• Title, Summary, Keyword: net roof pressure

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Correlation of internal and external pressures and net pressure factors for cladding design

  • Bodhinayake, Geeth G.;Ginger, John D.;Henderson, David J.
    • Wind and Structures
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    • v.30 no.3
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    • pp.219-229
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    • 2020
  • Net pressures on roofs and walls of buildings are dependent on the internal and external pressure fluctuations. The variation of internal and external pressures are influenced by the size and location of the openings. The correlation of external and internal pressure influences the net pressures acting on cladding on different parts of the roof and walls. The peak internal and peak external pressures do not occur simultaneously, therefore, a reduction can be applied to the peak internal and external pressures to obtain a peak net pressure for cladding design. A 1:200 scale wind tunnel model study was conducted to determine the correlations of external and internal pressures and effective reduction to net pressures (i.e., net pressure factors, FC) for roof and wall cladding. The results show that external and internal pressures on the windward roof and wall edges are well correlated. The largest ${\mathcal{C}}_{{\check{p},net}$, highest correlation coefficient and the highest FC are obtained for different wind directions within 90° ≤ θ ≤ 135°, where the large openings are on the windward wall. The study also gives net pressure factors FC for areas on the roof and wall cladding for nominally sealed buildings and the buildings with a large windward wall opening. These factors indicate that a 5% to 10% reduction to the action combination factor, KC specified in AS/NZS 1170.2(2011) is possible for some critical design scenarios.

Internal and net roof pressures for a dynamically flexible building with a dominant wall opening

  • Sharma, Rajnish N.
    • Wind and Structures
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    • v.16 no.1
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    • pp.93-115
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    • 2013
  • This paper describes a study of the influence of a dynamically flexible building structure on pressures inside and net pressures on the roof of low-rise buildings with a dominant opening. It is shown that dynamic interaction between the flexible roof and the internal pressure results in a coupled system that is similar to a two-degree-of-freedom mechanical system consisting of two mass-spring-damper systems with excitation forces acting on both the masses. Two resonant modes are present, the natural frequencies of which can readily be obtained from the model. As observed with quasi-static building flexibility, the effect of increased dynamic flexibility is to reduce the first natural frequency as well as the corresponding peak value of the admittance, the latter being the result of increased damping effects. Consequently, it is found that the internal and net roof pressure fluctuations (RMS coefficients) are also reduced with dynamic flexibility. This model has been validated from experiments conducted using a cylindrical model with a leeward end flexible diaphragm, whereby good match between predicted and measured natural frequencies, and trends in peak admittances and RMS responses with flexibility, were obtained. Furthermore, since significant differences exist between internal and net roof pressure responses obtained from the dynamic flexibility model and those obtained from the quasi-static flexibility model, it is concluded that the quasi-static flexibility assumption may not be applicable to dynamically flexible buildings. Additionally, since sensitivity analyses reveal that the responses are sensitive to both the opening loss coefficient and the roof damping ratio, careful estimates should therefore be made to these parameters first, if predictions from such models are to have significance to real buildings.

Internal pressure dynamics of a leaky and quasi-statically flexible building with a dominant opening

  • Guha, T.K.;Sharma, R.N.;Richards, P.J.
    • Wind and Structures
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    • v.16 no.1
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    • pp.61-91
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    • 2013
  • An analytical model of internal pressure response of a leaky and quasi-statically flexible building with a dominant opening is provided by including the effect of the envelope external pressure fluctuations on the roof, in addition to the fluctuating external pressure at the dominant opening. Wind tunnel experiments involving a flexible roof and different building porosities were carried out to validate the analytical predictions. While the effect of envelope flexibility is shown to lower the Helmholtz frequency of the building volume-opening combination, the lowering of the resonant peak in the internal and net roof pressure coefficient spectra is attributed to the increased damping in the system due to inherent background leakage and envelope flexibility. The extent of the damping effects of "skin" flexibility and background leakage in moderating the internal and net pressure response under high wind conditions is quantified using the linearized admittance functions developed. Analytical examples provided for different combinations of background leakage and envelope flexibility show that alleviation of internal and net pressure fluctuations due to these factors by as much as 40 and 15% respectively is possible compared to that for a nominally sealed rigid building of the same internal volume and opening size.

