• Title, Summary, Keyword: nitrogen harvest index

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Nitrogen Harvest Index in Some Varieties of Mulberry, Morus spp.

  • Kumar, Jalaja S.;Chakraborty, Chumki;Sarkar, A.
    • International Journal of Industrial Entomology
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    • v.5 no.1
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    • pp.131-134
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    • 2002
  • Mulberry being the only food of silkworm, Bombyx mori L., is of great economic importance to the silk industry, The success in cocoon production mainly depends on the supply of quality leaves in sufficient quantity. In mulberry, where the economic product is leaf, the uptake of nitrogen from soil is very heavy and high responses to application of nutrients have been reported. Nitrogen supports vegetative growth particularly the leaf biomass. Variation in nitrogen harvest index and other physiological and yield contributing traits were estimated in five mulberry genotypes. Considerable variation was observed for nitrogen harvest index, protein yield per plant and harvest index. The correlation studies indicated the protein yield per plant was significantly correlated with leaf yield, nitrogen content in leaf, nitrogen harvest index and harvest index. The broad sense heritability estimates revealed that harvest index showed highest heritability (88.07%) followed by nitrogen content (82.52%), protein yield (70.28%) and nitrogen harvest index (66.52%).

Effects of Nitrogen Level on Nitrogen Partitioning and Harvest Index in Brassica napus L.

  • Lee, Hyo;Zaman, Rashed;Lee, Bok-Rye;Kim, Tae-Hwan
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.38 no.2
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    • pp.140-144
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    • 2018
  • To investigate the impact of nitrogen (N) mineral on reproductive potential of Brassica napus L, plants were treated with different levels of N treatment ($N_0$; $N_{100}$; $N_{500}$). The half of N content for each treatment were applied at the beginning of the early vegetative stage and the rest was applied at the late vegetative stage. Nitrogen content in plant tissues such as root, stem and branch, leaf, pod and seed was analyzed and harvest index (HI) was calculated as percentage of seed yield to total plant weight. Biomass and nitrogen content were significantly affected by different levels of N supply. Biomass was significantly decreased by 59.2% in nitrogen deficiency ($N_0$) but significantly increased by 50.3% in N excess ($N_{500}$), compared to control ($N_{100}$). Nitrogen content in all organs was remarkably increased with nitrogen levels. N distribution to stem and branches, and dead leaves was higher in N-deficient ($N_0$) and N excessive plants ($N_{500}$) than in control ($N_{100}$). However, nitrogen allocated to seed was higher in control ($N_{100}$) than in other treatments ($N_0$ or $N_{500}$), accompanied by higher HI. These results indicate that the optimum level of N supply ($N_{100}$) improve HI and N distribution to seed and excessive N input is unnecessary.

Nitrogen Balance and Biological Nitrogen Fixation of Soybean in Soybean-Barley Cropping System

  • Park Sei Joon;Kim Wook Han;Lee Jae Eun;Kwon Young Up;Shin Jin Chul;Ryu Yong Hwan;Seong Rak Chun
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.50 no.1
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    • pp.1-4
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    • 2005
  • This experiment was conducted to investigate the soil nitrogen credit of biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) and the nitrogen balance of soybean in soybean-barley cropping systems. Soybean cultivar, Shinpaldalkong2 and barley cultivar, Olbori, were used in soybean mono-cropping (SM), barley monocropping (BM), and barley­soybean double cropping system. The barley-soybean double cropping system was treated with two different levels of nitrogen fertilizers, 0 nitrogen fertilizer (BS-F0), and standard nitrogen fertilizer (BS-F1). Nitrogen and organic matter concentrations in soil of BS-F1 plot on October, 2001 were increased $4.8\%\;and\;5.9\%$, respectively, compared with those on October, 2000. The ranges of BNF rate in soybean were $69.1\~ 88.2\%$ in two years, and the rate was the highest in BS-F0 plot and the lowest in SM plot. The ranges of nitrogen harvest index (NHI) in all treatments were $83.9\~86.7\%$. The yield was 270 kg/10a in BS­F1 plot and 215 kg/10a in BS-F0 plot. However, the nitrogen balances were +0.6 kg/10a of gain of soil nitrogen in BS-F0 plot and -0.4 kg/10a of loss of soil nitrogen in BS-F1 plot. In comparisons of SM and BS-F1 plots, although the seed yields were similar in two plots, the loss of soil nitrogen was higher in SM than BS-F1 plot. Overall, our results suggest that barley-soybean double cropping system was more effective in respect to seed productivity and soil nitrogen conservation than soybean monocropping system, and the N credit to following crops by soybean cultivation was identified in soybean double cropping system.

