• Title, Summary, Keyword: nighttime

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An Analysis of Driver Perception of Nighttime Visibility Using Fuzzy Set Theory (퍼지집합이론을 이용한 야간 도로 시인성 평가)

  • LEE, Dong Min;Youn, Chun Joo;KIM, Young Beom
    • International Journal of Highway Engineering
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    • v.17 no.5
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    • pp.57-66
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    • 2015
  • PURPOSES: Nighttime driving is very different from daytime driving because drivers must obtain nighttime sight-distances based on road lights and headlights. Unfortunately, nighttime driving conditions in Korea are far from ideal due to poor lighting and an insufficient number of road lights and inadequate operation and maintenance of delineators. This study is conducted to develop new standards for nighttime road visibility based on experiments of driver perception for nighttime visibility conditions. METHODS : In the study, perception level and satisfaction of nighttime visibility were investigated. A total of 60 drivers participated, including 34 older drivers and 31 young drivers. To evaluate driver perceptions of nighttime road visibility, fuzzy set theory was used because the conventional analysis methods for driver perception are limited in effectiveness for considering the characteristics of perception which are subjective and vague, and are generally expressed in terms of linguistic terminologies rather than numerical parameters. RESULTS : This study found that levels of nighttime visibility, as perceived by drivers, are remarkably similar to their satisfactions in different nighttime driving conditions with a log-function relationship. Older drivers evaluated unambiguously degree of nighttime visibility but evaluations by young drivers regarding it were unclear. CONCLUSIONS : A minimum value of brightness on roads was established as YUX 30, based on final analyzed results. In other words, road lights should be installed and operated to obtain more than YUX 30 brightness for the safety and comfort of nighttime driving.

Statistical Analysis of Ship Collision Accidents by Day and Night Times

  • Yoo, Sang-Lok;Jung, Cho-Young
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Marine Environment & Safety
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    • v.24 no.3
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    • pp.339-345
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    • 2018
  • Sunrise and sunset times differ depending on location and date. Previous studies conveniently but monotonously applied day and night times set up. This research defined the daytime and nighttime while considering the time of twilight according to the date and the location of ship collision accidents. Classifying the frequency of ship collision accidents with this standard, we conducted a chi-squared test for the difference between daytime and nighttime. The frequencies of ship collision accidents according to daytime and nighttime was compared by season, month, and time, and all of them showed statistically significant differences. The highest number of daytime ship collisions was 11.6 %, in June, and nighttime collisions peaked at 13.7 %, in December. The most frequent hour for daytime ship collisions was 0700h-0800h, at 10.2 %, and nighttime collisions peaked between 0400h-0500h, at 16.9 %. It is clear that the criteria used in previous studies cited was applied without any theoretical basis and likely only for the convenience of the researchers. It was found that results depend on what criteria are applied to the same research data. This study shows that statistical analyses of marine accidents, traffic volume, and congestion density should be carried out quantitatively while considering daytime and nighttime hours for each particular location and date.

Assessment and Analysis of Noise Pollution in Cheongju Area (청주지역 환경소음도 조사 및 분석)

  • 연익준;주소영;김광렬
    • Journal of environmental and Sanitary engineering
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    • v.16 no.1
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    • pp.18-26
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    • 2001
  • The increase of economic growth has brought out the noise pollutions in city regions. To evaluate these problems, this study was investigated to assessment and analysis of noise pollutions at Cheongju area in winter and summer seasons. The noise levels were measured and analyzed at the general areas the 4 roadside areas (park, residential, commercial, and industrial area). As a result, following facts have been found. The equivalent sound levels(Leq) at general are in winter were 51.3∼78.2 dB(A) at the daytime and 41.1∼63.1 dB(A) at the nighttime And in summer there were 53.5∼77.3 dB(A) at the daytime and 41.9∼64.0 dB(A) at the nighttime, respectively. These values were higher than average value of Korea. At the roadside area, the values of Leq were 51.9∼72.8 dB(A) at the daytime, 44.3∼68.2 dB(a) at the nighttime in winter, and in summer there were 62.5∼73.1 dB(A) at the daytime and 50.4∼68.3 dB(A) at the nighttime, respectively. These values were lower than average value of Korea. The calculated traffic noise index(TNI) were 64.6∼93.6 at the daytime and 26.5∼106.6 at the nighttime in winter, In summer, there were 65.0∼90.7 at the daytime, and 32.3∼91.8 at the nighttime. The TNI values varied wide ranges at the nighttime according to traffic volumes.

