• Title, Summary, Keyword: non-colorectal tumors

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Histopathology Analysis of Benign Colorectal Diseases and Colorectal Cancer in Hatyai Hospital, Songkhla, Thailand

  • Kotepui, Manas;Piwkham, Duangjai;Songsri, Apiram;Charoenkijkajorn, Lek
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.14 no.4
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    • pp.2667-2671
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    • 2013
  • Background: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the western world and also ranks as the fifth-leading malignancy and death in Thailand. This study aimed to provide a present outlook of colorectal diseases among Thai patients with special emphasis on CRC in Hatyai, Songkhla, southern Thailand. Materials and Methods: This retrospective study covered ten year data of CRC, benign colorectal tumors and non-colorectal tumors from the Department of Pathology in Hatyai Hospital, Songkhla, Thailand, between years 2003-2012. Incidence rates based on age, gender, ten year incidence trends, and distribution of histopathological characteristics of patients were calculated and demonstrated. Results: Out of 730 biopsies, 100 cases were benign colorectal tumors, 336 were CRC and 294 were non-colorectal tumors. Colorectal tumors (both benign and CRC) (60.1%) were more common than non-colorectal tumors (39.9%). CRC (77.1%) were more common than benign colorectal tumors (32.9%). Colorectal tumors were mainly found in patients aged over sixty whereas non-colorectal and benign colorectal tumors were found in those under sixty (P=0.01). sAmong CRC, adenocarcinoma contributed about 97.3% of all cases with well differentiated tumors being the most frequent (56.9%). Both benign colorectal tumors and CRC were more commonly found in males (63%) than females (37%). The incidence trend of CRC demonstrated increase from 2003-2012. Conclusions: The incidence of CRC increased in Hatyai from 2003-2012. CRC tends to be more common in people older than sixty, thus, screening programs, cost-effective analysis of treatment modalities, and treatment protocols for the elderly should be examined. Proper implementation of preventive measures such as changing lifestyle factors might enhance control of colorectal disease.

TNM Stages and Prognostic Features of Colorectal and Mucinous Adenocarcinoma Patients: a Meta Analysis

  • Chen, Jing-Xiang;Tang, Xu-Dong;Xiang, De-Bing;Dong, Xiao-Ling;Peng, Fang-Yi;Sun, Gui-Yin
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.13 no.7
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    • pp.3427-3430
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    • 2012
  • Aim: The significance of the mucinous adenocarcinoma in TNM staging and prognosis for colorectal tumor patients is still controversial. The aim was to provide a meta-analysis for TNM staging and prognostic features of colorectal tumors. Methods: 30 individual case-control studies were finally included into this meta-analysis, involving a total of 444,489 cancer cases and 45,050 mucinous adenocarcinomas, of relations with TNM staging and prognostic features. Results: Compared to non-mucinous adenocarcinoma patients, the TNM IV stage accounted for a larger percentage of mucinous adenocarcinomas (OR=1.48, 95%CI 1.28-1.71, POR<0.001) and the prognosis was significantly poor (HR=1.06, 95%CI 1.04-1.08, P<0.001). After heterogeneity testing, the results was similar to the holistic approach outcome (HR=1.48, 95%CI 1.35-1.62, P<0.001). Conclusion: Compared to patients with non-mucinous adenocarcinomas, mucinous adenocarcinoma patients with later TNM staging make up a big percentage, and mucinous adenocarcinoma is an independent risk factor for poor prognosis.

microRNA Expression Profile in Patients with Stage II Colorectal Cancer: A Turkish Referral Center Study