Relationship between Nodulating Characters and Yield Components in Supernodulating Soybean Mutants

  • Park Sei Joon;Youn Jong Tag;Kim Wook Han;Lee Jae Eun;Kwon Young Up;Shin Jin Chul;Seong Rak Chun
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.50 no.1
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    • pp.5-10
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    • 2005
  • This experiment was conducted to clarify the functions of supernodulating characters on seed yield determination through the comparison of agricultural traits of supernodulating soybean mutants, Sakukei4, SS2-2, and their parent cultivars, Enrei and Shinpaldalkong2. The plant dry weights of supernodulating mutants, Sakukei4 and SS2-2, were $52\%$ and $61\%$ of their wild type parents at full seed stage (R6). However, the relative growth rate (RGR) from the pod set stage (R3) to R6 of Sakukei4 was 0.022 g/g/day and that of SS2-2 was 0.016 g/g/day, which were higher than those of their parents. Nodule number and dry weight were increased in two supernodulating mutants by the R6 stage. The nitrogen concentrations of leaf, petiole and stem of Sakukei4 were higher than those of Enrei. SS2-2 showed higher nitrogen concentration in petiole than Shinpaldalkong2 had. The positive correlations were appeared between nodule dry weight, plant dry weight and pod number, in two supernodulating mutants during the period from R3 to R6 stage. Although all of the yield components and seed yield were lower in two supernodulating mutants than their parents at the stage of full maturity (R8), the harvest index was higher in supernodulating mutants. The increasing rates of pod number to stem dry weight in two supernodulating mutants showed the higher than those of two their parents at R8 stage. In conclusion, the relative growth rates during the early to the middle reproductive growth period were higher in supernodulating mutants than the wild types. This could be resulted in an increase in pod number. The increase of relative growth rate was the result of the successive supplement of nitrogen source from biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) of nodules during the middle reproductive growth period in supernodulating mutants.

Topdressing method of Potassium for the better efficiency in rice (수도(水稻) 가리시비(加里施肥) 효율향상(効率向上)을 위(爲)한 추비방법(追肥方法))

  • Oh, Wang Keun;Ryu, In Soo;Park, Hoon;Kim, Woo In
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.8 no.4
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    • pp.199-217
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    • 1975
  • For the establishment of efficient method of potassium topdressing on rice the optimum time and amount were investigated and discussed on the basis of available data from nutriophysiological studies, soil characteristics and fertilizer trials in fields. The followings were pointed out. 1. According to yield rice plants require more potassium around heading under water culture. 2. Potassium involves in harvest index, filled grain ratio, grain weight and number of spikelets per panicle. 3. Potassium is lost after heading in most fields in spite of highest requirement during this period. 4. The higher $K_2O/N$ ratio in straw at harvest is, the higher the yield. 5. Relatively low efficiency of potassium fertilizer under the field condition may be due to improper application method rather than natural supply from soil and irrigation water. 6. Appropriate topdressing time appears at in effective tillering stage for the prevention of nitrogen excess and at 15 to 20 days after transplanting, ear formation stage and 5 days after heading for the prevention of soil reduction damage. Two times of topdressing for clayey soil and three times for sandy soil seems reasonable in practice together with nitrogen topdressing, 7. The reasonable ratio basal to topdressing of potassium fertlizer seems to be 2/3 and $N/K_2O$ ratio of fertilization for ear formation stage appeared also as 2/3.