Wind pressure characteristics of a low-rise building with various openings on a roof corner

  • Wang, Yunjie;Li, Q.S.
    • Wind and Structures
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    • v.21 no.1
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    • pp.1-23
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    • 2015
  • Wind tunnel testing of a low-rise building with openings (holes) of different sizes and shapes on a roof corner is conducted to measure the internal and external pressures from the building model. Detailed analysis of the testing data is carried out to investigate the characteristics of the internal and external pressures of the building with different openings' configurations. Superimposition of the internal and external pressures makes the emergence of positive net pressures on the roof. The internal pressures demonstrate an overall uniform distribution. The probability density function (PDF) of the internal pressures is close to the Gaussian distribution. Compared with the PDF of the external pressures, the non-Gaussian characteristics of the net pressures weakened. The internal pressures exhibit strong correlation in frequency domain. There appear two humps in the spectra of the internal pressures, which correspond to the Helmholtz frequency and vortex shedding frequency, respectively. But, the peak for the vortex shedding frequency is offset for the net pressures. Furthermore, the internal pressure characteristics indirectly reflect that the length of the front edge enhances the development of the conical vortices.The objective of this study aims to further understanding of the characteristics of internal, external and net pressures for low-rise buildings in an effort to reduce wind damages to residential buildings.

Full-scale study of wind loads on roof tiles and felt underlay and comparisons with design data

  • Robertson, A.P.;Hoxey, R.P.;Rideout, N.M.;Freathy, P.
    • Wind and Structures
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    • v.10 no.6
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    • pp.495-510
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    • 2007
  • Wind pressure data have been collected on the tiled roof of a full-scale test house at Silsoe in the UK. The tiled roof was of conventional UK construction with a batten-space and bitumen-felt underlay beneath the interlocking concrete tiles. Pressures were monitored on the outer surface of selected tiles, at several locations within the batten-space, and beneath the underlay. Data were collected both with and without ventilator tiles installed on the roof. Little information appears to exist on the share of wind load between tiles and underlays which creates uncertainty in the design of both components. The present study has found that for the critical design case of maximum uplifts it would be appropriate to assign 85% of the net roof load to the tiles and 15% to the underlay when an internal pressure coefficient of -0.3 is used, and to assign 60% to the tiles and 50% to the underlay when an internal pressure coefficient of +0.2 is assumed (an element of design conservatism is inherent in the apparent 110% net loading indicated by the latter pair of percentage values). These findings indicate that compared with loads implied by BS 6399-2, UK design loads for underlay are currently conservative by 25% whilst tile loads are unconservative by around 20% in ridge and general regions and by around 45% in edge regions on average over roof slopes of $15^{\circ}-60^{\circ}$.

Wind pressures on a large span canopy roof

  • Rizzo, Fabio;Sepe, Vincenzo;Ricciardelli, Francesco;Avossa, Alberto Maria
    • Wind and Structures
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    • v.30 no.3
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    • pp.299-316
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    • 2020
  • Based on wind tunnel tests, this paper investigates the aerodynamic behavior of a large span canopy roof with elliptical plan and hyperbolic paraboloid shape. The statistics of pressure coefficients and the peak factor distributions are calculated for the top and bottom faces of the roof, and the Gaussian or non-Gaussian characteristics of the pressure time-histories in different areas of the roof are discussed. The cross-correlation of pressures at different positions on the roof, and between the top and bottom faces is also investigated. Combination factors are also evaluated to take into account the extreme values of net loads, relevant to the structural design of canopies.

Non-Gaussian time-dependent statistics of wind pressure processes on a roof structure

  • Huang, M.F.;Huang, Song;Feng, He;Lou, Wenjuan
    • Wind and Structures
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    • v.23 no.4
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    • pp.275-300
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    • 2016
  • Synchronous multi-pressure measurements were carried out with relatively long time duration for a double-layer reticulated shell roof model in the atmospheric boundary layer wind tunnel. Since the long roof is open at two ends for the storage of coal piles, three different testing cases were considered as the empty roof without coal piles (Case A), half coal piles inside (Case B) and full coal piles inside (Case C). Based on the wind tunnel test results, non-Gaussian time-dependent statistics of net wind pressure on the shell roof were quantified in terms of skewness and kurtosis. It was found that the direct statistical estimation of high-order moments and peak factors is quite sensitive to the duration of wind pressure time-history data. The maximum value of COVs (Coefficients of variations) of high-order moments is up to 1.05 for several measured pressure processes. The Mixture distribution models are proposed for better modeling the distribution of a parent pressure process. With the aid of mixture parent distribution models, the existing translated-peak-process (TPP) method has been revised and improved in the estimation of non-Gaussian peak factors. Finally, non-Gaussian peak factors of wind pressure, particularly for those observed hardening pressure process, were calculated by employing various state-of-the-art methods and compared to the direct statistical analysis of the measured long-duration wind pressure data. The estimated non-Gaussian peak factors for a hardening pressure process at the leading edge of the roof were varying from 3.6229, 3.3693 to 3.3416 corresponding to three different cases of A, B and C.