  • Tanoglu, Alpaslan;Balta, Ahmet Ziya;Berber, Ufuk;Ozdemir, Yavuz;Emirzeoglu, Levent;Sayilir, Abdurrahim;Sucullu, Ilker
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.5
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    • pp.1851-1855
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    • 2015
  • Background: There are increasing data about microRNAs (miRNA) in the literature, providing abundant evidence that they play important roles in pathogenesis and development of colorectal cancer. In this study, we aimed to investigate the miRNA expression profiles in surgically resected specimens of patients with recurrent and non-recurrent colorectal cancer. Materials and Methods: The study population included 40 patients with stage II colorectal cancer (20 patients with recurrent tumors, and 20 sex and age matched patients without recurrence), who underwent curative colectomy between 2004 and 2011 without adjuvant therapy. Expression of 16 miRNAs (miRNA-9, 21, 30d, 31, 106a, 127, 133a, 133b, 135b, 143, 145, 155, 182, 200a, 200c, 362) was verified by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) in all resected colon cancer tissue samples and in corresponding normal colonic tissues. Data analyses were carried out using SPSS 15 software. Values were statistically significantly changed in 40 cancer tissues when compared to the corresponding 40 normal colonic tissues (p<0.001). MiR-30d, miR-133a, miR-143, miR-145 and miR-362 expression was statistically significantly downregulated in 40 resected colorectal cancer tissue samples (p<0.001). When we compared subgroups, miRNA expression profiles of 20 recurrent cancer tissues were similar to all 40 cancer tissues. However in 20 non-recurrent cancer tissues, miR-133a expression was not significantly downregulated, moreover miR-133b expression was significantly upregulated (p<0.05). Conclusions: Our study revealed dysregulation of expression of ten miRNAs in Turkish colon cancer patients. These miRNAs may be used as potential biomarkers for early detection, screening and surveillance of colorectal cancer, with functional effects on tumor cell behavior.

A GFP-labeled Human Colon Cancer Metastasis Model Featuring Surgical Orthotopic Implantation

  • Chen, Hong-Jin;Yang, Bo-Lin;Chen, Yu-Gen;Lin, Qiu;Zhang, Shu-Peng;Gu, Yun-Fei
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.13 no.9
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    • pp.4263-4266
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    • 2012
  • Colorectal cancer has become a major disease threatening human health. To establish animal models that exhibit the characteristics of human colorectal cancer will not only help to study the mechanisms underlying the genesis and development effectively, but also provide ideal carriers for the screening of medicines and examining their therapeutic effects. In this study, we established a stable, colon cancer nude mouse model highly expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) for spontaneous metastasis after surgical orthotopic implantation (SOI). GFP-labeled colon cancer models for metastasis after SOI were successfully established in all of 15 nude mice and there were no surgery-related complications or deaths. In week 3, primary tumors expressing GFP were observed in all model animals under fluoroscopy and two metastatic tumors were monitored by fluorescent imaging at the same time. The tumor volumes progressively increased with time. Seven out of 15 tumor transplanted mice died and the major causes of death were intestinal obstruction and cachexia resulting from malignant tumor growth. Eight model animals survived at the end of the experiment, 6 of which had metastases (6 cases to mesenteric lymph nodes, 4 hepatic, 2 pancreatic and 1 mediastinal lymph node). Our results indicate that our GFP-labeled colon cancer orthotopic transplantation model is useful with a high success rate; the transplanted tumors exhibit similar biological properties to human colorectal cancer, and can be used for real-time, in vivo, non-invasive and dynamic observation and analysis of the growth and metastasis of tumor cells.

Adipo-R1 and Adipo-R2 Expression in Colorectal Adenomas and Carcinomas

  • Ayyildiz, Talat;Dolar, Enver;Ugras, Nesrin;Eminler, Ahmet Tarik;Erturk, Banu;Adim, Saduman Balaban;Yerci, Omer
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.1
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    • pp.367-372
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    • 2015
  • Background: Human adiponectin (ApN), a 30 kDa glycoprotein of 244-amino acids which is predominantly produced by adipocytes, exerts its effects via two receptors, namely adiponectin receptor-1 (adipo-R1) and adiponectin receptor-2 (adipo-R2) with differential binding affinity to globular adiponectin. Adiponectin receptor expression has been studied in several cancer tissues. However, there are no studies of colorectal adenomas which are considered to be precursors for colorectal carcinoma (CRC). Objectives: In the present study, the expression of adipo-R1 and adipo-R2 was investigated immunohistochemically in colorectal adenomas and colorectal carcinoma tissues in an attempt to determine associations with these tumors. Materials and Methods: The study enrolled 50 CRC patients with tumor resection and 82 patients who were diagnosed with adenomatous polyps, classified as negative for neoplasia, low-grade dysplasia (L-GD) or high- grade dysplasia (H-GD). Results: Expression of both adipo-R1 and adipo-R2 was found to be significantly lower in the CRCs than in colorectal adenomas (tubular and tubulovillous, p=0.009 and p<0.001, respectively). Adipo-R1 and adipo-R2 expression was also significantly lower in the CRC group when compared with the groups of patients with low grade dysplasia, high-grade dysplasia or no neoplasia (p=0.012 and p<0.001, respectively). In addition, it was observed that adipo-R2 expression was generally positive in the non-neoplastic group irrespective of the adipo-R2 expression. In the L-GD, H-GD and CRC groups, the adipo-R2 result was positive whenever adipo-R1 result was positive but some patients with negative adipo-R1 had positive adipo-R2 (p<0.001, p=0.004, p<0.001, respectively). Conclusions: This study indicated that ApN may play a role in the progression of colorectal adenomatous polyps to carcinoma through actions on adipo-R1 and adipo-R2 receptors.