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Selection of the Most Sensitive Waveband Reflectance for Normalized Difference Vegetation Index Calculation to Predict Rice Crop Growth and Grain Yield

  • Nguyen Hung The;Lee Byun Woo
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.49 no.5
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    • pp.394-406
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    • 2004
  • A split-plot designed experiment including four rice varieties and 10 nitrogen levels was conducted in 2003 at the Experimental Farm of Seoul National University, Suwon, Korea. Before heading, hyperspectral canopy reflectance (300-1100nm with 1.55nm step) and nine crop variables such as shoot fresh weight (SFW), leaf area index, leaf dry weight, shoot dry weight, leaf N concentration, shoot N concentration, leaf N density, shoot N density and N nutrition index were measured at 54 and 72 days after transplanting. Grain yield, total number of spikelets, number of filled spikelets and 1000-grain weight were measured at harvest. 14,635 narrow-band NDVIs as combinations of reflectances at wavelength ${\lambda}l\;and\;{\lambda}2$ were correlated to the nine crop variables. One NDVI with the highest correlation coefficient with a given crop variable was selected as the NDVI of the best fit for this crop variable. As expected, models to predict crop variables before heading using the NDVI of the best fit had higher $r^2$ (>10\%)$ than those using common broad- band NDVI red or NDVI green. The models with the narrow-band NDVI of the best fit overcame broad- band NDVI saturation at high LAI values as frequently reported. Models using NDVIs of the best fit at booting showed higher predictive capacity for yield and yield component than models using crop variables.

Nitrogen Use Efficiency of High Yielding Japonica Rice (Oryza Sativa L.) Influenced by Variable Nitrogen Applications

  • Kang, Shin-Gu;Hassan, Mian Sayeed;Ku, Bon-Il;Sang, Wan-Gyu;Choi, Min-Kyu;Kim, Young-Doo;Park, Hong-Kyu;Chowdhury, M. Khalequzzaman A.;Kim, Bo-Kyeong;Lee, Jeom-Ho
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.58 no.3
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    • pp.213-219
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    • 2013
  • A field study was conducted to understand nitrogen use efficiency of high yielding Japonica rice varieties under three levels of nitrogen fertilizer (90, 150 and 210 kg N $ha^{-1}$) in Iksan, Korea. Two high yielding rice varieties, Boramchan and Deuraechan, and an control variety, Dongjin2, were grown in fine silty paddy. Nitrogen use efficiencies (NUE) were 83.3, 56.3, and 41.2 in 90, 150, and 210 kg N $ha^{-1}$ fertilizer level, respectively. Total nitrogen uptake varied significantly among nitrogen levels and varieties. Variety Dongjin2 showed the highest nitrogen uptake efficiency (NUpE), while Boramchan and Deuraechan showed higher nitrogen utilization efficiency (NUtE). However, Nitrogen harvest index (NHI) was higher in Boramchan (0.58) than Deuraechan (0.57) and Dongjin2 (0.53). Rough rice yield showed linear relationship with total nitrogen uptake ($R^2$=0.72) within the range of nitrogen treatments. Boramchan produced significantly higher rough rice yield (8546 kg $ha^{-1}$) which mainly due to higher number of panicles per $m^2$ compared to Deuraechan (7714 kg $ha^{-1}$). Deuraechan showed higher number of spikelets per panicle, but showed lower yield due to lower number of panicle per $m^2$. Rice varieties showed different nitrogen uptake ability and NUE at different nitrogen level. Plant breeders and agronomist should take advantage of the significant variations and relationships among grain yield, NUpE, and NUE.

Effects of Different Nitrogen Levels and Planting Densities on the Quality and Yield of the Black Rice Cultivar 'Shinnongheugchal' (재식밀도 및 시비량 차이가 신농흑찰 품질 및 수량에 미치는 영향)

  • Lee, In-Sok;Lee, Deok-Ryeol;Cho, Seung-Hyun;Lee, Song-Yi;Kim, Kab-Cheol;Lee, Ki-Kwon;Song, Young-Ju
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.61 no.2
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    • pp.79-86
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    • 2016
  • The late-maturing black rice cultivar Shinnongheugchal from Jeollabuk-do Agricultural Research and Extension Service was used as the plant material for estimating growth characters, quality and yield from the vegetation period to harvest age. This study was performed to select an optimum combination of nitrogen level and planting density for the maximum yield of Shinnongheugchal. The plant height, number of tillers, and SPAD index were higher when the combination of 70 hills per $3.3m^2$ and 13 kg/10 a nitrogen level was used at 30 days after transplanting. The heading date for the combination of 70 hills per $3.3m^2$ and 15 kg/10 a nitrogen level, and 80 hills per $3.3m^2$ and 15 kg/10 a nitrogen level was August 22. The heading date for the other combinations was August 21. The combination of 70 hills per $3.3m^2$ and 13 kg/10 a nitrogen level yielded the highest number of tillers at 40 days after flowering. Even though the lodging index was increased with increasing nitrogen levels, field lodging did not occur until harvest time. Seed nitrogen concentration in the combination of 70 hills per $3.3m^2$ and 13 kg/10 a nitrogen level showed a significant difference when compared with the other combinations. The black rice yield varied significantly, and the highest yield was observed in the combination of 70 hills per $3.3m^2$ and 13 kg/10 a nitrogen level. The yield was significantly correlated with seed nitrogen concentration. The maximum yield was estimated to be 14.67 kg/10 a nitrogen level by using the regression equation. On average, the coloring degree of the black rice was higher at planting density of 70 hills per $3.3m^2$ than at 80 hills per $3.3m^2$. The highest yield of perfect black rice was obtained using the combination of 70 hills per $3.3m^2$ and 13 kg/10 a nitrogen level. Our findings demonstrate that a nitrogen level of 13-14 kg/10 a can be used to obtain the maximum yield from Shinnongheugchal with yield, cyanidin 3-glucoside content, and perfect black rice yield as the standard.

