information is not affected, and then the watermark can be detected from all of the sample audios. In the sub woofer boost attack, the watermark was detected when the strength is 0.3. Also, in the case of echo attack, the watermark can be identified if the strength is greater and equal than 0.5.

Design Factor Analysis of End-Effector for Oriental Melon Harvesting Robot in Greenhouse Cultivation (시설재배 참외 수확 로봇용 엔드이펙터의 설계 요인 분석)

  • Ha, Yu Shin;Kim, Tae Wook
    • Protected Horticulture and Plant Factory
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    • v.22 no.3
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    • pp.284-290
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    • 2013
  • This study analyzed the geometric, compressive, cutting and friction properties of oriental melons in order to design a gripper capable of soft handling and a cutter for cutting oriental melon vine among the end effector of oriental melon as a preliminary step for developing the end effector of the robot capable of harvesting oriental melons in protected cultivation. As a result, the average length, diameter at the midpoint, weight, volume and roundness of the oriental melons were 108 mm, 70 mm, 188 g, 333 mL and 3.8 mm. Nonlinear regression analysis was performed on the equation $W=L^a{\times}D_2^b$ with variation of the length (L) and diameter (D2) of the weight (W) of the oriental melons. As a result, it was shown that there was a correlation between a of 2.0279 and b of -0.9998 as a constant value. The average diameter of the oriental melon vine was 3.8 mm, and most vines were distributed within a radius of 5 mm from the center. The average yield value, compressive strength and hardness of the oriental melons were $36.5N/cm^2$, $185.7N/cm^2$ and $636.7N/cm^2$, respectively. The average cutting force and shear strength of the oriental melon vines were $2.87{\times}10^{-2}\;N$ and $5.60N/cm^2$, respectively. The maximum friction coefficient of the oriental melons was rubber of 0.609, followed by aluminium of 0.393, stainless steel of 0.177 and teflon of 0.079. It was considered possible to apply it to the size of the gripper and cutter, turning radius, dynamics of drive motor and selection of materials and their quality in light of the position error and safety factor according to the movement when designing end effector based on the analyzed data.

Capacity Comparison of Two Uplink OFDMA Systems Considering Synchronization Error among Multiple Users and Nonlinear Distortion of Amplifiers (사용자간 동기오차와 증폭기의 비선형 왜곡을 동시에 고려한 두 상향링크 OFDMA 기법의 채널용량 비교 분석)

  • Lee, Jin-Hui;Kim, Bong-Seok;Choi, Kwonhue
    • The Journal of Korean Institute of Communications and Information Sciences
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    • v.39A no.5
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    • pp.258-270
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    • 2014
  • In this paper, we investigate channel capacity of two kinds of uplink OFDMA (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access) schemes, i.e. ZCZ (Zero Correlation Zone) code time-spread OFDMA and sparse SC-FDMA (Single Carrier Frequency Division Mmultiple Access) robust to access timing offset (TO) among multiple users. In order to reflect the practical condition, we consider not only access TO among multiple users but also peak to average power ratio (PAPR) which is one of hot issues of uplink OFDMA. In the case with access TO among multiple users, the amplified signal of users by power control might affect a severe interference to signals of other users. Meanwhile, amplified signal by considering distance between user and base station might be distorted due to the limit of amplifier and thus the performance might degrade. In order to achieve the maximum channel capacity, we investigate the combinations of transmit power so called ASF (adaptive scaling factor) by numerical simulations. We check that the channel capacity of the case with ASF increases compared to the case with considering only distance i.e. ASF=1. From the simulation results, In the case of high signal to noise ratio (SNR), ZCZ code time-spread OFDMA achieves higher channel capacity compared to sparse block SC-FDMA. On the other hand, in the case of low SNR, the sparse block SC-FDMA achieves better performance compared to ZCZ time-spread OFDMA.