• Title, Summary, Keyword: nonlinear behaviour

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Experimental tests on biaxially loaded concrete-encased composite columns

  • Tokgoz, Serkan;Dundar, Cengiz
    • Steel and Composite Structures
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    • v.8 no.5
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    • pp.423-438
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    • 2008
  • This paper reports an experimental investigation of the behaviour of concrete-encased composite columns subjected to short-term axial load and biaxial bending. In the study, six square and four L-shaped cross section of both short and slender composite column specimens were constructed and tested to examine the load-deflection behaviour and to obtain load carrying capacities. The main variables in the tests were considered as eccentricity of applied axial load, concrete compressive strength, cross section, and slenderness effect. A theoretical procedure considering the nonlinear behaviour of the materials is proposed for determination of the behaviour of eccentrically loaded short and slender composite columns. Two approaches are taken into account to describe the flexural rigidity (EI) used in the analysis of slender composite columns. Observed failure mode and experimental and theoretical load-deflection behaviour of the specimens are presented in the paper. The composite column specimens and also some composite columns available in the literature have been analysed and found to be in good agreement with the test results.

A "deformable section" model for the dynamics of suspension bridges -Part II: Nonlinear analysis and large amplitude oscillations

  • Sepe, Vincenzo;Diaferio, Mariella;Augusti, Giuliano
    • Wind and Structures
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    • v.6 no.6
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    • pp.451-470
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    • 2003
  • The classical two-degree-of-freedom (2-d-o-f) "sectional model" is of common use to study the dynamics of suspension bridges. It takes into account the first pair of vertical and torsional modes of the bridge and describes well global oscillations caused by wind actions on the deck, yielding very useful information on the overall behaviour and the aerodynamic and aeroelastic response; however, it does not consider relative oscillations between main cables and deck. On the contrary, the 4-d-o-f model described in the two Parts of this paper includes longitudinal deformability of the hangers (assumed linear elastic in tension and unable to react in compression) and thus allows to take into account not only global oscillations, but also relative oscillations between main cables and deck. In particular, when the hangers go slack, large nonlinear oscillations are possible; if the hangers remain taut, the oscillations remain small and essentially linear: the latter behaviour has been the specific object of Part I (Sepe and Augusti 2001), while the present Part II investigates the nonlinear behaviour (coexisting large and/or small amplitude oscillations) under harmonic actions on the cables and/or on the deck, such as might be generated by vortex shedding. Because of the discontinuities and strong nonlinearity of the governing equations, the response has been investigated numerically. The results obtained for sample values of mechanical and forcing parameters seems to confirm that relative oscillations cannot a priori be excluded for very long span bridges under wind-induced loads, and they can stimulate a discussion on the actual possibility of such phenomena.

Nonlinear Effects on the Cable Dynamic Behaviour (케이블의 동적거동에 미치는 비선형 영향)

  • Hyun-Kyoung,Shin
    • Bulletin of the Society of Naval Architects of Korea
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    • v.27 no.1
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    • pp.11-16
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    • 1990
  • The effects on the dynamic behaviour of the geometric nonlinearity and large dynamic tensile forces occurring in hostile sea environments must be investigated for assessing extreme tensions and fatigue life expectancy of cable. In this paper, the combined effects on the cable dynamic responses are shown through comparisons between numerical solutions to the cable dynamic equations with geometric nonlinearity and large tensile force terms as well as nonlinear drag term and those to the cable equations with only nonlinear drag term. It is found that, in steady state, the cambined effects increase the maximum dynamic tension and reduce the magnitude of the minimum of the dynamic tension at the middle of the cable. This decrease together with the increase of the maximum dynamic tension, cause the average tension to become higher and, therefore, it may deteriorate the cable fatigue life.