Nitrogen Translocation and Dry Matter Accumulation of Direct Seeded Rice in No Tillage Rice-Vetch Cropping

  • Cho, Young-Son;Lee, Byung-Jin;Choe, Zhin-Ryong
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.44 no.1
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    • pp.44-48
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    • 1999
  • Uptake, assimilation and translocation of nitrogen and dry matter assimilation and translocation in ten rice cultivars were observed in no-till direct-sown rice-vetch cropping system. There was a large degree of variation in N-uptake, grain yield, nitrogen translocation efficiency and dry matter assimilation and translocation in tested rice cultivars. Forty kg N/ha base, as compound fertilizer (21-17-21% of N-P-K) three weeks after sowing and 30 kg N/ha top-dressed at panicle initiation stage as in the form of (NH$_4$)$_2$$CO_2$ was applied. ‘Newbounet’, ‘Daesanbyeo’, and ‘Hwayeongbyeo’ showed higher translocation efficiency. The contribution of pre-heading dry matter assimilates to grain ranged from 33% to 99% of dry grain weight. Dry matter of ‘Calrose 76’ was lower than Newbounet but N content was higher in Calrose 76 than Newbonnet. By maturity, N content in vegetative parts declined considerably more than dry matter, vegetative and reproductive parts, N translocation efficiency, and N harvest index. Nitrogen translocation efficiency was greater in ‘Nonganbyeo’, Daesanbyeo, and Newbounet. Grain N concentration was positively correlated with N concentration or N content of the vegetative parts at heading in Nonganbyeo, ‘Dasanbyeo’, ‘Dongjinbyeo’, and Newbonnet. These results indicated that the greater amount of dry matter and N accumulated before heading stage, the higher translocation rates of dry matter to grain and the greater net losses at maturity.

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Variation of Agronomic Characters in Burley Tobacco Cultivars according to Plant Density and Fertilizer Levels II. The Effect of Fertilizer Level on Plant Type (Burley종 담배의 품종별 재식밀도 및 시비량에 따른 주요 형질의 변화 제2보. 시비량에 따른 초형 변화)

  • 구한서
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Tobacco Science
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    • v.16 no.1
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    • pp.43-52
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    • 1994
  • To investigate the factors of the improvement of cultivation methods according to the plant type, three Burley tobacco cultivars were done. Experiments on the variability of plant type and factors representing the productivity and quality of the cultivar were subsequently carried out in relation to different fertilizer levels. Results are summarized as below. Use of more fertilizer resulted in higher plant height and longer leaf length but smaller mean leaf inclination(MLI). The horizontal leaf area distribution became greater in parts distal to the stem and the vertical leaf area distribution became greater in lower half than in upper half as the amount of fertilizer applied was increased. Br. 49 was the largest but Br. 21 and NTN 77 were similar with respect to both CGR and NAR. The yield was greater in larger MLI cultivars. These three characteristics became greater when the tobacco were heavier in the cultivars of larger MLI and increased with higher amount of fertilizer. Harvest index became greater as the amount of fertilizer decreased but not significantly differ among the cultivars. Total nitrogen content and nitrate - form nitrogen content were greater, more amount of fertilizer, and larger MLI cultivar plots. Total nitrogen content was higher in upper leaves. The filling power of tobacco leaves decreased but combustibility of leaves showed not significant trend as fertilizer application level increased.

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