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Effects of Extending Duration of Nighttime Road Construction (도로품질 향상을 위한 야간 도로공사 시간확대의 영향분석)

  • Lee, Dongmin;Choi, Junseong;Park, Jejin;Park, Yongjin
    • International Journal of Highway Engineering
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    • v.19 no.5
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    • pp.153-162
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    • 2017
  • PURPOSES : This study was conducted to analyze the effects arising from extending the duration of nighttime road construction on improving road quality and durability. METHODS : Most previous studies estimating the social cost of various construction conditions did not consider road pavement cooling time as a factor in improving road pavement quality. This study investigated the feasibility of achieving higher road quality and durability by extending the duration of nighttime road construction time extension. For this investigation, the effects of such an extension on traffic conditions were analyzed based on micro-simulation studies and scenario-based cost-benefit analyses, using factors including traffic volume, delay, construction cost, and road pavement cooling time. RESULTS : The results of the traffic simulation studies and cost-benefit analyses indicate that the current road construction method that emphasizes completing nighttime road construction by 6 a.m. reduces pavement life while causing relatively little traffic delay. If the night construction time is instead extended to 2 p.m., road pavement lifetime is increased, reducing road re-construction cost. These savings are greater than the cost of congestion arising from extending the duration of nighttime construction. CONCLUSIONS : The current nighttime construction durations need to be extended in order to efficiently manage roads and reduce road management costs.

Discriminant Analysis of Factors Affecting Traffic Accident Severity During Daytime and Nighttime (판별분석을 활용한 주·야간 고속도로 교통사고 영향요인 비교연구)

  • Kim, Kyoungtae;Lee, Soobeom;Choi, Jihye;Park, Sinae;Seo, Geumyeol
    • International Journal of Highway Engineering
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    • v.18 no.3
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    • pp.127-134
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    • 2016
  • PURPOSES : Low visibility caused by dark surroundings at nighttime affects the likelihood of accidents, and various efforts, such as installing road safety facilities, have been made to reduce accidents at night. Despite these efforts, the nighttime severity index (SI) in Korea was higher than the daytime SI during 2011-2014. This study determined the factors affecting daytime and nighttime accident severity through a discriminant analysis. METHODS : Discriminant analysis. RESULTS : First, drowsiness, lack of attention, and lighting facilities affected both daytime and nighttime accident severity. Accidents were found to be caused by a low ability to recognize the driving conditions and a low obstacle avoidance capability. Second, road conditions and speeding affected only the daytime accident severity. Third, failure to maintain a safe distance significantly affected daytime accident severity and nonsignificantly affected nighttime accident severity. The majority of such accidents were caused by rear-end collisions of vehicles driving in the same direction; given the low relative speed difference in such cases, the shock imparted by the accidents was minimal. CONCLUSIONS : Accidents caused by a failure to maintain a safe distance has lower severity than do accidents caused by other factors.

Distribution of Nighttime Fishing Fleets Using RS and GIS (RS 및 GIS를 활용한 야간조업어선의 분포)

  • 김상우;조규대;김영섭;김동선
    • Proceedings of KOSOMES biannual meeting
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    • pp.179-181
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    • 2003
  • Spatio-temporal distributions of nighttime fishing fleets were described with the aid of geographic information system (GIS) technology in the East Sea, using daily mean composite images of the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) /Operational Linescan System (OLS) in 1993 and 1994. We selected a study area from 30$^{\circ}$N to 44$^{\circ}$N in latitude and from 124$^{\circ}$E to 142$^{\circ}$E in longitude in order to describe the monthly and seasonal changes of nighttime fishing fleets. The OLS images of nighttime visible band provide useful information about the spatio-temporal distribution of the fishing fleets. Density areas of nighttime fishing fleets were around Tsushima/Korea Strait. the east coast of the Korea Peninsula, the coast of Honshu, and around Yamato Bank.