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Nonlinear Analysis of Prestressed Concrete Box Girder Bridges Using Macro Element (매크로요소를 이용한 프리스트레스트 콘크리트 박스거더 교량의 비선형 해석)

  • Oh, Byung-Hwan;Lee, Myung-Kue
    • Magazine of the Korea Concrete Institute
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    • v.11 no.1
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    • pp.77-87
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    • 1999
  • The conventional design of prestressed concrete box girder bridges has been based on the linear elastic analyses using simplified geometric models. To overcome the restriction involved in the simplifications, a macro element for the rational analysis of prestressed concrete box girder bridges with variable cross sections is incorporated in the present analysis. Through the adoption of nonlinear material models, the behaviour of prestressed box bridges up to ultimate loading stage can be examined. The time dependent material models included in the present macro element code enable to predict the long term behaviour of prestressed concrete box girder bridges. The proposed macro element code with the nonlinear material models and time dependent routines can be efficiently used for the realistic analysis of prestressed concrete box girder bridges with arbitrary shapes.

Performance-based structural fire design of steel frames using conventional computer software

  • Chan, Y.K.;Iu, C.K.;Chan, S.L.;Albermani, F.G.
    • Steel and Composite Structures
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    • v.10 no.3
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    • pp.207-222
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    • 2010
  • Fire incident in buildings is common, so the fire safety design of the framed structure is imperative, especially for the unprotected or partly protected bare steel frames. However, software for structural fire analysis is not widely available. As a result, the performance-based structural fire design is urged on the basis of using user-friendly and conventional nonlinear computer analysis programs so that engineers do not need to acquire new structural analysis software for structural fire analysis and design. The tool is desired to have the capacity of simulating the different fire scenarios and associated detrimental effects efficiently, which includes second-order P-D and P-d effects and material yielding. Also the nonlinear behaviour of large-scale structure becomes complicated when under fire, and thus its simulation relies on an efficient and effective numerical analysis to cope with intricate nonlinear effects due to fire. To this end, the present fire study utilizes a second-order elastic/plastic analysis software NIDA to predict structural behaviour of bare steel framed structures at elevated temperatures. This fire study considers thermal expansion and material degradation due to heating. Degradation of material strength with increasing temperature is included by a set of temperature-stress-strain curves according to BS5950 Part 8 mainly, which implicitly allows for creep deformation. This finite element stiffness formulation of beam-column elements is derived from the fifth-order PEP element which facilitates the computer modeling by one member per element. The Newton-Raphson method is used in the nonlinear solution procedure in order to trace the nonlinear equilibrium path at specified elevated temperatures. Several numerical and experimental verifications of framed structures are presented and compared against solutions in literature. The proposed method permits engineers to adopt the performance-based structural fire analysis and design using typical second-order nonlinear structural analysis software.

Detection of nonlinear structural behavior using time-frequency and multivariate analysis

  • Prawin, J.;Rao, A. Rama Mohan
    • Smart Structures and Systems
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    • v.22 no.6
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    • pp.711-725
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    • 2018
  • Most of the practical engineering structures exhibit nonlinearity due to nonlinear dynamic characteristics of structural joints, nonlinear boundary conditions and nonlinear material properties. Hence, it is highly desirable to detect and characterize the nonlinearity present in the system in order to assess the true behaviour of the structural system. Further, these identified nonlinear features can be effectively used for damage diagnosis during structural health monitoring. In this paper, we focus on the detection of the nonlinearity present in the system by confining our discussion to only a few selective time-frequency analysis and multivariate analysis based techniques. Both damage induced nonlinearity and inherent structural nonlinearity in healthy systems are considered. The strengths and weakness of various techniques for nonlinear detection are investigated through numerically simulated two different classes of nonlinear problems. These numerical results are complemented with the experimental data to demonstrate its suitability to the practical problems.