Endothelial Cell Proliferation and Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Expression in Primary Colorectal Cancer and Corresponding Liver Metastases

  • Raluca, Balica Amalia;Cimpean, Anca Maria;Cioca, Andreea;Cretu, Octavian;Mederle, Ovidiu;Ciolofan, Alexandru;Gaje, Pusa;Raica, Marius
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.11
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    • pp.4549-4553
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    • 2015
  • Background: Colorectal carcinoma (CRC) is one of the major causes of cancer death worldwide. Data from the literature indicate differences between the proliferation rate of endothelial cells relative to the morphology growth type, possibly due to origin of specimens (autopsy material, surgery fragments) or quantification methods. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a factor that stimulates the proliferation of endothelial cells. It is expressed in more than 90% of cases of metastatic CRC. Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the endothelial cell proliferation and VEGF expression in primary tumors and corresponding liver metastases. Materials and Methods: Our study included 24 recent biopsies of primary tumors and corresponding liver metastases of CRC cases. CD34/Ki67 double immunostaining and RNA scope assay for VEGF were performed. Results: In the primary tumors analysis of VEGFmRNA expression indicated no significant correlation with differentiation grade, proliferative and non-proliferative vessels in the intratumoral and peritumoral areas. In contrast, in the corresponding liver metastases, VEGFmRNA expression significantly correlated with the total number of non-proliferative vessels and total number of vessels. CD34/Ki67 double immunostaining in the cases with poorly differentiated carcinoma indicated a high number of proliferating endothelial cells in the peritumoral area and a low number in the intratumoral area for the primary tumor. Moderately differentiated carcinomas of colon showed no proliferating endothelial cells in the intratumoral area in half of the cases included in the study, for both, primary tumor and liver metastasis. In well differentiated CRCs, in primary tumors, a high proliferation rate of endothelial cells in the intratumoral area and a lower proliferation rate in the peritumoral area were found. A low value was found in corresponding liver metastasis. Conclusions: The absence of proliferative endothelial cells in half of the cases for the primary tumors and liver metastases in moderately differentiated carcinoma suggest a vascular mimicry phenomenon. The mismatch between the total number of vessels and endothelial proliferation in primary tumors indicate that a functional vascular network is already formed or the existence of some mechanisms influenced by other angiogenic factors.

Genome-wide Analysis of Aberrant DNA Methylation for Identification of Potential Biomarkers in Colorectal Cancer Patients

  • Fang, Wei-Jia;Zheng, Yi;Wu, Li-Ming;Ke, Qing-Hong;Shen, Hong;Yuan, Ying;Zheng, Shu-Sen
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.13 no.5
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    • pp.1917-1921
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    • 2012
  • Background: Colorectal cancer is one of the leading causes of mortality worldwide. Genome wide analysis studies have identified sequence mutations causing loss-of-function that are associated with disease occurrence and severity. Epigenetic modifications, such DNA methylation, have also been implicated in many cancers but have yet to be examined in the East Asian population of colorectal cancer patients. Methods: Biopsies of tumors and matched non-cancerous tissue types were obtained and genomic DNA was isolated and subjected to the bisulphite conversion method for comparative DNA methylation analysis on the Illumina Infinium HumanMethylation27 BeadChip. Results: Totals of 258 and 74 genes were found to be hyper- and hypo-methylated as compared to the individual's matched control tissue. Interestingly, three genes that exhibited hypermethylation in their promoter regions, CMTM2, ECRG4, and SH3GL3, were shown to be significantly associated with colorectal cancer in previous studies. Using heatmap cluster analysis, eight hypermethylated and 10 hypomethylated genes were identified as significantly differentially methylated genes in the tumour tissues. Conclusions: Genome-wide methylation profiling facilitates rapid and simultaneous analysis of cancerous cells which may help to identify methylation markers with high sensitivity and specificity for diagnosis and prognosis. Our results show the promise of the microarray technology in identification of potential methylation biomarkers for colorectal cancers.