Characteristics of wind loads on roof cladding and fixings

  • Ginger, J.D.
    • Wind and Structures
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    • v.4 no.1
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    • pp.73-84
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    • 2001
  • Analysis of pressures measured on the roof of the full-scale Texas Tech building and a 1/50 scale model of a typical house showed that the pressure fluctuations on cladding fastener and cladding-truss connection tributary areas have similar characteristics. The probability density functions of pressure fluctuations on these areas are negatively skewed from Gaussian, with pressure peak factors less than -5.5. The fluctuating pressure energy is mostly contained at full-scale frequencies of up to about 0.6 Hz. Pressure coefficients, $C_p$ and local pressure factors, $K_l$ given in the Australian wind load standard AS1170.2 are generally satisfactory, except for some small cladding fastener tributary areas near the edges.

Ridge and field tile aerodynamics for a low-rise building: a full-scale study

  • Tecle, Amanuel;Bitsuamlak, Girma T.;Suskawang, Nakin;Chowdury, Arindam Gan;Fuez, Serge
    • Wind and Structures
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    • v.16 no.4
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    • pp.301-322
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    • 2013
  • Recent major post-hurricane damage assessments in the United States have reported that the most common damages result from the loss of building roof coverings and subsequent wind driven rain intrusion. In an effort to look further into this problem, this paper presents a full-scale (Wall of Wind --WoW--) investigation of external and underneath wind pressures on roof tiles installed on a low-rise building model with various gable roofs. The optimal dimensions for the low-rise building that was tested with the WOW are 2.74 m (9 ft) long, 2.13 m (7 ft) wide, and 2.13 m (7 ft) high. The building is tested with interchangeable gable roofs at three different slopes (2:12; 5:12 and 7:12). The field tiles of these gable roofs are considered with three different tile profiles namely high (HP), medium (MP), and low profiles (LP) in accordance with Florida practice. For the ridge, two different types namely rounded and three-sided tiles were considered. The effect of weather block on the "underneath" pressure that develops between the tiles and the roof deck was also examined. These tests revealed the following: high pressure coefficients for the ridge tile compared to the field tiles, including those located at the corners; considerably higher pressure on the gable end ridge tiles compared to ridge tiles at the middle of the ridge line; and marginally higher pressure on barrel type tiles compared to the three-sided ridge tiles. The weather blocking of clay tiles, while useful in preventing water intrusion, it doesn't have significant effect on the wind loads of the field tiles. The case with weather blocking produces positive mean underneath pressure on the field tiles on the windward side thus reducing the net pressures on the windward surface of the roof. On the leeward side, reductions in net pressure to a non-significant level were observed due to the opposite direction of the internal and external pressures. The effect of the weather blocking on the external pressure on the ridge tile was negligible.

Simulated tropical cyclonic winds for low cycle fatigue loading of steel roofing

  • Henderson, David J.;Ginger, John D.;Morrison, Murray J.;Kopp, Gregory A.
    • Wind and Structures
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    • v.12 no.4
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    • pp.383-400
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    • 2009
  • Low rise building roofs can be subjected to large fluctuating pressures during a tropical cyclone resulting in fatigue failure of cladding. Following the damage to housing in Tropical Cyclone Tracy in Darwin, Australia, the Darwin Area Building Manual (DABM) cyclic loading test criteria, that loaded the cladding for 10000 cycles oscillating from zero to a permissible stress design pressure, and the Experimental Building Station TR440 test of 10200 load cycles which increased in steps to the permissible stress design pressure, were developed for assessing building elements susceptible to low cycle fatigue failure. Recently the 'Low-High-Low' (L-H-L) cyclic test for metal roofing was introduced into the Building Code of Australia (2007). Following advances in wind tunnel data acquisition and full-scale wind loading simulators, this paper presents a comparison of wind-induced cladding damage, from a "design" cyclone proposed by Jancauskas, et al. (1994), with current test criteria developed by Mahendran (1995). Wind tunnel data were used to generate the external and net pressure time histories on the roof of a low-rise building during the passage of the "design" cyclone. The peak pressures generated at the windward roof corner for a tributary area representative of a cladding fastener are underestimated by the Australian/New Zealand Wind Actions Standard. The "design" cyclone, with increasing and decreasing wind speeds combined with changes in wind direction, generated increasing then decreasing pressures in a manner similar to that specified in the L-H-L test. However, the L-H-L test underestimated the magnitude and number of large load cycles, but overestimated the number of cycles in the mid ranges. Cladding elements subjected to the L-H-L test showed greater fatigue damage than when experiencing a five hour "design" cyclone containing higher peak pressures. It is evident that the increased fatigue damage was due to the L-H-L test having a large number of load cycles cycling from zero load (R=0) in contrast to that produced during the cyclone.