Modelling and Simulation for PIG Flow Control in Natural Gas Pipeline

  • Nguyen, Tan-Tien;Yoo, Hui-Ryong;Park, Yong-Woo;Kim, Sang-Bong
    • 제어로봇시스템학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.448-448
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    • 2000
  • This paper deals with dynamic behaviour analysis for pipeline inspection gauge (PIG) flow control in natural gas pipeline. The dynamic behaviour of the PIG is depending on the different Pressure between the rear and nose parts, which is generated by injected gas flow behind PIG's tail and expelled gas flow in front of its nose. To analyze the dynamic behaviour characteristics such as gas flow in pipeline, and the PIG's position and velocity, mathematical model is derived as two types of a nonlinear hyperbolic partial differential equation for unsteady flow analysis of the PIG driving and expelled gas, and nonhomogeneous differential equation for dynamic analysis of PIG. The nonlinear equation is solved by method of characteristics (MOC) with the regular rectangular grid under appropriate initial and boundary conditions. The Runge-Kuta method is used when we solve the steady flow equations to get initial flow values and the dynamic equation of PIG. The gas upstream and downstream of PIG are divided into a number of elements of equal length. The sampling time and distance are chosen under Courant-Friedrich-Lewy (CFL) restriction. The simulation is performed with a pipeline segment in the Korea Gas Corporation (KOGAS) low pressure system, Ueijungboo-Sangye line. The simulation results show us that the derived mathematical model and the proposed computational scheme are effective for estimating the position and velocity of PIG with different operational conditions of pipeline.

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A displacement-based seismic design method with damage control for RC buildings

  • Ayala, A. Gustavo;Castellanos, Hugo;Lopez, Saul
    • Earthquakes and Structures
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    • v.3 no.3_4
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    • pp.413-434
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    • 2012
  • This paper presents a displacement-based seismic design method with damage control, in which the targets for the considered performance level are set as displacements and a damage distribution is proposed by the designer. The method is based on concepts of basic structural dynamics and of a reference single degree of freedom system associated to the fundamental mode with a bilinear behaviour. Based on the characteristics of this behaviour curve and on the requirements of modal spectral analysis, the stiffness and strength of the structural elements of the structure satisfying the target design displacement are calculated. The formulation of this method is presented together with the formulations of two other existing methods currently considered of practical interest. To illustrate the application of the proposed method, 5 reinforced concrete plane frames: 8, 17 and 25 storey regular, and 8 and 12 storey irregular in elevation. All frames are designed for a seismic demand defined by single earthquake record in order to compare the performances and damage distributions used as design targets with the corresponding results of the nonlinear step by step analyses of the designed structures subjected to the same seismic demand. The performances and damage distributions calculated with these analyses show a good agreement with those postulated as targets.

Nonlinear model of reinforced concrete frames retrofitted by in-filled HPFRCC walls

  • Cho, Chang-Geun;Ha, Gee-Joo;Kim, Yun-Yong
    • Structural Engineering and Mechanics
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    • v.30 no.2
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    • pp.211-223
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    • 2008
  • A number of studies have suggested that the use of high ductile and high shear materials, such as Engineered Cementitious Composites (ECC) and High Performance Fiber Reinforced Cementitious Composites (HPFRCC), significantly enhances the shear capacity of structural elements, even with/without shear reinforcements. The present study emphasizes the development of a nonlinear model of shear behaviour of a HPFRCC panel for application to the seismic retrofit of reinforced concrete buildings. To model the shear behaviour of HPFRCC panels, the original Modified Compression Field Theory (MCFT) for conventional reinforced concrete panels has been newly revised for reinforced HPFRCC panels, and is referred to here as the HPFRCC-MCFT model. A series of experiments was conducted to assess the shear behaviour of HPFRCC panels subjected to pure shear, and the proposed shear model has been verified through an experiment involving panel elements under pure shear. The proposed shear model of a HPFRCC panel has been applied to the prediction of seismic retrofitted reinforced concrete buildings with in-filled HPFRCC panels. In retrofitted structures, the in-filled HPFRCC element is regarded as a shear spring element of a low-rise shear wall ignoring the flexural response, and reinforced concrete elements for beam or beam-column member are modelled by a finite plastic hinge zone model. An experimental study of reinforced concrete frames with in-filled HPFRCC panels was also carried out and the analysis model was verified with correlation studies of experimental results.