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Development of Adjustment Factors under Day and Night Conditions for Freeway Capacity to Improve Traffic Safety (교통안전 향상을 위한 주야 변화에 따른 고속도로 용량 보정계수 개발에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Young Sun;Lee, Sang Soo
    • International Journal of Highway Engineering
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    • v.17 no.4
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    • pp.107-115
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    • 2015
  • PURPOSES: This study analyzes the characteristics of traffic flow on freeway sections under daytime and nighttime conditions to improve traffic safety, and suggests a method to estimate an accurate freeway capacity value that reflects these characteristics. METHODS : The trends and differences in capacity were investigated using comprehensive field data collected under both daytime and nighttime conditions on freeway sections with designated speeds of 80, 100, and 120 kph. RESULTS : The capacity values under nighttime driving conditions were reduced by 3.3%, 6.9%, and 8.8% at 80, 100, and 120 kph, respectively. Several nighttime adjustment factors were deduced for each designated speed category from the analysis results. CONCLUSIONS : It is expected that more accurate capacity values can be estimated for freeway sections under nighttime conditions by applying the resulting adjustment factors. In addition, traffic safety will be improved through the increased efficiency of traffic management on these freeway sections.

A Study on the Application of Glow Line Marking Technology Development for Reducing Traffic Accidents at Nighttime (도로의 야간 교통사고 저감을 위한 야광형 포장노면표시 기술개발의 적용성 연구)

  • Lee, Yong Mun;Kim, Heung Rae;Kim, Sang Tae
    • International Journal of Highway Engineering
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    • v.17 no.3
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    • pp.59-68
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    • 2015
  • PURPOSES : This study suggests the application of glow line marking technology for reducing traffic accidents at nighttime. METHODS : In this study, using a statistical analysis, we analyzed the characteristics of traffic accidents occurring at nighttime. Next, the strength, weakness, opportunity, and threat (SWOT) factors were derived based on a current-status analysis of glow line marking technology and road environments. An SO strategy, ST strategy, WO strategy, and WT strategy were established in accordance with the four SWOT factors. RESULTS : This study suggests that the following strategies should be promoted to apply glow line marking technology to a road environment: 1) an activation strategy for the technological development of glow line markings for a new paradigm in reducing traffic accidents, 2) a benefit enhancement strategy applying glow line marking technology in places where nighttime traffic accidents frequently occur, 3) a strategy for the expansion of glow line marking by replacing streetlights, and 4) a strategy for enhancing road applications through the development of various line marking methods in consideration of both performance and costs. CONCLUSIONS : The application of glow line markings in a road environment can contribute to a reduction of traffic accidents at nighttime, and aid energy savings from the replacement of streetlights.

Nighttime Cooling Is an Effective Method for Improving Milk Production in Lactating Goats Exposed to Hot and Humid Environment