Roles of Oncogenic Long Non-coding RNAs in Cancer Development

  • Do, Hyunhee;Kim, Wanyeon
    • Genomics & Informatics
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    • v.16 no.4
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    • pp.18.1-18.9
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    • 2018
  • Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are classified as RNAs that are longer than 200 nucleotides and cannot be translated into protein. Several studies have demonstrated that lncRNAs are directly or indirectly involved in a variety of biological processes and in the regulation of gene expression. In addition, lncRNAs have important roles in many diseases including cancer. It has been shown that abnormal expression of lncRNAs is observed in several human solid tumors. Several studies have shown that many lncRNAs can function as oncogenes in cancer development through the induction of cell cycle progression, cell proliferation and invasion, anti-apoptosis, and metastasis. Oncogenic lncRNAs have the potential to become promising biomarkers and might be potent prognostic targets in cancer therapy. However, the biological and molecular mechanisms of lncRNA involvement in tumorigenesis have not yet been fully elucidated. This review summarizes studies on the regulatory and functional roles of oncogenic lncRNAs in the development and progression of various types of cancer.

Lifestyle and Sporadic Colorectal Cancer in India

  • Sinha, Rupal;Doval, Dinesh Chandra;Hussain, Showket;Kumar, Kapil;Singh, Shivendra;Basir, Seemi Farhat;Bharadwaj, Mausumi
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.17
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    • pp.7683-7688
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    • 2015
  • Background: The study evaluated the patient, lifestyle and tumor profile in patients undergoing upfront surgery for sporadic colorectal cancer (CRC) in Indian population. Materials and Methods: One hundred consecutive patients were included. Details related to their demographic profile, habits, signs and symptoms, tumor profile, further treatment and follow up were recorded. Results: The majority of the patients had colonic cancer (68%), advanced tumor stage 3 & 4 (46%), moderately differentiated tumors (70%) with absence of lymphatic invasion (60%) and metastasis (90%). Correlations between tumor location and abdominal pain (p-value 0.002), bleeding per rectum (p-value <0.001), difficulty in micturition (p-value 0.012) and constipation (p-value 0.007) were found to be statistically significant. Abdominal pain was more frequently reported in patients with metastasis (p-value 0.031). Loss of weight statistically correlated with absence of lymphatic invasion (p-value 0.047). Associations between tumor stage and alcohol intake (p-value 0.050) and non vegetarian diet (p-value 0.006); lymphatic invasion and intake of spicy food (p-value 0.040) and non vegetarian diet (p-value 0.001) and metastasis and alcohol intake (p-value 0.041) were also observed. Age and tumor grade were also correlated (p-value 0.020). Conclusions: Minimizing the adverse lifestyle factors can help in reducing the overall incidence of CRC in the Indian population.

Preliminary Proteomic Analysis of Indomethacin's Effect on Tumor Transplanted with Colorectal Cancer Cell in Nude Mice

  • Wang, Yu-Jie;Zhang, Gui-Ying;Xiao, Zhi-Qiang;Wang, Hong-Mei;Chen, Zhu-Chu
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.39 no.2
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    • pp.171-177
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    • 2006
  • Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs such as indomethacin (IN) can exert anti-colorectal cancer (CRC) activity through cyclooxygenase independent mechanism, but the exactly biological mechanism is not completely known. Here we use proteomic tools to investigate the molecular mechanism of this action. First, nude mice bearing tumors derived from subcutaneous injection with human CRC cell line HCT116 were randomly allocated to groups treated with or without indomethacin. Later, tumor lumps were incised and then total proteins extracted. After separated with two-dimensional electrophoresis, thirty-one differently expressed spots were found between IN-treated and non-IN-treated groups, of which 25 spots decreased and 6 spots increased in abundance in IN-treated group. Through matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry and then NCBInr and SWISS-PROT databases searching, 12 protein spots were finally identified including galectin-1, annexin A1, annexin IV, trancription factor BTF3A, calreticulin. Most of the identified proteins are correlated with tumor's biological prosperities of proliferation, invasion, apoptosis and immunity, or take part in cell's signal transduction. From above we thought that indomethacin can exert its effect on colorectal cancer through regulating several proteins' expression directly or indirectly. Further study of these proteins may be helpful in founding new targets of drugs for cancer chemotherapy.