  • Sunagawa, Katsunori;Nagamine, Itsuki;Kamata, Yasuhiro;Niino, Noriko;Taniyama, Yoshihiko;Kinjo, Kazuhide;Matayoshi, Ayano
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.28 no.7
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    • pp.966-975
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    • 2015
  • Heat production in ruminants follows a diurnal pattern over the course of a day peaking 3 hours following afternoon feeding and then gradually declining to its lowest point prior to morning feeding. In order to clarify the cooling period most effective in reducing decreases in feed intake and milk production, experiments were carried out based on the diurnal rhythm of heat production and heat dissipation. In experiment 1, the effects of hot environment on milk production were investigated. The animals were kept first in a thermoneutral environment ($20.0^{\circ}C$, 80.0%) for 12 days, they were then transitioned to a hot environment ($32^{\circ}C$, 80.0%) for 13 days before being returned to second thermoneutral environment for a further 12 days. In experiment 2, the effectiveness of daytime cooling or nighttime cooling for improving milk production in hot environment was compared. While ten lactating Japanese Saanen goats (aged 2 years, weighing 41.0 kg) during early lactation were used in experiment 1, ten lactating goats (aged 2 years, weighing 47.5 kg) during mid-lactation were used in experiment 2. The animals were fed 300 g of concentrated feed and excessive amounts of crushed alfalfa hay cubes twice daily. Water was given ad libitum. The animals were milked twice daily. When exposed to a hot environment, milk yield and composition decreased significantly (p<0.05). Milk yield in the hot environment did not change with daytime cooling, but tended to increase with nighttime cooling. Compared to the daytime cooling, milk components percentages in the nighttime cooling were not significantly different but the milk components yields in the nighttime cooling were significantly higher (p<0.05). The results indicate that nighttime cooling is more effective than daytime cooling in the reduction of milk production declines in lactating goats exposed to a hot environment.

A Study on the Sleep/Activity pattern in Normal Early Infants using NCASA (Nursing Child Assessment Sleep/Activity Record) (NCASA(Nursing Child Assessment Sleep/Activity Record)를 이용한 초기 영아의 수면/활동 양상 연구)

  • Park, Hae-Sun;Lee, Yeong-Eun
    • Korean Parent-Child Health Journal
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    • v.3 no.1
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    • pp.46-59
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    • 2000
  • The purpose of this study is to determine whether the NCASA (Nursing Child Assessment Sleep/Activity Record) would be suitable to evaluate and to provide the basic resources for a Korean model of sleep/activity patterns during the first 6 months Korean infants' lives and to provide a basis for nursing intervention for mothers of early infants. The subjects of this study were 94 normal infants from birth to 6 months of age who visited the postpartum care center and two general hospitals located in Pusan from February 1 to April 28, 2000. The method of data collection was through convenient sampling. The instrument of this study was the NCASA translated by the Korean parent Child Health Academic Association. The collected data were analysed by mean, standard deviation, frequency percentage and ANOVA, Post Hoc test by use of SPSS/PC. The conclusions obtained from this study are summarized as follows: 1. The mean amount of daytime sleep was 8.06 hours. The mean amount of nighttime sleep was 6.31 hours. The mean amount of total daily sleep was 14.37 hours. The mean of the longest sleep period was 5.20 hours. The mean regularity of daytime sleep was 25.84%. The mean regularity of nighttime sleep was 77.69%. The mean regularity of total daily sleep was 42.60%. The mean frequency of nighttime wakenings was 2.33 times. 2. The mean amount of daytime activity was 8.25 hours. The mean amount of nighttime activity was 1.39 hours. The mean amount of daily total activity was 9.64 hours. The mean of the longest activity period was 3.80 hours The mean frequency of daytime feeding was 5.69 times. The mean frequency of nighttime feeding was 2.08 times. The mean frequency of total daily feeding was 7.74 times. The mean frequency regularity of feeding was 54.62%. The mean frequency of wakenings was 5.14 times. The mean frequency of crying was 1.90 times. 3. According to an analysis of sleep patterns based on an infant's age, there were some significant differences in the following factors: amount of daytime sleep(p<.001), amount of night time sleep(p<.05), amount of total daily sleep (p<.001), longest sleep period(p<.001), regularity of daytime sleep(p<.001), regularity of nighttime sleep(p<.01), regularity of total daily sleep(p<.001), frequency of nighttime wakenings(p<.001). 4. According to an analysis of activity patterns based on an infant's age, there were some significant differences in the following factors: amount of daytime activity(p<.001), amount of nighttime activity(p<.01), amount of total daily activity(p<.001), longest activity period(p<.05), frequency of nighttime feeding(p<.01), frequency of wakenings(p<.001). 5. The mean amount of a mother's day time was 16.30 hours. The mean amount of a mother's night time was 7.70 hours. In conclusion, the initial irregular sleeping and activity patterns of the early infant became regurized as the infant grew older and estabilished firmer patterns of sleeping and of activity.

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